فهرست مطالب

Health Reports and Technology - Volume:8 Issue: 1, Jan 2022
  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, Jan 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/11/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Tooraj Massahi *, Mohammad Jasimi, Negar Faridi, Sheida Atashkar Page 1
  • Md Sohrab Hosen *, Md Nafiujjaman, Tawhida Rahman Nishat Page 2
  • Abdullahi Binta Suleiman *, Faisal Muhammad Page 3
    Context

    In terms of healthcare service provision, availability and adequacy, Africa is left behind. This is as a result of Africans belief in traditional, herbal and superstitious medical and healthcare service available in each and every distinct community which differs from one community to another in rural villages of Africa. In recent times IT evolution in medical and healthcare has made a tremendous impact not only in Africa but all over the world. This study aimed at reviewing the positive effects of modern IT in the provision of healthcare services in Africa.

    Evidence Acquisition

    A review of several research articles was conducted from March to June, 2020 to find out how modern information technology (IT) has transformed lives in healthcare services provisions and availability in African countries. Internet search through Google was used to collect relevant information from published research articles and other related reports. All published articles and reports mainly concern with implementation of IT in healthcare facilities and provisions specifically in regional Africa, rural communities and cities in African countries were included. However the socio-demographic factors like gender, age, profession were not considered in this review.

    Results

    According to previous reports, pioneering strategies like digital health are considered necessary to ensure accomplishment of the striving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in Africa being one of most significant agenda of sustainable development goals (SDG) and World Health Organization (WHO). Africa as a continent quite a number of modern technological equipment’s are installed and used. The digital aided detection of tuberculosis by chest x-ray is employed in Zambia, South Africa and the Gambia. Use of mHealth/telemedicine solutions in order to reduce outbreaks in Tanzania, Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDT) incorporated in cloud-based m-Health Smart reader are deployed in Kenya, Tanzania, and Ghana, while Smartphone-powered, cloud-enabled handy convenient electrocardiograph (ECG) are established in Uganda and Malawi.

    Conclusions

    The findings of this study clearly shows the positive impact of information technology (IT) such as application and use of wireless sensor networks and other electronic devices in health care service delivery, diagnosing and determination of infectious diseases such as corona virus and other pathogens affecting mankind.

    Keywords: Africa, Public Health, Healthcare, Information Technology
  • Esther Ejiroghene Ajari * Page 4
    Context

    Mental and menstrual health, two emerging aspects of health critical to the female population, are bidirectionally linked. But there is limited empirical evidence that establishes the association between these entities. This essay aims to draw the attention of researchers to this healthcare niche.

    Evidence Acquisition

    An exploratory review was carried out on literatures sourced from medical databases (e.g. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science), and gray sources (popular and reputable institutional and journalistic websites that publishes mental or menstrual health research). The key words used for the search are “menstruation, menstrual hygiene, menstrual disorders, premenstrual syndrome, period poverty, menarche, menopause, mental health, mental disorder, mental illness, depression, anxiety, phobia, mania, mood, and affect”. The initial search generated 368 results. But after the duplicates were removed, the exclusion criteria (publication before 2000, and in languages other than English) was applied, and manual review of abstract (for relevance) was done, 21 publications from the databases and 5 from gray sources were included in this review.

    Results

    Associations were found between menstrual cycle irregularities and disorders and mental disorders such as premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, major depressive disorder, major anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, sleep disorder, substance use and abuse, and suicidal ideation and attempts. Few positive associations between mental and menstrual health were recorded, and several research and treatment gaps were identified.

    Conclusions

    Research into the links between mental and menstrual health should not remain a fringe area of scientific curiosity, as it shows tremendous promise in improving healthcare offered to women/girls globally.

    Keywords: Mental Disorder, Mental Health, Period Poverty, Menstrual Hygiene, Menstrual Health, Menstruation
  • Khosro Behrang, Amin Koraei *, Masoud Shahbazi, Zabihollah Abbaspour Page 5
    Background

    Dissatisfaction with marital relations and an emotional breach between couples increase the risk of divorce.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of emotionally-focused couples therapy on the marital intimacy and harmony of maladjusted couples in Behbahan, Iran.

    Methods

    This quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The sample population included the maladjusted couples vising the counseling centers in Behbahan in 2020. Via convenience sampling, 30 couples were selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control (n = 15 couples per group). Data were collected using the personal assessment of intimacy in relationships and the Marital Harmony Questionnaire. The experimental group received nine sessions of emotionally-focused couples therapy (90-minute sessions, twice a week), and the control group received no intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 25.

    Results

    The mean posttest scores of marital intimacy and harmony were 115.63 ± 10.22 and 31.66 ± 2.21 in the experimental group and 91.39 ± 9.04 and 22.93 ± 2.19 in the control group, respectively. A significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of marital intimacy and harmony (P < 0.001). In addition, emotionally-focused couples therapy significantly enhanced marital intimacy and harmony in the experimental group.

    Conclusions

    According to the results, emotionally-focused couples therapy could effectively improve the marital indicators of the maladjusted couples (intimacy and harmony).

    Keywords: Marital Harmony, Intimacy, Emotions, Couples Therapy
  • Camelia Sadati, Hooman Namvar *, Bita Nasrolahi Page 6
    Background

    Meta-emotion is a crucial developmental task to maintain internal balance, provide compatible relations, and improve mental health.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the association of the meta-emotion structure with the dimensions of emerging adulthood identity mediated by mental health in university students.

