فهرست مطالب

نامه هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 22 (پاییز 1399)
  • پیاپی 22 (پاییز 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/01/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • فرهاد امینی، شیرین بزرگمهر* صفحات 5-19
    از منظر لویی آلتوسر، فیلسوف ساختگرای فرانسوی، دولت یک مجموعه ی نادیدنی و یک کل متکثر ایدیولوژیک است که ساز و برگ های مختلف، اعم از خصوصی و عمومی برای القای ایدیولوژی خود را دارد و در این نوشتار، با بررسی جایگاه دولت در چنین مفهومی، تلاش خواهیم کرد تا خوانشی تازه از نمایشنامه ی دشمن مردم اثر هنریک ایبسن، نمایشنامه نویس نروژی، را عرضه کنیم. هرچند خوانش های سنتی این اثر، عموما بر این فرض پافشاری کرده اند که دکتر استوکمان (پزشک شهر) فردی است در برابر اجتماع خویش، فردی که حقانیت اجتماع را به چالش می کشد و می توان او را قهرمان روشنگری دانست؛ اما به کار گیری نظریه ی دولت ایدیولوژیک آلتوسر در خوانش ما از این نمایشنامه نشان خواهد داد که شخصیت های مقابل دکتر استوکمان نه مردم به مفهوم عرفی کلمه بلکه دولت در معنای آلتوسری آن است. این خوانش نشان می دهد که چگونه نهادهایی مانند نهادهای آموزشی، رسانه ها و حتی خانواده، به عنوان بازوهای ایدیولوژیک دولت، هر شخصیت را به سوژه های انضمامی خود بدل می کند. بدین ترتیب شخصیت های این اثر نه به عنوان قهرمانان روشنگری و حقیقت خواهی و همین طور ضدقهرمانان بلکه به عنوان افرادی گیر افتاده در ایدیولوژی دولت قابل تفسیر هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: دشمن مردم، آلتوسر، ایدئولوژی، دولت
  • محمدرضا حاجی ملا علی*، حسن علی پورمند، سید مصطفی مختاباد، محمدحسین ناصربخت صفحات 21-33

    میخاییل باختین معتقد است کارناوال ها جشن هایی هستند که در آنها جامعه به شکلی موقت از نظام صلب موجود رها می شود و لذت و خنده کارناوالی را تجربه می کند و پس از کارناوال جامعه دوباره به نظام قطعی خود باز می گردد. او در تبیین نظریه کارناوالی خود به چهار مقوله اشاره می کند: 1-ارتباط آزاد و صمیمی میان مردم 2-عرف شکنی 3-آمیزش ناهمگون کارناوالی و 4-قدسیت زدایی. باختین «تاجگذاری و خلع سلطنت ریشخندآمیز پادشاه کارناوال» را نیز به این مقولات می افزاید. مفهوم کارناوالی باختین در نمایش های شادی آور تخت حوضی در ایران که در جشن ها اجرا می شدند وجود دارد. مشارکت عمومی طبقات مختلف جامعه در یک مکان و زمان مشخص، شادخواری و شادنوشی، خنده جمعی، شوخی های عرف شکن و بی پرده، جهان وارونه شده و تغییر جایگاه ارباب و نوکر (سلطان، حاجی و ملا در برابر سیاه) از جمله موارد قابل انطباق در تخت حوضی ها هستند. تمام این موارد موقتی هستند و پس از اتمام جشن، جامعه دوباره به نظام خود بازمی گردد و در این فرایند، نظام جامعه تثبیت می شود. باختین درواقع امکان قرایت همزمان رهایی بخش و متصلب از نمایش های شادی آور تخت-حوضی را برای ما فراهم می کند. به این معنا، تخت حوضی در عین آنکه می تواند ضامن تداوم وضع موجود و در خدمت قدرتمندان باشد، سلاح طبقات محروم در مقابله با نظم موجود و مظهر مقاومت آنها نیز هست.

