فهرست مطالب

نگره - پیاپی 59 (پاییز 1400)
  • پیاپی 59 (پاییز 1400)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/11/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • عطیه خان حسین آبادی* صفحات 5-21

    حرم امام رضا (ع) مهم ترین و بزرگترین جاذبه مذهبی در ایران است. در سراسر تاریخ اسلام، شخصیت ها و بزرگان هر عصر به نوسازی و توسعه این مکان مقدس پرداخته اند، از جمله بزرگان و شاهان صفویه که دلیل عمده آن را می توان به رسمیت شناختن مذهب شیعه دانست. الله وردیخان، فرمانده نظامی عصر صفویه، اقدامات فراوانی برای اعتلای فرهنگ و تمدن ایران انجام داده و توجه خاصی به معماری این دوران داشته است. گنبد الله وردیخان، از زیباترین ابنیه استان قدس رضوی است که آرتور پوپ در کتاب معماری ایران آن را کامل ترین قسمت مرقد امام رضا (ع) می داند. کاشی های معرق این رواق مزین به کتیبه ها، نقوش حیوانی، گیاهی و هندسی است. بسیاری از این نقوش دربردارنده مفهومی هستند، که جایگاهی خاص در فرهنگ و ادبیات این مرز و بوم دارند. از آن جا که کاربرد نقش طاووس به صورت عنصری تزیینی در معماری دوره صفویه به اوج رسید؛ هدف اصلی این نوشتار بررسی نقش طاووس در کاشی کاری های حرم مطهر و با تاکید بر رواق مذکور از دوره صفویه است. با این سوالات که 1 بیشترین نقش طاووس مربوط به کدام دوره تاریخی حرم است؟ 2 وضعیت قرارگیری این نقش در عصر صفوی و دوره های بعد از آن در حرم مطهر چگونه است؟ دراین راستا، پژوهش حاضر به روش آمار توصیفی و تحلیل محتوا، و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات براساس مشاهدات میدانی، عکاسی و داده های کتابخانه ای انجام شده است.در این پژوهش از میان 132 نقش طاووس از سه دوره تاریخی در حرم مطهر، این نقش با تاکید بر رواق الله وردیخان، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بیشترین حضور به دست آمده از این نقش در حرم مطهر مربوط به دوره جمهوری اسلامی (96 عدد) است، که این رقم در دوره صفوی 26 عدد و در دوره پهلوی 10 عدد است. از نظر وضعیت قرارگیری، در بیشترین حالت، طاووس از نمای جانبی 114 عدد، به عنوان عنصر محافظ و نگهبان است؛ و از نمای مقابل 18 نقش وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: طاووس، کاشی کاری، دوره صفویه، گنبد الله وردیخان، حرم امام رضا (ع)
  • علی اصغر کرم قشقایی*، حسین اردلانی صفحات 23-41

    دوره تیموری عصر شکوفایی انواع هنرها در حوزه نگارگری و معماری است. در این دوره نگاره هایی مصور شدند که ویژگی بارز آن ها پیروی از قواعد هندسی در ایجاد فضاهای خارجی و داخلی یک بنا و تزیینات به کار رفته در معماری آن ها بود. سرنمون نگارگری در این مکتب، کمال الدین بهزاد است. به تصویر کشیدن فضاهای خاص معماری و ترسیم تزیینات مختلف بناها به وسیله هندسه نقوش، از ویژگی های منحصر به فرد آثار او به شمار می رود. اهداف مقاله پیش رو الف- شناسایی هندسه نقوش به کار رفته در نگاره های بهزاد و تکرارپذیری آن ها در نگاره و نمود آن ها در معماری، ب- شناسایی هنر قدسی به واسطه حضور هندسه نقوش در آثار بهزاد است. لذا سوال های این تحقیق عبارت اند از: 1- بهزاد تا چه اندازه از نقشمایه های هندسی در نگاره هایش بهره جسته است؟ 2- در کدام یک از نگاره های بهزاد، هندسه نقوش به صورت مستقل عمل کرده و برای نشان دادن ذات اقدس الهی به طور بصری بیان شده است؟ روش تحقیق به شیوه توصیفی-تحلیلی بر مبنای استدلال تطبیقی بوده و شیوه تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات، کیفی و با رویکرد استقرایی می باشد. روش جمع آوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای- اسنادی به دست آمده و چارچوب نظری تحقیق بر آراء فلاسفه سنت گرا و عرفا تکیه دارد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد هر جا نگاره ای که مفهومی الهی و یا عارفانه در خود دارد، آکنده از هندسه است. در این نگاره ها، هندسه اهمیت بیشتری پیدا می کند به طوری که لزوم وجود هندسه، مهیای ظهور می شود. پس آن وجهی از معماری که در نگارگری بهزاد آمده است، جنبه ی قدسی بودن معماری اسلامی را نشان می دهد. با این اوصاف می توان نگاره های «گریز حضرت یوسف (ع) از زلیخا» و «حضرت محمد (ص) و صحابه هایش» را از لحاظ آکنده بودن از نقوش هندسی و مستقل بودن این هندسه نقوش، نوعی هنر قدسی دانست.

    کلیدواژگان: هنر قدسی، هندسه نقوش، نگارگری، بهزاد، معمارگونگی
  • الهه پنجه باشی* صفحات 43-59
    پرده درویشی نقاشی است که به وقایع عاشورا می پردازد و با نقاشی قهوه خانه ای متفاوت است. پرده های درویشی در ابعاد بسیار بزرگ بوده و برای عزاداری رسمی شاه و به سفارش دربار تهیه می شده است. یکی از بهترین نمونه های تصویری پرده درویشی در موزه آستان قدس رضوی قرار دارد. این نقاشی دارای دو قسمت است و از آن به عنوان بزرگترین پرده نقاشی ایران یاد می شود و تا به حال مورد پژوهش قرار نگرفته است. قسمت راست نقاشی از ویژگی های رنگ گذاری، ترکیب بندی و طراحی بسیار دقیقی برخوردار است  ولی قسمت چپ تابلو بعدها اضافه شده و دارای نقاشی و قلم گذاری و رنگ بندی از ارزش بصری و کیفیت پایین تری برخوردار است. این نقاشی در بخش قدیم براساس  معیارهای نقاشی رسمی قاجاری، زاویه دید، زبان نمادین، حرکت محوری پیکره ها، نسبت های هندسی، واقع گرایی تصویر، دید چندوجهی، رنگ گذاری، عناصرانسانی، حیوانی، گیاهی کار شده است که این کیفیات در بخش جدید که در دوره دیگری به اثر اضافه شده دیده نمی شود. مفروض این پژوهش مطالعه عناصر ساختاری و ویژگی های بصری این نقاشی و مقایسه دو بخش قدیم و جدید در نقاشی است. در این راستا پژوهش حاضر در پی پاسخ به این دو سوال اساسی است که در پرده بزرگ درویشی از چه ویژگی های بصری و عناصر ساختاری استفاده شده است؟ تفاوت ویژگی ساختاری و بصری در بخش قدیم و جدید اثر چیست؟ محتوای پژوهش حاضر کیفی و بر مبنای تحلیل عناصر ساختاری در نقاشی است. این نقاشی براساس روش شناسی توصیفی- تحلیلی و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات به شیوه کتابخانه ای صورت گرفته است. نتایج یافته ها حاکی از آن است که بخش اصلی و قدیم نقاشی توسط نقاشان درباری کار شده و دارای ویژگی نقاشی پیکره نگاری رسمی قاجار است و قسمت دیگر جدیدتر و بعدها به اثر اضافه شده و از کیفیت تصویری پایین تری نسبت به نقاشی بخش قدیم تر برخوردار است.
    کلیدواژگان: قاجار، نقاشی، پرده درویشی، ویژگی بصری، عناصر ساختاری، عاشورا
  • منیژه کنگرانی فراهانی، بهمن نامورمطلق*، محمدعلی خبری، محمدرضا شریف زاده صفحات 61-73

