فهرست مطالب

Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research
Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/12/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Seyed Majid Mousavi *, Graham Brodie, Kamal Payghamzadeh, Tahereh Raiesi, Anoop Kumar Pages 1-13

    There are many anthropogenic activities that have caused the accumulation of potentially toxic metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, arsenic, cobalt, and mercury) in the environment. Lead (Pb) is known as a very toxic and non-biodegradable element that has no metabolic function in living creatures. It can be easily taken up and transferred within plant tissues; consequently, it can easily enter the food chain, causing phytotoxicity, which in turn through different biochemical and enzymatic reactions, can result in severe threats to public health. After entering soil and sediments, Pb may be diffused among soil components and associated with them through different geochemical fractions, which determine the final fate of Pb in terms of bioavailability and uptake by plants. Metal bioavailability in soils is largely dependent on the soil and plant properties and interactions with other elements. In spite of the fact that there are numerous studies on the influence of heavy metals on public health but there are limited studies that consider the role of the soil-plant chain on the final fate of potentially toxic metals in respect to threat the public health. This manuscript defines a joint challenge between agricultural and medical sciences and shows that the soil (as the base of agriculture) affects human health in a variety of ways, with human health being linked to the health of the soil.

    Keywords: Potentially Toxic Metals, Soil, plant, Food Chain, public health
  • Nasrollah Veisi, Seyed Mehdi Hosseini *, Ardashir Rahimzadeh, Mansour Mirzaei, Hadi Rezaei, Mansour Navshad, Seyede Parvin Ghazaei, Payam Shokri, Meysam Olfatifar, Khosro Kazempour Pages 15-24
    Background and aim

    Noroviruses are the most common known cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis in worldwide. Norovirus gastroenteritis most often occurs in the winter with vomiting and diarrhea.

    Materials and Methods

    This cross sectional study was done to evaluate the outbreak of gastroenteritis in one of the villages of Kurdistan province, 1-12 February 2019. During this period, 149 people developed joint illness and symptoms of diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and their information was recorded. Data analysis was done with Stata7 software.

    Results

    Attack rate of the total population in the village was 31.17%. Also, Attack rate in rural men and women was 26.5 percent and 36.24 percent, respectively. The median age of the patients was 26.5 years. The mean and standard deviation of patients' age in the first days of outbreak were less than other days that this relationship was statistically meaningful (P = 0.003). The most common symptoms were non-bloody diarrhea (57.71%), vomiting (52.34%), abdominal cramp (26.17%) and nausea (24.83%). According to the shape of the epidemic curve, the outbreak was a community-wide outbreak caused by the norovirus virus.

    Conclusion

    Based on clinical evidence, epidemiological examination, results of human and water samples analysis, outbreaks occurred due to the consumption of drinking water contaminated with norovirus. To prevent similar outbreaks, it is recommended to fix the bugs observed in the water supply system and implement the water safety program.

    Keywords: Norovirus, Outbreak, Gastroenteritis, Kurdistan, Epidemiology
  • Hossein Vahidi *, Abbas Ghavam Pages 25-37
    Background

    Green management is a major factor contributing to the sustainable development and improvement of organizational performance levels. Therefore, the development of university waste management with a green management approach can improve university sustainability indicators' environmental status and quality. This study aims to evaluate the Kerman Graduate University of Technology (KGUT) status of waste management.

    Methods

    In this study, using field visits, checklists, and interviews with managers and service personnel, the status of waste management in different KGUT buildings was investigated. A sampling of university waste was performed, and then the storage status of special wastes and tanks were examined. Finally, we tried to suggest solutions to improve the status of the waste management system.

    Results and discussion

    In this study, using Analytical Hierarchy Process the indicators were prioritized. Also, sampling and physical analysis of university waste was performed, and the amount of waste production was compared with other universities.