    کلیدواژگان: تخت حوضی، کارناوال، باختین، نمایش، جشن
  • فرناز سربندی*، ابراهیم حاجیانی، سید رضا صالحی امیری، میثم موسایی صفحات 35-55

    هدف از این مقاله تحلیل و بررسی ملاحظات اقتصادی در حوزه سینما در سال های پس از انقلاب اسلامی و توصیف میزان توجه خط مشی گذاران به مقوله های مرتبط با اقتصاد فرهنگ در این حوزه با توجه به اولویت ها و بخشی از عملکردها است. روش این پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی، از نظر داده کمی و کیفی و از نظر نحوه اجرا تحلیل محتوا و داده های ثانویه است. داده ها شامل اسناد، قوانین و آیین نامه ها، برنامه های اصلی دولت ها و وزیران فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی و نیز مصاحبه با صاحب نظران بوده است. در دوره های مختلف با تغییر در دولت ها و حتی وزرای یک دولت، در سیاست ها و اولویت های اقتصاد سینما تغییراتی ایجاد شده است. البته در تمامی دوره ها به جز دولت تدبیر و امید، نظارت و مشارکت دولتی از سه اولویت اول مسیولان سینمایی محسوب می شود. اهداف و اولویت هایی چون افزایش سرانه سالن های سینما که در دستور دولت ها بوده است، با وجود افزایش نسبی به نتیجه مطلوب و استاندارد نرسیده است. تاکید بر تولید آثار سینمایی ایرانی و حذف تدریجی اکران فیلم های سینمایی خارجی از سیاست هایی بوده است (اگرچه گاه نانوشته) که با موفقیت دنبال شده است. در مقابل خط مشی هایی چون تسهیل اعطای مجوز تولید و اکران و سازوکارهایی مانند شورای عالی سینما در گذر به دوره های بعدی مورد چشم پوشی قرار گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: خط مشی گذاری، اقتصاد فرهنگ، اقتصاد سینما، سیاست گذاری فرهنگی، صنایع فرهنگی
  • علیرضا صیاد*، شهاب اسفندیاری صفحات 57-75

    نظریه روانکاوانه فیلم، متاثر از پارادایم کارتزینی، با تاکید بر فاصله میان ناظر و فضای سینمایی، تجربه نظاره گری را به مثابه عمل اساسا چشم چرانانه یک سوژه درون گرا تشریح می کند. با نگاهی تبارشناسانه می توان ظهور سینما را در پیوند با پیدایش محیط های شهری مدرن در پایان قرن نوزدهم در نظر گرفت. زندگی شهری مدرن، یک گونه نوین از تجربه ادراکی را پدید آورد: تجربه حضور در میان توده شهری. پژوهش حاضر که از نوع نظری و با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای صورت گرفته است، می کوشد با بازخوانی آرای متفکرانی همچون گوستاو لوبون، شارل بودلر و والتر بنیامین در رابطه با ویژگی های ادراکی «مرد جمعیت» و تجربه مشارکت در توده جمعی، از این مباحث در راستای تحلیل تجربه نظاره گری سینمایی بهره گیری کند. مقاله می کوشد این نکته را روشن سازد که تجربه سینمایی، در تضاد با تجربه انزوا و عزلت گرایی در نظریه روانکاوانه، اساسا تجربه ای گروهی و جمعی است، و تماشاگر سینما را می توان یک توده جمعی در نظر گرفت که عمل ادراک و احساس را به صورت گروهی انجام میدهد. مقاله پیشنهاد می کند که تفاوت این گونه ادراک و احساس گروهی با تجربه تماشای انفرادی می تواند موضوع پژوهشهای متنوعی در حوزه «مطالعات مخاطبان» و «مطالعات دریافت» باشد که در ایران تاکنون کمتر مورد توجه بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: نظریه روانکاوانه فیلم، انزواگرایی، نظاره گری سینمایی، توده جمعی، مرد جمعیت
  • محمدرضا آزاده فر*، رضا صمیم، یحیی حسین خانی صفحات 77-93