    مروری بر تاریخ هنر نقاشی نشان از توجه هنرمندان به دیگر آثار هنری از پیش موجود و اقتباس و الهام یا کپی برداری از آنها دارد. این امر به دلایل مختلفی انجام می پذیرد که از مهمترین آنها می توان به شیوه های آموزش و تجربه اندوزی یا نقد و تفسیر اشاره کرد. هنرمندان و نقاشان معاصر ایرانی نیز امروزه با الهام از دیگر آثار هنری به ویژه نگارگری سنتی به خلق آثار نوین می پردازند که می تواند عاملی در پیوستگی هنر معاصر با هنر سنتی ایران و انتقال مضامین و تجارب و سنت های هنری گذشتگان باشد. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی نحوه برگرفتگی سه نقاش معاصر از نگاره معراج سلطان محمد تبریزی و تجارب و مضامین به کاربرده شده ایشان برای خلق اثرو معنای نوین از این نگاره است و به این پرسشها پاسخ میدهد: چه رابطه ای میان نگاره سلطان محمد و آثار اقتباس شده از آن وجود دارد؟ روابط بیش متنی در هر یک از این آثار از چه سازوکاری برخوردار است و چگونه معنای جدید تولید کرده اند؟ برای این منظور از روش بیش متنیت ژنتی و گونه شناسی این روابط استفاده خواهد شد تا بتوان به مطالعه، تدقیق و تحلیل نمونه هایی از هنر معاصر ایران پرداخته و از ویژگیهای آن رمزگشایی کرد. روش تحقیق توصیفی تحلیلی بوده و با گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق منابع اسنادی و مطالعه کتابخانه ای و نیز مشاهده مستقیم آثار هنری صورت پذیرفته است. در نهایت مشخص می شود که نقاشان معاصر با الهام و برگرفتگی از یک نگاره و تغییر در کیفیت و کمیت آن و با بهره گیری از داده های هم زمانی، می توانند آثار متعدد و نوینی در قالب و سبک شخصی خود بیافرینند که ضمن پیوند با سنت نگارگری ایرانی اسلامی، بازتاب دغدغه ها و جهانبینی هنرمندان معاصر باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: بیش متنیت، گونه شناسی، نگاره معراج، سلطان محمد، نقاشی معاصر ایران
  • فاطمه شه کلاهی*، اصغر فهیمی فر صفحات 75-89

    رضا عباسی، نگارگر مطرح مکتب نقاشی اصفهان، از معدود نگارگران ایرانی است که در حالیکه به عنوان «نقاش مردمی» به جامعه و مردم عادی توجه دارد به عنوان «نقاش درباری» در دربار صفوی تصویرگر سفارشات درباری و پیکره شاهان و اشراف است. از سوی دیگر میخاییل باختین، نظریه پرداز روس قرن بیستم، ایده «متون چندصدا و گفتگومند» را در مقابل «متون تک صدا» ارایه کرد. در نظر باختین متون چندصدا و گفتگومند غالبا در شرایط استبداد و خفقان گفتگو در جامعه به جهت نقد واقعیت استبدادگونه، تمامیت خواه و تک صدا که مسبب نابودی گفتگو در جامعه شده است خلق می شوند تا به طور موقت چنین تضادهای اجتماعی و طبقاتی را به حالت تعلیق درآورد. احتمال می رود در برخی از آثار رضا عباسی شاهد فضای تعاملی، چندصدا و گفتگومند باشیم که برای نخستین بار در سنت نقاشی ایرانی ظهور می یابد. ازاین رو موضوع این پژوهش بررسی مفهوم چندصدایی و گفتگومندی میخاییل باختین در آثار رضا عباسی است و هدف از آن شناخت قابلیت های نگارگری ایرانی در تطابق پذیری و تفسیر براساس نظریه ها و مفاهیم فلسفی معاصر است. سوالات تحقیق عبارتند از: 1. چندصدایی و گفتگومندی در آثار رضا عباسی چگونه است؟؛ 2. اوضاع اجتماعی عصر صفوی چگونه بر ماهیت چندصدایی و گفتگویی آثار رضا عباسی تاثیر گذاشت؟؛ 3. هدف رضا عباسی از ارایه تصاویر چندصدایی و گفتگومند چیست؟ با توجه به اینکه تاکنون آثار رضا عباسی با این دیدگاه نظری مورد مطالعه و بررسی قرار نگرفته است، لذا پژوهش در این زمینه ضروری می نماید. این پژوهش به لحاظ هدف در زمره پژوهش های توسعه ای قرار دارد و براساس ماهیت و روش، توصیفی-تحلیلی است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات به شیوه اسنادی (کتابخانه ای) و با استفاده از ابزار فیش است. روش تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات کیفی و با رویکرد ایده چندصدایی و گفتگومندی میخاییل باختین است.این پژوهش نشان می دهد که مهم ترین ویژگی چندصدایی و گفتگومندی در آثار رضا عباسی تضاد و دوگانگی است که در قالب حضور همزمان پیکره های عامه با پیکره های درباری و اشراف ظهور می کند. از آن جا که از میان پیکره های عامه، دراویش، شیوخ و کتاب به عنوان شخصیت های ثابت و پایدار نگاره ها حضور دارند و سبب ایجاد فضای تعاملی و گفتگویی در نگاره ها می شوند، این پیکره ها در ارتباط با پیکره های درباری ممکن است چهار نقش «نظاره گر»، «پیر و مرید»، «راوی» و «مغازله گر» داشته باشند. مهم ترین تاثیری که شرایط اجتماعی عصر صفوی بر رضا عباسی گذاشت، ترک یکباره دربار شاه عباس و پیوستن او به مردم عامی و کوچه و بازار بود. افرادی که یا در جامعه عصر صفوی جایگاه اجتماعی خاص و مهمی نداشتند یا اینکه که به سبب شرایط و اوضاع اجتماعی و سیاسی کاملا مطرود و منفور شمرده شده بودند. این گروه های اجتماعی در لایه های مخفی تر جامعه زیست می کردند و صدای آن ها جزء صداهای مسلط و غالب در گفتمان رایج و رسمی جامعه عصر صفوی نبود. ازاین رو می توان گفت که دوره های زمانی فعالیت هنری رضا عباسی، که متاثر از شرایط اجتماعی دوران اوست، می تواند بر ماهیت گفتگومندی و چندصدایی آثار او نیز تاثیرگذار باشد. تعداد آثار گفتگومند و چندصدایی رضا عباسی در دوره سوم نسبت به دوره اول و دوم او بیشتر است، بعد از آن بیشترین تعداد تصاویر گفتگومند مربوط به دوره زمانی اول فعالیت هنری اوست و تعداد تصاویر در دوره دوم یعنی دوره کناره گیری او از دربار در کم ترین حد ممکن (0 %) است. هدف رضا عباسی از خلق این دست از تصاویر، بیان ضدیت با حکومت و قدرت مسلط بوده است که عرصه نبردی میان نیروهای مرکزگرا یا تک گویانه در قالب پیکره های درباری با نیروهای مرکزگریز یا چندگویه در قالب پیکره های درویشی است.

    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری، رضا عباسی، دوره صفوی، چندصدایی، میخائیل باختین
  • شیوا کاشانی ایلخچی*، مهدی کاظم پور صفحات 91-107

    درفش، به دلیل ارتباط و نسبت با باورهای ملی، مذهبی و اسطوره ای دارای فرم ها و نقشمایه های متعددی است که می تواند به عنوان عامل شناسایی هویت و طرز تفکر یک ملت و دوره خاص عمل نماید. در این میان، نسخه های کتاب آرایی شده از شاهنامه فردوسی به دلیل ماهیت حماسی و ملی، در حوزه مطالعاتی نقوش، فرم و رنگ های بکار رفته در درفش های ایرانی منبعی ارزشمند محسوب می شوند. شاهنامه شاه طهماسبی نیز به عنوان یکی از شاهکارهای نگارگری ایران، دارای فاخرترین نگاره های دوره صفوی بوده و نقش های متعدد و متنوعی از درفش های ایرانی در نگاره های آن موجود می باشد که می تواند اطلاعات ارزشمندی را در اختیار محققان قرار دهد. اهداف این پژوهش شناسایی همه درفش های موجود در شاهنامه شاه طهماسبی و بررسی نقوش بکار رفته در آنها با رویکرد نشانه شناسی می باشد که میزان ارتباط آنها را با حکومت شیعی صفوی و متن شاه نامه مورد بررسی قرار دهد. دو پرسش اساسی پژوهش حاضر بدین صورت است که: 1- درفش های موجود در شاهنامه شاه طهماسبی از لحاظ نقوش دارای چه مفاهیم نمادشناسی می باشند؟ 2- میزان ارتباط درفش های نگاره های شاهنامه طهماسبی با متن شاهنامه و همچنین با دستگاه حکومت شیعی صفوی چگونه است؟ حال این پژوهش در نظر دارد به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با رویکرد نمادشناسی و با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه ای، نقشمایه درفش های موجود در شاهنامه طهماسبی را مورد مطالعه و تحقیق قرار دهد. براساس این مطالعه مشخص گردید که نقوش موجود در درفش های شاهنامه طهماسبی به چهار دسته: نقوش گیاهی (شامل نقوش ختایی و اسلیمی)، حیوانی (شامل: نقوش اژدها، سیمرغ، شیر، روباه و مرغابی)  و کتیبه ای تقسیم بندی می شوند که همه آنها با مفاهیم اعتقادی شیعی دوره صفوی هم خوانی دارند. همچنین براساس این مطالعه مشخص گردید که نقشمایه برخی درفش های موجود در نگاره شاهنامه طهماسبی، با متن های موجود در شاهنامه نیز دارای ارتباط می باشد و به گونه ای هنرمند بصری سازی متون شاهنامه را در شیوه کار خود رعایت کرده است.