    Methods

    This descriptive-correlational study was conducted on male and female university students aged 18 - 25 years who were selected from the public universities of Tehran, Iran during 2020 - 2021. The research sample consisted of 178 participants selected via convenience, quota, and nonrandom sampling. Data were collected using Arnett’s inventory of the dimensions of emerging adulthood (IDEA), Goldberg’s general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and Mitmansgruber’s Meta-Emotion scale (MES). Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the SmartPLS-3 software.

    Results

    The meta-emotion structure had a significant negative association with possibilities/optimism (r = -0.14) and significant positive associations with the components of feeling in-between, identity explorations, self-focus, and possibilities/optimism. Mental health had a negative association with possibilities/optimism (r = -0.17) and positive associations with the other four identity dimensions. In terms of the direct influence coefficients, the meta-emotion structure had a direct and significant influence only on mental health (r = 0.68). Furthermore, mental health had a direct effect only on instability/negativity. Among the identity dimensions of emerging adulthood, mental health had a mediating role only for instability/negativity (β = 0.21; t = 3.23).

    Conclusions

    According to the results and considering the structure of meta-emotion and mental health as an influential factor in characteristics such as instability/negativity among identity dimensions, emphasizing mental health as a mediating factor for the association between meta-emotion and components such as instability/negativity could help acquire a better understanding of the association between these variables.

    Keywords: Instability, Optimism, Identity, Mental Health, Meta-Emotion
  • Sima Rafiei, Ahad Alizadeh, Leyla Aziziani, Faeze Homaei Borojeni, Fateme Vahdati Shahrestani, Zahra Nejatifar * Page 7
    Background

    Entrepreneurship and business behavior are of great significance in developing countries, such as Iran, due to the unemployment crisis. Today's economic status and population composition have propelled everyone to find effective solutions in the economic arena. Therefore, appropriate educational models for students and programs to encourage students to turn to entrepreneurship and create new businesses are vital.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to determine the impact of business attitude on entrepreneurial behavior in postgraduate students.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on the postgraduate students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2021. Data were collected using the standard questionnaires of Aution et al. and Leon Dice Zamptakis and Vasilis Mustakis. Data analysis was performed in the R software version 4.0.4 using Spearman’s or Pearson’s correlation-coefficient and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA).

    Results

    The mean age of the participants was 28.17 ± 6.297 years. Pearson’s correlation-coefficient indicated a significant, inverse correlation between age and attitudes toward competitiveness and entrepreneurial culture (r = -0.210; P = 0.002 and r = -0.177; P = 0.01, respectively). In addition, the results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that the attitude to business had a significant, inverse effect on entrepreneurial behavior (r = -0.259; P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    According to the results, students' unpreparedness for self-employment activities highlights the need for changing the attitude of postgraduate students in this regard by explaining the prevalence of the COVID-19. Due to the outbreak of the disease, numerous startups and personal businesses were shut down. Therefore, students are mostly reluctant to become involved in entrepreneurial activities despite their business attitude.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Postgraduate Students, Business Attitude, Entrepreneurial Behavior
  • Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Cyrus Jalili, Habibolah Khazaie, Saba Shahsavari, Negar Karimi, Seyyed Nasrollah Hosseini, Lida Memar Eftekhary, Farzad Jalilian Page 8
    Background

    Motivation is defined as the development of an individual’s desire to succeed and participate in the activities in which success depends on personal effort and ability.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to evaluate the status of achievement motivation in university students.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 182 medical, dentistry, and pharmacology students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Iran in 2018. The participants were selected via simple random sampling with a probability appropriate to the selected sample size. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using chi-square and t-test at the significance level of 95%.

    Results

    The mean age of the participants was 21.14 ± 1.68 years (age range: 19 - 25 years). The mean score of achievement motivation was 77.64 ± 7.35, which indicated that the participants obtained 66.93% of the maximum score. In addition, 89.5% and 10.5% of the students had moderate and favorable achievement motivation, respectively. Achievement motivation was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.031), male gender (P = 0.022), and maternal education level (P = 0.018).

    Conclusions

    According to the results, the achievement motivation of the majority of the KUMS students was moderate. Therefore, proper planning is required to improve the achievement motivation of these students.

    Keywords: Kermanshah, Medical Sciences, Student, Achievement Motivation
  • Mostafa Jafari *, Sorya Karimi, Leila Rahmani, Farshad Nadri, Mansour Rezaei Page 9
    Background

    Burnout plays a key role in the life and physical and mental health of individuals and may reduce the efficiency and motivation of healthcare staff.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to evaluate the influential factors in burnout in the healthcare staff of Kermanshah, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on the healthcare staff in Kermanshah in 2019. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Maslach burnout inventory (Cronbach's alpha: 0.78). The participants were selected via census sampling (n = 282). Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman’s correlation-coefficient.

    Results

    Significant correlations were observed between emotional fatigue, disease history (P = 0.006), and financial problems (P = 0.05), as well as between depersonalization and financial difficulties (P = 0.024) and between personal adequacy and family disease history (P = 0.015). However, no significant associations between burnout and gender, educational level, professional status, marital status and living situation were shown.

    Conclusions

    Considering the high prevalence of burnout in the healthcare staff with a disease history in themselves and their families and the association between burnout and financial problems, special attention should be paid to the health status of healthcare status through measures such as stress management and counseling to diminish occupational stress and the impact of burnout on these employees. In addition, measures such as the implementation of leisure and educational programs and stress management workshops are recommended.

    Keywords: Emotional Fatigue, Personal Adequacy, Depersonalization, Burnout