    موسیقی خیابانی در ایران، تاکنون از زوایای متفاوتی مورد توجه محققین حوزه های جامعه شناسی و موسیقی شناسی قرار گرفته است. با این وجود هنوز بسیاری از جنبه های آن نیاز به مطالعه دارد. مطالعه پدیده ی موسیقی خیابانی، علاوه بر اینکه می تواند مورد استفاده ی محققین موسیقی، جامعه شناسی ، مردم شناسی و غیره قرار بگیرد، می تواند به کارگزاران فرهنگی کشور در زمینه ی سیاست گذاری های اجتماعی و فرهنگی کمک شایانی بکند.پژوهش حاضر به بررسی تغییر و تحولات گونه های (ژانرهای) اجرایی موسیقی در خیابان های تهران، در طی پانزده سال منتهی به 1395 میپردازد. این پژوهش از نوع کیفی است که در آن از دو روش میدانی و اسنادی بهره برداری شده و داده های آن با بهره گیری از مطالعه میدانی در چند منطقه ی مختلف تهران با تکنیک مصاحبه و مشاهده ی غیرمشارکتی بدست آمده است.یافته های این مطالعه نشان می دهد گونه های اجرایی موسیقی خیایانی در طی پانزده سال اخیر مردم پسندتر شده است. این یافته ها همچنین مبین آن است که شمار نوازندگان محلی، سنتی و کولی ها نسبت به پانزده سال پیش در خیابان های تهران بسیار کم تر شده اند. بالارفتن شمار نوازندگان برخی گونه های مردم پسند غربی که خارج از جریان اصلی موسیقی مردم پسند هستند نیز از دیگر تغییرات بوده است. تغییر محسوس دیگر، تغییر دیدگاه مردم نسبت به مقوله ی موسیقی خیابانی و نوازندگان خیابانی است.

    کلیدواژگان: موسیقی خیابانی در تهران، گونه های موسیقی خیابانی، موسیقی مردم پسند، هنر خیابانی، اجرای خیابانی
  • هانیه رضایت بخش*، ابوالقاسم دادور، جواد دیواندری صفحات 95-113