    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه شاه طهماسبی، تشیع، نگارگری، نقش مایه درفش، نشانه شناسی
  • زهرا راشدنیا* صفحات 109-127
    وجوه اشتراک بین نقوش به کار رفته در یک حرفه و صنعت در میان یک خاندان، باعث تاثیرگذاری تعدادی از آن نقوش بر صعنت و حرفه یی دیگر از آن خاندان می شود. شاهدی از این مدعا را، در میان هنرمندان گچ بر و نجار کرمانی در قرن هشتم هجری می توان ملاحظه نمود. وجود خاندان هنرمند گچ بر کرمانی که چند نسل در نقاط مختلف به سفارش بزرگان و حاکمان، کارهای شاخص گچ بری از خود بر جای گذاشته اند، باعث تاثیر گذاری بر سایر حرف و صنایع آن خاندان، همچون نجاری شد. بازشناسی و شناخت ویژگی های بصری محراب گچ بری امامزاده ربیعه خاتون اشترجان و منبر چوبی مسجد جامع نایین و همچنین مطالعه تطبیقی نقوش، اجزای ساختار و کتیبه های محراب گچ بری امامزاده ربیعه خاتون با منبر چوبی مسجد جامع نایین اهداف اصلی این پژوهش است. در این راستا، سوالاتی که در این مقاله پاسخ داده می شود؛ 1. چه ویژگی های بصری را، می توان برای محراب امامزاده ربیعه خاتون و منبر مسجد جامع نایین، در قرن هشتم هجری برشمرد؟ 2. چه وجوه اشتراکی بین نقوش، اجزای ساختار و کتیبه های محراب امامزاده ربیعه خاتون با منبر مسجد جامع نایین وجود دارد؟ روش یافته اندوزی بر پایه مطالعات میدانی، و با استناد به منابع مکتوب صورت گرفته که به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با رویکرد تطبیقی، به تحلیل داده های به دست آمده از نمونه های مطالعاتی می پردازد. دستاوردهای حاصل از این پژوهش؛ تعدادی از نقوش، اجزای ساختار و کتیبه های محراب گچ بری امامزاده ربیعه خاتون همانند؛ مشابهت در قاب های احاطه کننده نقوش، فرم قرارگیری اسلیمی ها، کاربرد گل ختایی چندپر، استفاده از نوعی اسلیمی ساده، کاربرد فرم دایره ای شکل، مشابهت در فرم تیزی قوس طاق نما و مماس بودن آن با خطوط محیطی لچکی، اختصاص یافتن دیواره های سمت راست به کتیبه هنرمند سازنده محراب/منبر و سمت چپ به کتیبه تاریخ ساخت محراب/منبر، فشردگی و شلوغی زمینه کتیبه ها؛ مشابه و قابل قیاس با نقوش، اجزای ساختار و کتیبه های منبر چوبی مسجد جامع نایین است.
    کلیدواژگان: محراب گچ بری، منبر چوبی، تزئینات، اجزای ساختار، مسجد جامع نائین، امامزاده ربیعه خاتون اشترجان
  • سحر طوفان* صفحات 129-143
    معماری از قدیمی ترین هنرهای ایرانی محسوب می شود و جایگاه ویژه ای در تاریخ و مطالعات هنر دارد. آثار معماری باستانی ایران و ابنیه سنتی و اسلامی بخش عمده ای از گنجینه ی ارزشمند فرهنگ و هنر جهان را دربرمی گیرد. اماکن معماری همواره از جمله نقوش چشم نواز در طراحی پول ایرانی بوده و نقش هویت محور در تعریف اسکناس های ایرانی را داشته است. اصلی ترین هدف مقاله تدقیق و تحقیق برروی نگاره های معماری عرضه شده از طریق اسکناس های ایرانی است. مقاله به دنبال یافتن پاسخ سوالات ذیل است:1- بیان تصویری چگونه می تواند در طراحی اسکناس یک کشور برای نمایش مفاهیم و معیارهای ارزشی نقش داشته باشد؟2-نگاره های معمارانه در تعریف اسکناس یک کشور چگونه می تواند در تبادلات فرهنگی موثر باشد؟ روش تحقیق اتخاذ شده در این پژوهش روش تحقیق تحلیل محتواست. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات در این مقاله کتابخانه ای است. تصاویر، مستندات و اطلاعات مرتبط با نوشتار از طریق کتب، مقالات و سایت های اینترنتی و آرشیوهای مربوطه جمع آوری شده اند. جامعه آماری شامل اسکناس های چاپ شده بعد از انقلاب درکشور ایران و روش نمونه گیری غیرتصادفی و به شکل نمونه گیری هدفمند بوده که با مطالعه روی تک تک نمونه ها به توصیف، تشریح و تحلیل آنها پرداخته شده است. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق گویای ارتباط عمیق اعتقادات دینی و سیاستگذاری کلان حکومت در انتخاب تصاویر معماری های باستانی،سنتی و معاصر ایران در ترکیب بندی ساختمان اسکناس ایرانی است. بیشترین نگاره های مورد استفاده، مربوط به آرایه های معماری اسلامی و تصویر معماری حرم رضوی است. مهم ترین نتیجه این مقاله نمایش تفکر متعالی ایرانیان در قالب خلق آثار فاخر معماری، کاربرد اجزا نمادین معماری ایرانی و تاکید بر آرایه ها و موتیف های معمارانه در تنظیم و طراحی اسکناس های دوره انقلاب اسلامی ایران بوده و باستفاده از نگاره های مورد استفاده در اسکناس ها بر تعمیم و گسترش همان اندیشه ی عالی در جهان تلاش می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: نگاره های معمارانه، چاپ اسکناس، انقلاب اسلامی، هویت ایرانی
  • ساسان سامانیان، بهمن فیزابی، حدیث مظاهری* صفحات 145-161