    Results and Discussion

    21 indicators of impact on KGUT waste management were discussed and prioritized in three categories of educational, executive, and managerial measures. The per capita production of ordinary waste in the university was 233.5 grams per day, an average amount compared to other universities.

    Conclusion

    The management of hazardous waste in the university needs more attention, and improving the storage system and its disposal is the priority of corrective measures. An important step that is of great importance is training staff and students in the field of waste management, which can pave the way for many changes.

    Keywords: Waste Management, Green University, Kerman Graduate University of Technology, Prioritization, Analytical Hierarchy Process
  • Saeed Mohammad Alipour, Ebrahim Fataei *, Fatemeh Nasehi, AliAkbar Imani Pages 39-45
    Background

    The feasibility of converting organic wastes into vermicompost and the effect of adding such wastes onto the substrate on the growth and reproduction of the earthworm 'Eisenia fetida' were investigated in the present study through a factorial experiment with completely randomized design in triplicate, consisting of two factors.

    Methods

    The first factor with nine different treatment combinations included control, potato (P), carrot pulp (C), vegetables (V), sawdust (S), potato, vegetables, carrot pulp (PVC), sawdust, potato, carrot pulp (SPC), vegetables, sawdust, potato (VSP), and carrot pulp, vegetables, potato, sawdust (CVPS), and the second factor was related to two different substrate concentrations of 100 and 150 g. This research was carried out using a basket method in Tonekabon County in 2021. The base substrate of earthworms was animal manure positioned in boxes and washed with urban tap water to reach a pH value of 6.5-7. After ripening the vermicompost, the boxes were emptied and the number of worms was counted individually.

    Results

    The results of analysis of variance showed a significant difference in the number of cocoon between the studied treatments (P<0.1), but no in the number of worms between the groups. The maximum number of cocoon (mean= 605) corresponded to the sawdust treatment combination (S) and the minimum number of cocoon (mean= 185) was found in the vegetable treatment combination (V).

    Conclusions

    Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the treatment of manure bed with sawdust wastes provided the optimal conditions for the growth and reproduction of earthworm 'Eisenia fetida.

    Keywords: Eisenia Fetida, Reproduction, Vermicompost, carrot, Sawdust, Vegetables
  • Iman Naseri, Reza Jalilzadeh Yengejeh *, Kobra Verijkazemi, Mahboobeh Cheraghi Pages 47-57

    In this study, risk was identified and evaluated and control and corrective measures were determined in order to reduce or eliminate health and environmental hazards of rural water supply systems in Khorramshahr city according to the guidelines of the Water Safety Plan of the World Health Organization. This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study in which rural water supply systems in Khorramshahr were studied using the FMEA risk systematic method. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) was calculated to determine the risk level after identifying 14 risks using the opinions of experts. Then, control and corrective measures were put into consideration for medium, high and very high level risks. The results of the evaluation of 14 risks identified in the distribution network and point of consumption indicated that 71.5% were in the medium risk level and 28.5% were in the high (critical) risk level. After determining control and corrective measures, it reached 92.9% of risks in the medium (manageable) and 7.1% critical. This result indicates that water safety guidelines can replace traditional methods of inspection and process control and significant results can be achieved with the help of risk assessment by FMEA method and step-by-step implementation of WSP plan as an important evolutionary solution for preventive measures and reducing the level of existing risks.

    Keywords: Water Safety Plane, Rural Water Supply Systems, FMEA, Risk Assessment, Control Measures
  • Farhad Mahmoodi, Reza Jalilzadeh Yengejeh, Farhang Tirgir *, Mehraban Sadeghi Pages 59-71
    Background

    The 1-Naphthol, one of the derivatives of naphthalene, is the most significant industrial chemical that is widely used in the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and biochemical processes.

    Methods

    In the present study, N, S-doped TiO2 thin film immobilized on silica sulfuric acid (SSA) glass microspheres (MS) was investigated as a novel high efficient photocatalyst. The N, S-doped TiO2 immobilized on SSA was fabricated using a simple modified sol–gel process. Its photocatalytic activities were then assessed using 1-naphthol solution in the presence of visible light. The physico-chemical properties of photocatalyst were characterized using energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern.