    تعاملات فرهنگی میان دو کشور هند و ایران در دوران دو امپراطوری بزرگ و قدرتمند صفویه و گورکانی بالطبع بر گسترش سازها نیز تاثیر گذاشت. سازهای زهی-کمانی که دسته بزرگی از سازهای زهی هستند، از دیرباز در ایران و هندوستان مورد استفاده بوده اند، این گروه از سازها حضوری پررنگ در نگاره های ایران و هند در این عصر داشته و تنوع ساختاری و به تبع گستردگی صوتی آنها را می توان از مجالسی که در آنها به تصویر درآمده اند پیگیری کرد. در این پژوهش که با روش تطبیقی-تحلیلی انجام گرفته، سعی بر آن است که با استفاده از نمونه های تصویری در دو مکتب هند و ایران به بررسی انواع این سازها از نظر ساختار، نحوه استفاده، مجالس مورد استفاده و سازهای همراهی کننده آنها پرداخته و به این سوال اساسی پاسخ داده شود که مهاجرت هنرمندان و موسیقیدانان ایران به هندوستان، چه تاثیری در نحوه و تنوع استفاده از سازهای زهی-کمانی در مجالس مختلف ایجاد کرده است؟ و در روند پژوهش از روش گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای-اسنادی استفاده شده است. با توجه به آثار بررسی شده شاید بتوان اینگونه گفت که تاثیر هنر ایران و حضور سازهای زهی-کمانی مشترک در نگاره های نیمه اول دوران مغول کبیر در هند، بسیار پررنگتر از نیمه دوم آن بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: سازهای زهی-کمانی، نگارگری، صفویان، گورکانیان
  • صدرالدین طاهری*، احمد مصطفوی صفحات 115-128
    هنر هشتم عنوانی است که برخی به بازی های ویدیویی اطلاق نموده اند. از نخستین رویکردهای نهادی به این رسانه به مثابه هنر در اواخر دهه ی 1980 م. حدود یک چهارم سده گذشته است، با این حال برخی منتقدان بر این باورند که بازی های ویدیویی هرگز نمی توانند آثار هنری باشند. مقاله حاضر برپایه ی یک پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی نگاشته شده که یافته های کیفی آن به شیوه ی اسنادی داده اندوزی شده اند. هدف محوری این پژوهش، تلاش در راستای مشخص نمودن جایگاه بازی های ویدیویی به عنوان یک رسانه ی معاصر در جهان هنر است. در این راستا، ابتدا به بررسی دو استدلال اصلی علیه هنر بودن رسانه ی بازی پرداخته شده؛ شاهکار و رد صلاحیت. در ادامه امکان هنر بودن بازی ها بر اساس نه دیدگاه رایج درباره ی هنر؛ تعریف کانت و نظریه های نو بازنمودی، بیانگری، شکل گرایی، نهادی، تاریخی، کارکردی، خوشه ای و هنر سرزنده پی جویی می گردد. به نظر می رسد بسیاری از بازی ها به سبب روایت های عمیق، فرم دلالت گر، ارتباط تاریخی با سینما، پذیرش از سوی جهان هنر، ساخت زیبایی شناسانه ی پیچیده، بیانگری احساسات و... می توانند اثر هنری باشند. در پایان با طرح مباحثی درباره ی هستی شناسی بازی ویدیویی در مقام یک هنر تعاملی، تلاش شده ماهیت این رسانه آشکارتر شود. همچنین، با بررسی مفاهیم و کاربرد های زیبایی شناختی بازی مشخص شده که ظرفیت های گسترده ای برای پژوهش در این حوزه وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: هنر معاصر، جنبه های هنری بازی ویدیویی، هستی شناسی بازی ویدیویی، زیبایی شناسی بازی ویدیویی
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  • Farhad Amini, Shirin Bozorgmehr * Pages 5-19
    What Louis Althusser, one of most influential Marxist philosopher in 20th century stated as ideological government seemed so radical at the time, but using his theory for analyzing plays like Enemy of the People, would be very promising now . In althusser`s theory, the government is an inaudible and multifunctional set of ideological and repressive elements, and such a government has different mechanisms, both private and public, for its ideology, and in this article By examining the state of the state in such a way, we will try to approach a new way of interpretation for the play of the enemy of the people written by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. Although the traditional readings of this play usually tries to interpret the play as a political, upright discussion about peoples trustworthiness and the rights of publics authority leads to an argument about power of people`s thought and common sense. These readings are generally based on the assumption that Dr. Stokman (the doctor of the city) is a person against his own community, a person who challenges the right of the community and can be regarded as an Enlightenment hero who is questioning the power of democracy with verifying truth. But applying Althusser`s theory of the ideological state, in our reading of this play, will show that the characters in front of Dr. Stokman are not people in the common sense of the word, but the state in the sense of Altusser. This reading shows how institutions such as educational institutions, the media, and even the family, as the ideological arms of the state, transform each person into their concrete subjects. This very Sight uncover hidden elements wrapped in individual characters encountering each other in an expanded plane of ideology. Characters are trapped in ideology, despite their wishes and all their action can be observe as ideological actions and reactions. This ideology expanded through all places in the play. Places which are not just somewhere dramatic actions happens, but somewhere that ideological state start to addresses people as subjects, and give them this illusion that they are free characters to choose their ideas but the truth is everything they are just reproducing dominant ideology of the play`s universe. Thus, the characters of this work can be interpreted not as protagonists or anti-heroes of enlightenment and truth, but as those who are caught up in the ideology of the state What Althusser described as an ideological instrument of the state can be adapted to the local signs and characters of the drama of the enemy of the people, and using this form of analysis, Ibsen's razor's critique is not based on the community of people Or the majority, but on the mechanism of government in its general sense. In fact What Althusser described as the mechanism of government includes many cases, which are generally seemingly private entities involved in the reproduction of state ideology. The adaptation of these institutions to what Ibsen used as dramatic dramatist dramatically poses ourselves to conditions that can be called "Stokeman's condition”
    Keywords: Althusser, Ideological State, Enemy of the People
  • Mohammad Reza Haji Molla Ali *, Hasan Ali Poormand, Seyed Mostafa Mokhtabad, Mohammad Hossein Nasser Bakht Pages 21-33