    بهره گیری از تزیینات هندسی در ساخت بناها به خصوص بناهای اسلامی از دیرباز تا به امروز مورد توجه معماران و هنرمندان مسلمان ایرانی بوده است. در این مقاله تحقیقی سعی شده برخی نقوش شاخص دو بنای مسجد جامع کرمان (755ه ق) و مسجد جامع یزد (724 ه ق)، به لحاظ فرمی مقایسه شوند. با توجه به خلاء نسبی علمی  تحقیقاتی در رابطه با معماری ایلخانی  مظفری کشورمان بخصوص در حوزه ی آرایه های هندسی گردد. هدف این پژوهش وسعت بخشی به عرصه شناخت و معرفی ذخایر فرهنگی کشورمان از طریق آنالیز و معرفی نقوش هندسی شاخص این دو بنا باتوجه به ظرایف نهفته در نقوش هندسی بکار رفته در این مساجد وکشف رمز و راز نهفته درآن ها است. پرسش های این مقاله عبارت اند از: 1. چگونه می توان از طریق مقایسه ی نقوش هندسی بکار رفته در مساجد جامع کرمان و یزد به شاخص های نقوش هندسی این دو مسجد دست یافت؟ 2. با توجه به مرمت، بازسازی و الحاق قسمت هایی به بناهای هر دو مسجد جامع یزد و کرمان، طی ادوار مختلف تاریخی مهم ترین شاخص های سبکی حفظ شده در نقوش هندسی هر دو مسجد کدام است؟ با استفاده از روش تحلیلی  توصیفی و انجام تحقیقات کتابخانه ای در عرصه آرایه های معماری این دو بنا و تحقیقات میدانی به ارزیابی و مطالعه تطبیقی نقوش هندسی این دو بنای شاخص معماری ایران پرداخته شده است. شیوه ی گردآوری اطلاعات، اسنادی و بر پایه پژوهش های میدانی تصویری (عکاسی) است و با توجه به ارزش مشاهدات، برای تبیین مراحل بصری از روش نگاشت ادراکی، استفاده شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد، ساخت هر دو مسجد جامع یزد و کرمان فقط شامل یک دوره تاریخی نبوده مشتمل بر ادوار مختلف است اما در این بین شاخصه های اصلی نقوش در مسجد جامع یزد بیشتر مبتنی مشخصه های ایلخانی و تیموری است اما سبک غالب نقوش هندسی در مسجد جامع کرمان ایلخانی و مظفری است. اگر بخواهیم نقوش هندسی این دو بنا را به لحاظ سبکی ارزیابی کنیم مسجد جامع یزد بیشتر ملهم از معماری ایلخانی و تیموری است که به سبک آذری نزدیکی دارد و به لحاظ نقوش هندسی «منطق گرا و بغرنج»تر از جامع کرمان است. از دیگر سوی نقوش هندسی مسجد جامع کرمان بیشتر ملهم از معماری ایلخانی و مظفری است و به لحاظ شاخص های فرمی نقوش هندسی در حوزه ی «بیان حالات احساسی» در فرم و رنگ نمونه ی ارزشمندی محسوب می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: مسجد، مسجد جامع یزد، مسجد جامع کرمان، تزئینات بنا، نقوش هندسی
  • سعید ستارنژاد*، مصیب نریمانی، شیما عزیزی صفحات 163-177

    سنگ مزارها یکی از اجزاء جدایی ناپذیر تفکر مرگ در میان تمامی جوامع از روزگاران کهن تا به امروز بوده و ابزاری اساسی برای نمودهای عینی و معنوی آن به کار رفته است. اگرچه در زمینه ساخت مزار و نشانه های مرتبط با آن در جوامع گوناگون دیدگاه های متفاوت وجود دارد، این پدیده در جهان بینی ایرانی - اسلامی جایگاه ویژه ای داشته است و در شکل های مختلف و نقش مایه های تزیینی متنوع ایجاد شده اند. منطقه شمال غرب ایران (آذربایجان ایران) به دلیل حکمرانی اقوام سلجوقی، ایلخانی، آق قوینلو، قره قوینلو و صفوی یکی از مناطق مستعد برای این گونه آثار مادی است. این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی، گونه شناسی و تحلیل برخی از سنگ مزارهای این منطقه انجام گرفته و به دنبال پاسخ به پرسش های اساسی زیر است: سنگ مزارهای شمال غرب ایران از نظر گونه شناسی و شکل در چه اشکالی ایجاد شده است؟ تحلیل ریشه شناختی برخی از شکل سنگ مزارهای شمال غرب ایران به کدام مناطق بر می گردد؟ نقوش تزیینی سنگ مزارهای شمال غرب ایران در چند دسته قابل تقسیم بندی است؟ این پژوهش به روش، توصیفی - تحلیلی بر اساس مطالعات اسنادی، تجزیه و تحلیل کیفی و از روش میدانی برای ثبت و ضبط برخی گورستان های دوره اسلامی شمال غرب ایران استفاده گردید. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که سنگ مزارها از منظر نحوه  قرارگیری در سه نوع عمودی، افقی و ترکیبی با گونه های مختلف قابل دسته بندی است؛ همچنین مطالعات تطبیقی سنگ مزارها نشان می دهد که از نظر ریشه شناختی برخی از اشکال سنگ قبرها با فرهنگ های آسیای میانه ارتباط نزدیکی دارد که نشان از تاثیر و تاثرات فرهنگی میان حکومت های دوره اسلامی ایران با آسیای میانه است. سنگ مزارهای مورد مطالعه از لحاظ آرایه های تزیینی دارای انواع مختلفی با مفاهیم متنوعی است از جمله: الف) انسانی، ب) گیاهی، ج) حیوانی، د) هندسی - نمادین، ه) اشیاء و ابزارآلات است. هم اکنون بسیاری از این آثار دچار آسیب انسانی و طبیعی شده و تنها تعدادی از آن ها از وضعیت نسبتا مطلوبی برخوردارند.

    کلیدواژگان: شمال غرب ایران، سنگ مزار، گونه شناسی، فرهنگ ایرانی - اسلامی، آسیای میانه
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  • Atiye Khan Hossein Abadi * Pages 5-21

    The shrine of Imam Reza (AS) is considered to be the largest and the most important religious attraction in Iran, which we see throughout the history of Islam. The dynasties, personalities, and elders of each era have been refurbishing and developing this sacred place, to the extent that each section describes the art of architecture at a specific time in the history of Islamic art, including the elders and kings of the Safavid dynasty, the main reason being the recognition of the Shiite religion and the reverence and respect for the elders of this religion. The architecture of the Safavid era is a symbolic manifestation of a sublime truth, leading man from the multitude of the outside world to divine unity where one can feel the presence of God. The kings, artists, and architects of this period, with an emphasis on unity, sought to evoke divine unity in minds, creating a style known as the Isfahan style; the latest of the four Islamic architectural styles in Iran which is based on the simplicity of most designs. Allah Verdi Khan, a brave warrior and military commander of the Safavid era, has done a lot of work to promote the culture and civilization of Iran and paid special attention to the architecture of this era. This can be emphasized by looking at the works remaining from him in Isfahan (Si-o-se-Pol), Shiraz (Khan School) and Mashhad (Dome of AllahVerdi Khan). The dome is one of the most important mystical symbols. Its special form, which resembles the enameled dome, represents the inclusion of all creation (by heaven). For this reason, the artist always imitates the dome of heaven with large domes in the mosques and provides the opportunity for spiritual worship to seek the blessings of divine power for believers. Dome of AllahVerdi Khan, is one of the most beautiful buildings of the Astan Quds Razavi, which Arthur Pope, in the book of Iranian Architecture, considers to be the most complete part of the shrine of Imam Reza (AS). The mosaic tiles of this porch are decorated with the inscriptions and animal, plant, and geometric motifs. Many of these motifs include a concept that has a particular place in the culture and literature of this land. Since the use of peacock motif, as a decorative element, has reached its perfection in Safavid era architecture, and its use is observed in many buildings of this period, the main purpose of this paper is to study the motif of peacocks in the tiles of the above-mentioned porch. The questions are: 1- To which period most of the peacock motifs belong? 2-What is the position of this motif in the holy shrine in the Safavid era and the subsequent periods? The symbol of the peacock has cosmic, intrinsic and mythological meanings in the art and architecture of ancient and Islamic Iran. Therefore, its study as one of the most widely used animal motifs, considering the historical period, in order to grasp symbolic concepts and how to place this role and the type of attitude towards it in different periods is of importance and necessity. In this regard, the writing of this article is based on the historical-descriptive method and the use of library documents, as well as the gathering of material as a transcript, field observations, and photography of other peacock motifs on the tiles of the holy shrine of Razavi and Porch of AllahVerdi Khan. Data analysis is also qualitative. In total, 132 peacock motifs from the three historical periods of the Safavids, Pahlavis and the Islamic Republic era have been studied, including 10 compositions in 17 tiled frames in the Porch of AllahVerdi Khan and 6 compositions in 14 tile frames related to other parts of the shrine. Most of these motifs in the holy shrine are related to the Islamic Republic era (96), 26 to the Safavid period and 10 to the Pahlavi period. In terms of positioning, most of the peacock motifs are represented in a side view, 114 of which as guardians, while there are 18 motifs from the front view. Finally, after searching and discovering the deep meanings of this symbol, one can reach the semantic underlying layers and the reasons for its application. These tiles, consisting of physical form, layout and motif, are all intended to attain the highest order of existence, immortality and rebirth, to relate to the creator of life, blessings and fertility, as well as to pass through the temporal phase of the lowness and to connect to the highest eternal order. Repetition and symmetry also have existential and anti-mortal meanings, so there is no custom in which there is no repetition. The presence of these motifs, besides the quoted meanings, also induces these implicit meanings: unity in plurality, plurality in unity, plurality of eternity and infinity, power, spirituality, bottom-up connection, and earth to heaven.