    Results

    According to the obtained results, the optimal pH, time, concentration, and removal efficiency of 1-naphthol for N, S-doped TiO2 /SSA was 5, 50 minutes, 25mg/l and 92.12%.

    Conclusion

    The present study confirms the usability of the immobilized N, S-doped TiO2 on SSA glass MS as a novel, effective, and efficient technique for treatment of wastewater containing 1-naphthol under visible light.

    Keywords: Water Pollution, TiO2, photo catalytic, degradation, 1-Naphthol
  • AmirHossein Baghaie *, Amir Daliri Pages 73-81
    Background

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil is one of the important factors. This research was done to investigate the effect of sulfur granular municipal soil waste (sulfur granular MSW), foliar application of iron sulfate on bio-degradation of diesel oil in a Cd-polluted soil in the presence of Thiobacillus bacteria.

    Methods

    Treatments consisted of applying sulfur granular MSW at the rates of 0 and 15 t/ha, foliar application of iron sulfate (0 and 500 mg/l) in a Cd-polluted (0, 10 and 20 mg Cd/kg) soil that simultaneously contaminated with diesel oil (0,4 and 8 %(W/W)) in the presence of Thiobacillus bacteria. After 60 days, the corns were harvested and the plant Fe and Cd concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). In addition, the bio-degradation of diesel oil in the soil was also measured.

    Results

    Soil application of sulfur granular MSW (15 t/ha) significantly increased the bio-degradation of diesel oil in the soil by 16.1%. However, soil pollution with Cd had adverse effect on bio-degradation of diesel oil in the soil. The presence of Thiobacillus bacteria had significant effect on increasing and decreasing the plant Fe and Cd concentration by 16.1 and 17.3%, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study, using sulfur granular MSW and foliar application of iron sulfate has significant effect on bio-degradation of diesel oil in the soil in the heavy metal polluted soil. However, the role of plant physiology, the type and amount of pollution on phytoremediation efficiency cannot be ignored.

    Keywords: Sulfur granular MSW, heavy metal pollution, Thiobacillus bacteria, Petroleum Hydrocarbons
  • AbdolRasoul Jafarzadeh Ghahdarijani, Mehran Hoodaji *, Arezoo Tahmourespour Pages 83-94
    Background

    The growers have been persuaded to use wastewater in agriculture due to drought and water deficiency more than ever. However, an important challenge is its environmental constraints.

    Methods

    In this study, the effect of vermifiltration on properties of sewage influent was investigated. The sewage influent was obtained from the aerated lagoons of Qahdarijan wastewater treatment plant, Isfahan, Iran. It was mixed with rice husk (RH) and wheat straw (WS) as the bulking agents in three levels (0, 5 and 10%v/v). Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) was added to the sewage sludge in 2 levels [0 (EW0) and 50 (EW) adult earthworms /6 kg sewage sludge].

    Results

    The results showed  a significant decrease in EC (about 100% decrease compared to the control), TDS (up to 3 times in RH0+ EW treatment less than the control), TSS (up to 90 times in WS10+EW and RH +EW treatments decrease compared to the control), biochemical oxygen demand (significant decrease in RH levels + EW compared to other treatments), chemical oxygen demand (a reverse status was observed for WS and RH treatments but the role of vermifiltration was considerable). The concentration of Pb was significantly decreased in WS when was enriched with earthworms (about 8% decrease compared to control) but a reverse status was observed for RS treatment.

    Conclusions

    It is imagined that vermifiltration may be considered as an efficient tool for improving the properties of wastewater in order to use in agriculture but more studies are suggested for evaluation of different aspects of this technique.

    Keywords: Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Bulking agent, Chemical Oxygen demand, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Wastewater, Vermifiltration