    The theoretical framework of this article is built on Iranian people`s need to carnival which had been met through Takht -e Hozi (exhilarating comedy) held in ceremonies. Public participation of different social classes in certain time and place, feasting and drinking, carnival laughter, upside down world, the exchange of master and servant`s (Sultan / Haji / Molla Vs. Siyah) social classes and consolidating social system at the end of the performance are reviewable subjects that can be traced in ceremonies and Takht -e Hozi comedies. According to Bakhtin, these characteristics describe “Carnival”. Regarding carnivals, there are four basic categories which have been applied to Takht -e Hozis as well: Free and familiar contact among people, Eccentricity, Carnivalistic misalliances and Profanation. 1. Free and familiar contact among people. People how in life are separated by impenetrable hierarchical barriers enter into free familiar contact on the carnival. The category of familiar contact is also responsible for the special way mass actions are organized, and for free carnival gesticulation, and for the outspoken carnivalistic word. 2. Eccentricity. A new mode of interrelationship between individuals, counterpoised to the allpowerful sociohierarchical relationships of noncarnival life. 3. Carnivalistic misalliances. A free and familiar attitude spreads over everything: over all values, thoughts, phenomena, and things. 4. Profanation: carnivalistic blasphemies, a whole system of carnivalistic debasing and bringing down to earth, carnivalistic obscenities linked with the reproductive power of the earth and the body, carnivalistic parodies on sacred texts and sayings, etc. Bakhtin adds the 5th category as “Mock crowning and subsequent de-crowning of the carnival king”. This ritual is encountered in one form or another in all festivities of the carnival type: in the most elaborately worked out forms _ the saturnalia, the European carnival and festival of fool; in a less elaborated form, all other festivities of the type, right down to festival banquets with their election of short -lived kings and queens of the festival. These carnivalistic categories are not abstract thoughts about equality and freedom, these are concretely sensuous ritualpageant “thoughts” experienced and played out in the form of life itself, “thoughts” that had coalesced and survived for thousands of years among the broadest masses of mankind. Actually, Bakhtin provides us with tentative and dogmatic reading of Takht -e Hozi comedies simultaneously. What makes cultural studies different from its previous critical theory is the ability to put affirmative and privative readings together. The perception of the audience as an active and resistant subject is defined as the best example of this matter. Accordingly, Takht -e Hozi can guarantee the continuation of the current situation and at the same time provide the underprivileged classes with a weapon against social order. So Takht -e Hozi serves the power (s) and the poor (s) at the same time. Hence, the seeds of an institutional revolution can be embedded in Takht -e Hozi as a temporary revolution.

    Keywords: Takht-e Hozi, carnival, Bakhtin, Comedy, ceremonies
  • Farnaz Sarbandi *, Ebrahim Hajiani, Seyed Reza Salehi Amiri, Meisam Mousaaei Pages 35-55

    This article's goal is analysis of economic issues about cinema in after the Islamic revolution era and description of policymakers' attention to cultural economics in this area in order to states preferences and performances. Applied methods are content analysis and second data analysis. Data are consisted of documents, regulations and rules and states and ministries of culture's programs, and also interview with experts. None-arbitrary sampling is used for written policies and snowball sampling is used for interviews. Finally, after content analysis of samples, second data analysis is used for this study. The results show that in all studying periods cinema economics policies and preferences are changing in order of policymakers changing even in a state. In all states except the eleventh state, governmental regulation and participation is in the first three preferences of the states. The goals and preferences such as cinema screens developments in spite of policymakers' attention have not been successful. Production of Iranian films and increase of foreign films exhibition is one of the all states goals (sometimes unwritten) which successfully is done. On the other hand, policies like facilitation of production and exhibition permit in other states are missed.

    Keywords: policymaking, cultural economics, cinema economics, cultural policymaking, Cultural Industries
  • Alireza Sayyad *, Shahab Esfandyari Pages 57-75