    Keywords: Peacock, Tiling, Safavid era, Dome of Allah Verdi Khan, Shrine of Imam Reza (AS)
  • Ali Ghashghaei *, Hosein Ardalani Pages 23-41

    In this article, we will discuss the art of painting in Herat School. In fact, the head of painters in this school is Kamal al-Din Bihzad. So we will consider his works and his style in a contextual way and find the sacred art in his paintings. What is discussed here is the geometry used in the works of Kamal al-Din Bihzad who used geometric motifs in order to manifest spirituality in a direct way. This paper is based on descriptive-deductive and library research methods. This article examines the geometric patterns in the works of Kamal al-Din Bihzad, then compares them together, and subsequently reaches a general conclusion, so it proves the hypothesis. From this point of view, this descriptive-analytical research is based on adaptational and inductive approaches. The statistical population includes seven examples of paintings by Bihzad or attributed to Bihzad. Another methodology that is discussed in this research, examines the geometry used in the drawings, which are matched in the framework of this article. As a result of these comparisons, drawings are revealed to be centered on the concept of divinity, due to the geometry of the designs. Therefore, these images are the subject of the research question of this research.This study works on seven paintings made by or attributed to Kamal al-Din Bihzad, comparing the elements used in these works with their counterparts in architectural buildings. We study on repetition of the geometric patterns used in the architectural spaces of Bihzad's paintings. The view based on this article is a traditionalist view. This means that the views of the Western and the Eastern philosophers with regard to revival of the unity of meanings are taken into account in answering the questions of this research. In other words, we consider the traditionalist idea, the source of which is the proof of the essence of the divine sanctuary, which sees the source of survival in annihilation and the everlasting and eternal nature in the unity of meanings, as one of the main aspects of this research. Another theoretical aspect that was necessary in this research is the view of mystics towards art and beauty. This approach is discussed in this article because part of the traditionalist view is based on the views of the mystics who existed before the emergence of the philosophy of traditionalism and influenced the space around them under a special system. Taken together, all logical theories and hypotheses of this research have been proven regarding the main question of the research that is based on this point that to what extent has Bihzad used geometric motifs in his paintings? In which of Bihzad's paintings does the geometry of the motifs act independently and is visually expressed as an independent form to show the essence of the sacred divinity? The main emphasis of this discussion will be on the paintings of "Joseph Escaping Zuleikha" and "Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and His Companions". As a result, Kamal al-Din Bihzad's works can be divided into two categories in terms of the necessity of applying the geometry of patterns in them: 1- Works in which the geometry of patterns is discussed as an independent unit; 2- Works where the geometry of the motifs has appeared in order to decorate the drawings. To answer the research questions of this article, we found out that each painting with a divine or mystical theme is considered as sacred art and it is full of geometric patterns. The first category focuses on the works that prove the theory of this article, in which Bihzad deals with the geometry of the motifs as an independent unit, in works such as "Joseph Escaping Zuleikha" and "Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and His Companions". These paintings are full of geometric motifs and it is directly derived from architecture, because if we remove the architectural plan, we find out that the visual expression is not damaged. Geometry takes steps to elevate the textual meaning of the image. But the second category includes works in which the geometry of the motifs is more considered in terms of the decorative aspect of architecture and is used to make the architectural building look magnificent. The purpose of applying the geometry of the designs was to make it glorious. So In these paintings, geometry is related to architecture and it seems that it has a decorative aspect in terms of the glory of the palace and has found an auxiliary role for architecture.

    Keywords: Sacred Art, Geometry of Patterns, Iranian Painting, Bihzad, Architecture
  • Elaheh Panjehbashi * Pages 43-59
    Dervish curtain is a painting that deals with the events of Ashura and is different from a coffee house painting. The Dervish curtains were very large and were prepared for the official mourning of the Shah. One of the best examples of a dervish curtain is in the Astan Quds Razavi Museum. This painting has two parts and it is mentioned as the biggest curtain painting in Iran, and has not been researched yet. The right part of the painting has very accurate coloring, composition and design features, but the left part of the painting was later added and has paintings, engraving and coloring of lower quality and visual value. This painting has been worked on in the old part based on the official Qajar painting criteria, viewing angle, symbolic language, axial movement of the figures, geometric ratios, image realism, multifaceted view, coloring, humanistic elements, animal and plant elements, which are not seen in the subsequently added new part. The assumption of this research is the study of the structural elements and visual features of this painting and the comparison of both the old and the new parts in the painting. In this regard, the present study seeks to answer these two basic questions of what visual features and structural elements have been used in the Great Dervish Curtain? What is the difference between structural and visual features in the old and the new parts of the work? The content of the present study is qualitative and based on the analysis of structural elements in painting. This painting is based on descriptive-analytical methodology and library data collection method. The results indicate that the main and old part of the painting was worked by court painters and has the feature of Qajar official figurative painting, while the other part is newer, and having been later added to the work, displays a lower image quality compared to the older part.The qualities are lower. Analysis and evaluation of visual elements and structural features, including design, coloring, geometry, perspective, and the viewing angle of this painting show that it has a different structure in the old and the new sections, and the old section has a higher image quality. These include the focus point of the image, which in the old part has a movement mode in the whole image, but in the new part is unclear. Analytical geometry in the old part of the image is in the form of three main triangles based on the main figures of the image, but in the new part there is no specific geometry. The center of the image in the old part is Imam Hussein's blessed head, but in the new part, a focal point is not seen in the picture. In the old part, each narration is separated by a Qajar angel, but in the new part, this separation is not seen in the picture, however it is seen very clumsily with a few flowers, which are clear from under the color of the painting due to the erasure of the painting. In the old part, the view is multifaceted, but in the new part, the view can be seen from the side. In the old part, the color of the image is very clear, bright, symbolic and epic, while in the new part, it is dark and used inadvertently without distance and quality. The design of human figures, the composition and the large volume of figures in the old part of the image are brilliant and unique, but in the new part, these figures are very scattered, without a clear composition. The design of the horse is very strong in the old part, but in the new part, it is very common. In the old part of the angels, the clothes of the angels, and the decorations of the clothes depict the effects of the court painting of the early Qajar period, but in the old part, these rules do not exist. Before painting, the second painter probably "carved parts of the painting, added elements, such as flowers, to the picture, and tried to connect both parts. The inscription is around the picture with the poems of Mohtasham Kashani about the event of Karbala has been coordinated and the writings of Mohtasham's calligraphy are clear from the picture due to the erasure of the color. This is one of the reasons why this part of the painting was later added. Both parts of the painting were characterized by a symbolic language, viewing angle, axial movement of the figures, geometric ratios, visual realism, multifaceted vision, coloring, human, animal, and plant elements, while the old part has a higher quality and the new section, which was later added to the original painting, is of a lower quality.
    Keywords: Qajar, Painting, Dervish Curtain, Visual Quality, Structural Elements, Ashura
  • Maniejeh Kangharani, Bahman Namvarmotlagh *, MohammadAli Khabari, MohammadReza Sharif Zadeh Pages 61-73

    A review of the history of the art of painting is a sign of artists' attention to other pre-existing artworks, adaptation, inspiration, or copying them. This is done for a variety of reasons, most of which can be mentioned as methods of teaching and experiencing and/or criticism and interpretation. Being Inspired by other works of art – especially traditional painting – Iranian contemporary artists are still creating modern works, that can play a significant role in bonding the contemporary art to Iran’s traditional art and transmitting the ancestors’ contents, experiences, and artistic traditions. A number of works of Iranian contemporary painters, that are painted based on a single painting will be studied and analyzed in this paper. The key question is that “how the process of incorporation from other works is being performed and what the procedure is”. It also seeks to answer the following question that “what the relation is between the image of Prophet’s ascension by Sultan Mohammad and the works created inspired by it”.To this end and through using this method, Genette’s hypertextuality and the typology of these relationships will be used in order to study, describe, and analyze a part of Iran’s contemporary art, and to decode its features it is concluded that hypertextuality has had a long practice in Persian painting, although it has not been documented and theoretically discussed. The research method is descriptive-analytical and it has been conducted by gathering information through documentary sources and library studies on the topic of intertextuality and hypertextuality as well as direct observation of the works. The research method of this article is descriptive based on the intertextual approach of Gerard Genette. In the 1960s, it was Julia Kristeva who used "Intertextuality" for the first time, indicating the possibility of relation between different texts. Thereafter, Gerard Genette expanded the study domain of Kristeva, and called relation between a text with other texts or different from its own as "transtextuality" and subdivided this type into five categories where intertextuality was only one type. Other categories were called "arcitextuality", "paratextuality", "metatextuality" and "hypertextuality", each with their own subcategories. Of all these categories, intertextuality and hypertextuality study the relationship between two artistic texts, whereas transtextuality is the study of the relation of a text to the related hypertext. On the other hand, paratextuality probes into the relation of a text to other connected or separated texts. Metatextuality investigates the analytical relation of a text with respect to another one, and arcitextuality deals with the relation between a text and a text of its kind. This article deals with only one type of Genette’s transtextuality, i.e. hypertextuality, and will attempt to survey the potentiality of this notion in terms of studying the history of illustrations in Iran, and then will make a critical analysis of Persian paintings based on the hypertextual approach. The hypertextual relationship explores the relationship between two texts; the existence of the second text depends on the first text. On this basis, the original text and the preceding one is called the "hypotext" and the later and the new text the "hypertext". Genette divides the transactional relationship into two types of the same (imitation) and metamorphism (the variation of the original). According to this, after introducing Genette’s hypertextuality and the typology of these relationships, three works by Iranian contemporary painters (Iraj Eskandari –Abdolmajid Ghdiriyan and Abdolmajid Hosseinirad) that are created through inspiration from the image of Prophet’s ascension by Sultan Mohammad, the significant painter of the Tabriz school, will be studied and analyzed in the second part. While pointing to textual relationships, implications, distinctions and commonalities, sometimes necessarily, the contextual reasons of these differences will be taken into account, so that through a systematic study, we could get to know a part of the identity of Iran’s contemporary art. Eventually, it is concluded that using indigenous and traditional hypotexts, not only does not restrain artists’ creativity, but also, while providing an indigenous and comprehensible statement, proliferates some kind of aesthetic identity, and of course, it will be accompanied with critiques and updates.

    Keywords: Hypertextuality, Typology, the image of ascension, Sultan Mohammad, Iran’s contemporary painting
  • Fatemeh Shahkolahi *, Asghar Fahimifar Pages 75-89

    Reza Abbasi, a prominent painter of the Isfahan painting school, is one of the few Persian painters who attends to the general public and society as a "public painter" and illustrates court orders and figures of kings and nobles as a "court painter" in the Safavid court at the same time. This change in the tradition of Persian painting at the end of the tenth and the eleventh centuries AH, for the first time, enabled Persian painting to have the same and equal reflection of different social voices. Until then, due to the dominant presence of the upper class in the paintings, monophony and social centralism in Persian painting was common and obvious.On the other hand, Mikhail Bakhtin, a twentieth-century Russian theorist, proposed the idea of “Dialogism and Polyphonic texts” as opposed to “Monophonic texts”. According to Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory, dialogism and polyphonic texts are often created in the context of authoritarianism and suffocation in society in order to critique the authoritarian, totalitarian and monolithic reality that has caused the destruction of dialogue in society to temporarily suspend such social and class conflicts. Thus, in some works of Reza Abbasi, it is possible to see the interactive, polyphonic and dialogic atmosphere that appears in the tradition of the Persian painting for the first time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the works of Reza Abbasi from this perspective, which has not been done so far. The subject of this study is to investigate the polyphony and dialogism concept of the Mikhail Bakhtin's theory in Reza Abbasi's paintings, and the aim is to identify Persian painting's capability to be adapted and interpreted based on contemporary philosophical theories and concepts. Research questions are: 1. What is the polyphony and dialogism in the works of Reza Abbasi? 2. How did the social situation of the Safavid era affect the nature of polyphony and dialogue of Reza Abbasi's works? 3. What is the purpose of Reza Abbasi in presenting polyphonic and conversational images? According to the aim, this research is a developmental one, and based on essence and methodology, is descriptive-analytical. The method of data collection is documentary (library based). The method of data analysis is qualitative with the approach of polyphonic and dialogic texts in the theory of Mikhail Bakhtin. Considering what Mikhail Bakhtin offers in describing polyphonic and dialogic texts, we can consider the number of these images in the total works of Reza Abbasi to be approximately equal to 15 paintings. Therefore, the statistical population of this study is 15 images by Reza Abbasi, which is in harmony with the concepts of polyphonic and dialogic texts in Mikhail Bakhtin's views. Due to the small statistical population, the total statistical population is considered as a sample community.This research shows that the most important polyphonic and dialogic feature of Reza Abbasi's works is the contradiction and duality that emerges in the structure of the simultaneous public and courtier figures. The untimely and sudden departure of the court of Shah Abbas I in 1011 AH / 1606 AD, and joining to the common people, is the most important effect that the social conditions of the Safavid era had on Reza Abbasi. According to the three great historians of the Safavid era, Munshi Qomi, Iskandar Beyk Turkman and Valeh Isfahani, this group of people either did not have a special and important social position in the Safavid era society or were completely rejected due to social and political conditions. They were hated. These social groups lived in the more hidden layers of society and their voices were not the dominant voices in the common and official discourse of Safavid society. In other words, the time periods of Reza Abbasi's artistic activity, which are influenced by the social conditions of his time, can also affect the polyphonic nature of his works. The number of polyphonic works of Reza Abbasi in the third period of his activity is more than his first and second periods and is equal to 80%. After that, the highest number of polyphonic images is related to the first period of his artistic activity (20%), and the number of images in the second period is as low as possible (0%).Reza Abbasi's goal in creating polyphonic images and juxtaposing court figures with public figures has been to express opposition to the government and the dominant power. In this way, he uses discourses outside the dominant language to critique the structure of the hierarchy and the dominant power. Just as Bakhtin considers polyphonic texts as a sign of suffocation in society and considers the time of the emergence of such works in authoritarian, monolithic and totalitarian conditions, artists such as Reza Abbasi seek to create a dialogue and interactive structure by creating their works, and temporarily suspend this class and social supremacy.

    Keywords: Persian painting, Reza Abbasi, Safavid era, Polyphony, Mikhail Bakhtin
  • Shiva Kashani Ilkhchi *, Mehdi Kazempour Pages 91-107

    Due to its connection with national, religious and mythological beliefs, flag (Derafsh) has many forms and patterns that can act as a factor in identifying the identity and way of thinking of a particular nation and period. Among these, the manuscripts of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, due to their epic and national nature, are valuable sources in the field of study of patterns, forms and colors used in Iranian flags. Shahnameh Tahmasebi, as one of the masterpieces of Iranian painting, has the most magnificent paintings of the Safavid period and there are numerous and varied maps of Iranian flags in its paintings that can provide valuable information to researchers. The two main questions of the present study are: What are the symbolic meanings of the flags depicted in the Shahnameh Tahmasebi in terms of motifs? What is the degree of connection between the Shahnameh Tahmasebi and its text as well as the Safavid Shiite government? Now, this research intends to study and examine the motifs of the flags in Shahnameh Tahmasebi in a descriptive-analytical way and with a symbolic approach, using library studies. Among the 258 illustrations in Shahnameh Tahmasebi, 64 of which represent the total of 165 motifs of flags. Based on this study, it was concluded that the motifs in the Shahnameh Tahmasebi are divided into categories of plant motifs (including Khatai and arabesque motifs), animal motifs (including dragon motifs, Simorgh, lion, fox and duck), and inscriptions, all of which are in line with the Shiite doctrinal concepts of the Safavid period. Also, based on this study, it was found out that the motifs of some of the flags in Shahnameh Tahmasebi are related to the texts in the Shahnameh, and in a way, the artist has visualized the texts of the Shahnameh in his work. The motifs most in line with the text include several examples of animal motifs, while inscriptions mostly serve the religion of the time. The flag was one of the most important and the oldest symbols of government and was mostly used in wars to establish order, and to create excitement and stability. The flags of each nation, in accordance with their beliefs and ideas, have a specific form, role, color and gender, and have been a symbol of the culture and national identity of that nation. Accordingly, the images and maps on the flags include a set of symbolic signs and symbols that can be studied to examine the beliefs and convictions of a community. Meanwhile, Iran with its long history, due to the formation of governments with different beliefs during different periods has different types of flags, all of which are outside the scope of this study. Therefore, in this article, only the flags that are preserved in the drawings of Shahnameh Tahmasebi will be studied. It should be noted that in the Safavid period, the revival of national characters and religious tendencies, also led to the development of art and industry. Therefore, religious and national symbolic concepts are more prominent in works of art. The society in the Safavid period centered on the intellectual principles of the king and the holy man, whose rulers were considered the king and the holy man who received the kingship from Jamshid and the holiness from Imam Ali (AS). Thus, the art of this period is full of symbolic motifs related to national and religious concepts. Shahnameh Tahmasebi, which is one of the masterpieces of Iranian painting in the early Safavid period, is illustrated in this political, social and cultural context, and its drawings contain many of these symbolic concepts. The illustrations in this book represent the theme of flags with various designs and colors that are a reflection of the culture and beliefs of this period, and can be used as important references in the field of study of flags of this period. Since these flags have been used in each of the scenes and events with a variety of colors and patterns, they have the quality to be studied in their original context. The purpose of this study is to identify all the flags in Shahnameh Tahmasebi, and to study the motifs used in them with a semiotic approach that examines their relationship with the Safavid Shiite government as well as the text of Shahnameh. Considering the importance of the flags which are depicted in Shahnameh Tahmasebi, and the limited studies that have been carried out on them and related to the selected images, conducting a more extensive research on them seems necessary. Since, as mentioned earlier in the text, the flag is a specific symbol of a particular nation or land, the depiction of which is rooted in the national, religious and political beliefs of that nation or land in a particular period of time.