    The psychoanalytic film theory, influenced by Cartesian paradigm, emphasizing on the fixed distance between the observer and the cinematic space, describes the experience of cinematic spectatorship as an essentially Scopophilic act of a secluded, interiorized and immobile subject. Even though in the psychoanalytic theory, the "dark room" has been used as the main paradigm for defining cinematic spectatorship, genealogically it is possible to consider the emergence of cinema in relationship with the emergence of modern urban environments at the end of the nineteenth century, and to attribute it to the changes that have arisen within the visual and spatial culture of this period.Modern urban life has created a new kind of perceptual experience: the experience of being within the urban mass. by rereading of ideas of the thinkers such as Gustave Le Bon, Charles Baudelaire and Walter Benjamin about the perceptual characteristics of "the man of the crowd" and The experience of participation in the mass, the present research attempts to employ these discussions in order to analyze the experience of cinematic spectatorship. These thinkers believe that the mass have a unifying power that single members could not escape from its magnetic attraction. The paper seeks to make it clear that the cinematic experience, in contrast to the experience of isolation and separation in psychoanalytic theory, essentially is a collective and communal experience, and the cinema audience can be regarded as a collective mass that percepts and feels as a mass body. The paper suggests that the difference between this kind of collective perception with the individual watching experience can be the subject of a variety of studies in the field of "audience studies" and "reception studies" that has so far been less relevant in Iran.In this model observer is not a distanced contemplating subject anymore. His sensing is not a personal matter, but it is a collective and mass experience. In this condition, observer in the form of a collective attraction could form a sensory affinity with the cinematic mass atmosphere, and thus associate with it, and experience the sense of co-ordination and synchronization. In a cinematic mass experience, we are faced with a kind of experiencing emotional contagion. In this exchange of influences and feelings, the concept of "self" as a enclosed entity, with distinct borders distinct from others, is meaningless. While Cartesian's view on subjectivity emphasizes "interiority" and "secludeness", it emphasizes the cinematic subjectivity in terms of connecting and communicating with the crowd. Here, what is important is the flow of energy that energizes the members of the masses and creates an experience of "muscular coonection" (like the experience of a military parade). In the cinematic spectatoship experience, a sense of completeness, a strange sense of development and expansion of "self" in the bond and contact with another (s), embrace the spectator. The devastating force of collective energy does not allow a space for subjectivity within its own self; it eliminates the boundaries between subject / object, self / other (s), and this interpenetration Leads to extends to subjective realms.

    Keywords: Psychoanalytic film theory, isolation, cinematic spectatorship, collective mass, the man of the crowd
  • Mohammad Reza Azadehfar *, Reza Samim, Yahya Hosseinkhani Pages 77-93

    The purpose of this study is to examine changes in musical performances in streets of Tehran focusing on styles and genres over the past fifteen years. In this study, we investigated genres in the streets, and analyzed changes and main causes of such changes. This article is part of a major project conducted by the authors in Tehran from 2014-2016 . We drew a map of the large city of Tehran in four main parts according to people's economic standings. The areas included west, north, east and the center. We did not include the south because there are little or no street music activities in that area. Although we benefited from the existing literatures, the observation and interviews with musicians were the main methods of gathering data in this study. In this qualitative research, we utilized field study and documentary study methods that are selected to be in line with the key question of the study. To collect data, we used techniques of non-cooperative observation and ethnographical interviews. In examinations of observations and interviews we could drew a picture of changes in street music of Tehran in period of last 15 years. The outcome revealed several interesting findings. Our studies showed that one of the most considerable changes in performance genres. It means that street music genres shifted from folk music toward popular music over the last fifteen years is. In other words, our records show that traditional and folk music and Gypsy music were the most performed music in streets of Tehran prior to 2001. Since that time, we face decline of folk and traditional performances every year. The tempo of this change raises every year as we approach toward 2016. Another change took place on settled and moving performers in street of Tehran. Today performers usually settle in particular places and do not move from one place to another. Traditional and folk musicians and Gypsies, however, do not stay in one place and usually play on the move. Staying in one place has some advantages and disadvantages for musicians and their audiences. The main advantage is that performing and walking at the same time exhaust performers a lot and on working day for moving performers is a very devastating day. The other advantage of settling in one place is that the supporters and fans have chance of listening to their favourite musicians at regular bases. The main disadvantage of settling street performances is losing the chance of being heard by further people in various places. The other disadvantage is that in cases that street guards in particular places can easily arrest musicians because of engaging the path and pedestrian roads; while moving musician can scape in such situations. Another significant change that has occurred in the recent years is that people's viewpoint has changed toward street music and street performers. In other words, street musicians today enjoy a higher social places compare to 15 years ago. Increasing the number women musicians in streets of Tehran is another significant change in the life of street music in Tehran today.

    Keywords: street music, street musicians in Tehran, Popular Music, street music genres, street performance
  • Hanieh Rezayatbakhsh *, Abolghasem Dadvar, Javad Divandary Pages 95-113