    Keywords: Shahnameh Tahmasebi, Shiism, Persian painting, Flag Motif, semiotics
  • Zahra Rashednia * Pages 109-127
    The similarities between the motifs used in a profession and industry in a family, influence some of those motifs in another industry and profession from that family. Evidence of this claim, the stucco artist and carpenter Kermani, can be seen in the eighth century AH. The existence of the plasterer artist family of Kermani, which for several generations have made distinguished stucco work by the order of the elders and rulers, influenced the other works and industries of that family, such as carpentry. The old custom that had long been prevalent among Iranians, and was inherited from father to son or master to apprentice, made it possible for most families to master a variety of professions and industries. This tradition continued throughout the Islamic era; the most famous instance is the rise of the tile maker, Abu Tahir Kashani, in the seventh century AH. Their works, such as the mosque's Mihrab, the star tiles, cross, the various vessels that adorn the museums and collections, continued until the mid-eighth century AH. Other remaining examples of the works by the Kermani family that emerged in the 8th century AH with the financial and political support of the powerful ruling governments include the stucco Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan (available at the National Museum of Iran, Museum number 3271); by (amal) "Masoud Kermani", stucco Mihrab of Masjid-I Kucha-yi Mir in Natanz; (registration number 209 and dated 31/4/1313) amal "Haidar Kermani", stucco Mihrabs of Masjid-I Kermani Turbat-I Jam, amal "Khaju bin Zaki bin Mohammad bin Masoud Kermani", wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain (registration number 144 and the date 15/10/1310) amal " Mahmoud Shah bin Mohammed Alnqash Alkrmany", and wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami Yarand Natanz; amal" Mohammad bin Ostad Haidar Kermani". The objective of this paper is the visual recognition of the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain, and the main purpose of this research is a comparative study of motifs, structural components and inscriptions of the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh a Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain. In this regard, the questions that will be answered in this article are: 1.What visual characteristics can be mentioned for the Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain in the eighth century AH? 2.What are the similarities between the motifs, structural components, and inscriptions of the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain? Method of data collection has been based on field studies with reference to published material. Based on the quiddity and method, the present study is a descriptive-analytical research with a comparative approach. Data were collected and analyzed using library research and field research methods, and documenting works. The statistical society of this research has been introduced by visiting about seven buildings in different regions of Iran, such as Nain, Natanz, Turbat-I Jam, ... and museum items (Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan available in the Islamic section of the National Museum of Iran), as well as photographing them which was followed by software analysis of motifs and inscriptions. Two cases of the Stucco Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan and the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain were examined. The method of sampling was based on the existence of the greatest similarity between the two works, and finally, a comparative study of these two works and other works of the statistical society, enabled us to achieve a number of common features between them. The results indicated that a number of motifs, structural components and inscriptions on the stucco Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan are similar and comparable to that of the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain, namely, similarity in the frames surrounding the motifs, form of placement of arabesque, application of rounded form, sharp form of the arch of the blind arcade and its tangent to the peripheral lines of the spandrel, assignation of the right walls to the inscription of the name of the artist of the Mihrab/ pulpit and the left one to the inscription of the date, as well as compaction and detailing of the field inscriptions. Therefore, considering that the eighth century AH was the era of stucco, and the stucco works of this period are significant, and also the chronological antecedent of the Mihrab of Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan (708 AH) to the wooden pulpit of Masjid-I Jami of Nain (711 AH), stucco artist Kermani has influenced the carpenter Kermani, while on the other hand, some artists have been master of arts.
    Keywords: Stucco Mihrab, Wooden Pulpit, Decorations, Structural Components, Masjid-I Jami of Nain, Imamzadeh Rabieh Khatoon of Oshtorjan
  • Sahar Toofan * Pages 129-143
    Architecture is one of the oldest Iranian arts. It has a special place in the history and studies of art. Ancient Iranian architectural works and traditional and Islamic architectural buildings constitute a major part of the valuable treasure of world culture and art. Money is the medium of exchange, the unit of value and the store of value. Throughout the ages, banknotes have been an important means of exchange and play an important role in transmitting cultural and economic values. Images on banknotes are valuable documents for recognizing nations through socio-historical and historical studies. Because the image is always the fastest way to communicate between humans and can convey a world of information and concepts regardless of language. Architectural places have always been among the most eye-catching elements in the design of Iranian money and have played an identity-oriented role in the definition of Iranian banknotes. The manifestation of architectural works in the illustration of banknotes and the position of architectural art among the visual arts is one of the main and necessary topics in the present research. Banknotes of the Islamic Republic of Iran between 1979 and 2009, due to the difference in printing periods, had a significant structural diversity, but architectural drawings are among the continuous elements in the visual composition of these banknotes. It seems that the daily use of banknotes, with emphasis on their value in Rials, has led to users not paying attention to the images of banknotes which in turn has led to a lack of attention to the thinking of designers in selecting their images and content. Numerous, varied and interesting materials about money and its history in Iran and the world are available in the form of documents, books, articles and information on Internet websites. Lack of documented research studies on the factors influencing artists' decisions regarding the choice of images for designing banknotes in the contemporary era, both from an artistic and macro-banking perspectives on banknote printing, is one of the main necessities of addressing the issue in the present research. The main purpose of this article is to research the architectural drawings offered through Iranian banknotes. The main question of this article is to study why and how to use architectural works in the definition of Iranian banknotes after the revolution. The research method adopted in this study is the content analysis research method. Content analysis is one of the documentary methods that systematically, objectively, quantitatively and generalizably examines communication messages. The statistical population includes banknotes printed after the revolution in Iran. The sampling method is non-random and is purposeful in the form of sampling which has been described and analyzed by studying each sample. Returning to identity through studying and extracting the foundations of Iranian architectural ideas, leads to the manifestation of characteristics of respect for nature, religious sanctity and the importance of unity in Iranian thought. The results obtained from the data and analyses show that there is a close relationship between the conscious or unconscious selection of images of architectural works and their recognition as the representative of Iran in the world. Therefore, it can be explicitly confirmed that architecture can play an important role in cultural exchanges as a symbol of identity through the definition of a country's currency. Iranian-Islamic architectural works, as a symbol of Iran's identity, have always reflected the historical-political identity and religious belief-oriented identity of Iranians in the world. With the depiction of these works on Iranian banknotes, the role of its social identity will have a double effect on national maturity. Depiction of the artistic values and architectural ideas of Iran can be the basis for decisions related to tourism and cultural heritage. The results of the research show the deep connection between religious beliefs and the government's macro-policy in selecting images of ancient, traditional and contemporary Iranian architecture in the composition of the Iranian banknote building. The illustrations as architectural volumes in Iranian banknotes, printed after the revolution, according to the functional performance of buildings have been analyzed in five categories: religious architecture, memorial architecture, governmental-ritual architecture, educational architecture and residential architecture. Architectural motifs also include Islamic motifs, Khatai motifs, geometric motifs, ancient and religious symbols. Images related to religious architecture are classified into two categories: architecture of world religions and architecture of religious buildings of Islamic periods in Iran. Most of the paintings are related to Islamic architectural arrays and the architectural image of the Razavi shrine. The most important result of this article is to show the transcendent thinking of Iranians in the form of creating magnificent works of architecture and symbolic components of Iranian architecture and architectural arrays and motifs. This article tries to generalize and spread the same transcendent thought in the world by means of using the images depicted in banknotes.
    Keywords: Architectural Images, banknote printing, Islamic Revolution, Iranian identity
  • Sasan Samanian, Bahman Feizabi, Hadis Mazaheri * Pages 145-161

    Architects and artists have long been fascinated by the use of geometric decorations in the construction of buildings, especially religious buildings. In this paper, we have tried to compare some of the landmark designs of the two buildings of Kerman Jami Mosque (755 AH) and Yazd Jami Mosque (724 AH). Kerman Grand Mosque is one of the 700-year-old four-porch mosques that have a lofty entrance, courtyard, porch and nave. Its construction began in (705 AH) by the order of Amir Mobaraz al-Din Mohammad Mozaffari Meybodi, the head of the Mozaffari dynasty, which ended at the end of 755 AH. Inspired by Sassanid architecture, its eastern entrance was destroyed by the firing of Agha Mohammad Khan and was later repaired. Yazd Jami Mosque has been built in the style of a porch in the heart of the desert during a century (the 6th century AH) in different historical periods, the most important of which are Ilkhanid, Safavid, Timurid, Al-Muzaffar and Qajar. Over time, it was built by several founders, but the main foundations of the mosque were built by the Sassanids. The current building of this mosque is considered to be Azeri architecture in two seasons. The purpose of this study is to expand the field of recognizing and introducing the cultural resources of our country through analysis and introduction of geometric patterns of these two buildings according to the subtleties hidden in the geometric patterns used in these mosques as well as discovering the mystery hidden in them. The questions we are trying to answer are 1- how to define the criteria of the geometric patterns of these two mosques by comparing the geometric patterns used in the comprehensive mosques of Kerman and Yazd? 2- Considering the restoration, reconstruction and annexation of parts to the buildings of both Yazd and Kerman mosques, what are the most important stylistic features preserved in the geometric designs of both mosques during different historical periods? Using descriptive-analytical method and conducting library research in the field of architectural arrays of these two buildings and field research, this study has evaluated and comparatively compared the geometric patterns of these two buildings of the Iranian architectural index. The method of data collection is documentary and based on visual field research (photography), and according to the value of observations, perceptual mapping method has been used to explain the visual stages. The research findings show that considering the precedence of construction of Yazd Jami Mosque over Kerman Jami Mosque, the possibility of modeling and adopting this mosque by the artists of Kerman Jami Mosque seems reasonable. The construction of both the Yazd and the Kerman mosques did not only include a historical period, but also different periods. Each of these two parts has been built over time by several founders. The Ilkhanid, Timurid, Muzaffarid, Safavid and the Qajar governments have played a role in completing parts of these two buildings, but Zandieh-era motifs are visible in the entirety of the Kerman Jami Mosque. The main features of the designs in the Yazd Jami Mosque are mostly based on patriarchal and Timurid features. The predominant style of geometric designs in the Kerman Jami Mosque is Ilkhanid and Muzaffarid. The geometric designs of Yazd and Kerman Jami Mosques have differences and similarities, among which there are many more similarities than the differences that can be considered as the common spirit of their geometric designs. Since both mosques were built in different periods, one cannot expect a geometric pattern from a historical period in both mosques. But it is interesting that the main spirit and essence of the geometric designs of both patriarchal mosques, the Ilkhanid essence, in later periods with the knowledge that has reached them from previous masters has been preserved. Subsequent masters have tried to present harmony and unity with the previous designs and have practically followed in their footsteps. And the observer of these geometric patterns practically does not notice the inconsistency in the patterns which is the result of obvious differences in design. If we want to evaluate the geometric designs of these two buildings in terms of style, the Yazd Jami Mosque is more inspired by patriarchal and Timurid architecture, which is close to the Azeri style, and in terms of geometric designs is more "logical and complex" than the Kerman Jami Mosque. On the other hand, the geometric designs of the Kerman Jami Mosque are mostly inspired by patriarchal and Muzaffarid architecture. Moreover, in terms of form indicators, geometric patterns are valuable examples in the field of "expression of emotional states" in form and color.

    Keywords: Mosque, Yazd Jami Mosque, Kerman Jami Mosque, Building Decoration, Geometric Designs
  • Saeid Sattarnezhad *, Mosayeb Narimani, Shima Azizi Pages 163-177

    Headstones have been one of the inseparable thoughts of death among all the communities from old times to nowadays that were used as an essential tool for their visual and spiritual aspects. However, there are various points of view in creating headstones and their relative sign fields in different societies. This phenomenon had a special place in Islamic- Iranian's attitude and is created in different forms and decorative figurations. The North West area of Iran is one of the finest places for such materials and this research was done to identify, classify and analyze them in order to find answers to these following questions: what are the typology and forms of Iran's North West's headstones ? To which areas does the analysis of cognitive foundations of headstones in Iran's North West refer? How many categories may be designated for the decorative figurations of these headstones? This research is using descriptive- analytical method along with several documents and field studies for recording some Islamic-era graveyards of Iran's North West. The result of this research indicates that regarding the shape of placement, headstones are divided into three forms: horizontal, vertical and hybrid with different kinds. Some of the headstones are rooted in middle - Asian societies and have various concepts in terms of decorative arrays. Prime examples are: a) human, b) herbal, c) animal, d) geometric- symbolic, e) objects and tools. Currently, many of these monuments are damaged by mankind and nature, and just a few of them are in fine shape. Headstones are among the components of funerals and were used as an identification and indicator of date of death. It is also a great place to transfer concepts of public culture. Headstones are affected by geographical, political, social and cultural features of each area. They have a special place for mankind’s beliefs and are affected by attitudes of different people of each area. Islamic-era headstones have various decorative arrays and appearances, which present them as a great collection for studying archaeology, history, culture, art and politics of different places as well as a source of knowledge about social beliefs of people for researchers. Studying headstones from different regions of Iran indicates that they have an important place in Islamic- Iranian culture. Headstones of each region have their own specialties and Islamic- era headstones of Iran’s North West have a lot of variety among them.The North West area of Iran in Islamic era had a good potentiality for shaping headstones fitting the religion beliefs due to existence of different groups of people. Thus, in this area, there are so many graveyards left from different periods of Islamic era, and a huge, diverse spectrum of headstones was shaped in them. However, there has been no global research in terms of appearances and figurations around typology and classification of Islamic headstones of Iran's North West region so far. Studies on headstones in terms of archeology, anthropology, linguistics, arts and other sciences are important and they need an intense, coherent focus. Accordingly, this research studies headstones in different areas of Azerbaijan in addition to classification and typology of headstones based on two aspects of appearance and decorative figuration. The elegance and variety of form and shape of the headstones of Iran's North West in Islamic era were fascinating to many researchers and visitors for a long time. However, headstones were less focused on in terms of appearances, used array and cognitive foundations, and they deserve more comprehensive and wider researches to become a specific science study field in other cases for classifying these monuments. The research has been edited based on qualitative approach and descriptive-analytical research method, and information was gathered by library and field studies. For this purpose, about 30 Islamic- era graveyards in Iran's North West were studied. That way due to scattered graveyards in the North West area, lack of registration information, and unknown samples by relevant organizations, through field studies some of monuments were recognized in Meshkin Shahr, Khalkhal, Nir, Ardabil, Sarein, Maragheh, Varzaghan, Bostanabad, Tabriz, Marand, Ahar, Miandoab and Salmas counties. In next phase, these data were classified and analyzed with qualitative methods and comparative study methods. Moreover, in this research, some pictures of graveyards in Sosava, Bijagh, Gal, Varzaghan, Sefidabad, Some’eh del and Salmas villages were selected and subsequently, schemes and figurations were designed and classified based on analyses from Corel and AutoCad software’s. In the end, we achieved a relative typology of figurations and appearances of North West headstones in Islamic era.

    Keywords: Northwest of Iran, Headstone, Typology, Iranian-Islamic culture, Central Asia