    India and Iran with an ancient civilization and long-standing cultural history have been in contact with each other in various forms since ancient times until the Mughals of India and the Safavid dynasty. These common roots and mutual contacts caused cultural exchange between the two nations.After creation of powerful Mughal Empire, the relations between Iran and India entered a new phase. The leaders of two countries that had become very close to each other, started to cooperate and this communication penetrated in depths of people's lives. The most important manifestations of cultural influence can be seen in the development of Persian language and literature in India and Indo-Iranian art such as painting, music and architecture. Art painting established the highest intercourse between these two neighbors. Music was also an important artistic and cultural element that connected these two countries in this era, "existing parts of rhyme in the Rig Veda, Avesta, music and popular dance among Indians that performed in religious ceremonies, in some ways shows the existence and importance of this art among the Aryan tribes .. So that the Hindi classical music was connected with Iranian-Islamic culture and got a profound influence from it. The revolution that happened in this music was born from Iranian music influence in this subcontinent that "Amir Khusrau Dehlavī " is considered as a leader of this movement.In the era of two great and powerful empires, Safavid and Gorkani, cultural interactions between India and Iran affected on instruments development. String instruments with bow are a large ensemble of string instruments that make sound by using bow or ricochet and they have been used in Iran and India since the ancient times. This research has attempted to study different types of instruments, musicians’ places, the musician status of string instruments toward the musician status of other instruments (such as tabor, lute, trombone, daf, dayereh) and also their status in empires of safavid and Gorkani; this study also answers to this fundamental question: whether the immigration of Iranian artists and musicians to India made difference in the way and diversity of using string instruments in different parties. In the illustrated samples of this era which has been studied, using string instruments with bow has been numerous in parties but not as numerous as using of string instruments without bow.According to the studied works, it may say that although Iranian art had a great influence on Indian art but it could not have a successful presence in the field of using string instruments with bow and it just suffice to add Iranian fiddle to the collection of this instruments in that country and perhaps great variety of string instruments types in India in Gurkani era toward Safavid era has been the most important reason of it.This research has been done through comparative-analytic method and library-documentary data collection method. It should be noted that the references of this paper contain the figures of books and albums as well as different wall figures.

    Keywords: string instruments with bow, painting, Safavid, Gurkani
  • Sadreddin Taheri *, Ahmad Mostafavi Pages 115-128
    The 8th art is a title which sometimes used to refer to videogames. It’s been about 25 years from the late 1980’s first institutional considerations of videogames as art, when art museums began to show some old, first and second generation videogames in their collections. Video games in modern world have become cultural, economic and political tools to shape the thought of the younger generation. Examples of these games have made their way to the museums; scientific circles have focused on game aesthetic; and different countries are trying to take part in the growing market of game design. However, some critics still believe videogames can never be works of art. The mail question of this research is whether the medium of videogame is an artistic one or not. To answer that, we ask: based on which theory and definition of art we can consider videogame an artistic medium?The present paper is based on an analytical descriptive study, whose qualitative data are compiled in a documentary manner. The main goal of this research is to attempt to determine the signification of video games as a new medium in the contemporary artworld.The first step to solve the problem is to examine and criticize two main arguments against the artistic nature of this medium, Masterpiece argument and Disqualification argument. Followers of masterpiece argument believe that no video games ever produced which can be convincingly recognized as an artistic masterpiece. They have forgotten that artistic mediums like Minor Art / Low Art or Public Art / Mass Art, as well as any other newfound artistic medium, are incapable of producing a masterpiece at the beginning. Disqualification argument states that video games have features which does not exist in traditional arts and this denies their qualifications as artworks. One of the disadvantages of this argument is that its followers forget about other interactive forms of contemporary art like Participatory art. However, we should not forget that at the onset of the emergence of any new artistic medium (including photography and cinema), some people have resisted the acceptance of its artistic nature; but the new media has been recognized in the artworld, with the passage of time.After adapting videogames to nine theories of art (Immanuel Kant’s point of view, and theories like: Neo-Representational, Expressivism, Formalism, Institutional, Historical, Functional, Cluster, and Lively Art), we can claim that, many video games can be artwork, due to complicated narrative, significant form, historical connection with cinema, acceptance by the artworld, sophisticated aesthetics, expressive feelings, etc. Although video games are still in their childhood, but they can stimulate artistic and aesthetic sentiment. In the end, by discussing the ontology of video game as an interactive art, an attempt has been made to reveal the nature of this emerging artistic medium. Also, by examining the concepts and functions of game aesthetics, it turned out that there is a huge potential for research on the aesthetics of this contemporary artistic medium.
    Keywords: Contemporary Art, Artistic aspects of Videogames, Videogame Ontology, Videogame Aesthetics