فهرست مطالب

Biological and Biomedical Journal - Volume:7 Issue: 1, Winter 2021
  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, Winter 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/09/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 4
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  • The Relation of Second Molar Distal Caries with DMFT in the Presence of Mandibular Third Molar: A Retrospective Study
    Ezgi Sonkaya, Zehra Süsgün Yıldırım* Page 1
    Background

    The aim of this study is to analyze the correlation parameters between the distal caries of the mandibular second molars and the eruption status of the mandibular third molars, the presence of antagonist teeth and general oral hygiene by calculating the DMFT index.

    Methods

    This is a retrospective cross-sectional study that included a total of 679 orthopantomograms. Age, gender, angle of mandibular second molars according to Winter classification, depth degree according to Pell-Gregory classification, presence of antagonist teeth, DMFT index and distal caries of mandibular second molars were recorded. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistics Mann Whitney U and Chi-square test.

    Results

    Third molars in the vertical position in fully erupted teeth and in mesioangular position in partially erupted teeth increased the risk of distal caries in second molars. However, no statistically significant difference was observed (p≥0.05). Third molars in Class A position increased the risk of distal caries on both sides with statistically significant difference (p≤0.001). The presence of antagonist teeth (p=0.002) and DMFT index (p<0.001) statistically affected the presence of distal caries in the right second molar.

    Conclusions

    It has been observed that third molars cause caries formation in the adjacent tooth. Although the DMFT index and the presence of antagonist teeth give an approximate idea about fully erupted teeth, it is not a safe enough parameter. Therefore, it would be appropriate to evaluate clinically and radiologically at younger ages and to make an extraction decision if necessary.

    Keywords: DMFT Index, Antagonist teeth, Distal Caries, Third molar
  • A protocol and detailed methodological study on immunogenicity of various experimental vaccines.
    Angel Justiz Vaillant* Page 2

    This study explores the methodology of various experimental vaccines and their immunogenicity outcome in detail. The idea is to give to the reader a picture of the research methodology behind vaccine development that was used in this research. The novelty of this study bases on the demonstration of the cause and effect of antibodies produced against bacterial and viral proteins (immunogens) as idiotypic-antiidiotypic interactions that can be manipulated to bring a desired outcome. Furthermore, this preclinical study in vaccinology can be the root for building clinical trials of vaccines against important infectious microorganisms affecting humans. Methodological aspects of three experimental vaccines were shown. These vaccines were anti-HIV, anti-Salmonella, and anti-Staphylococcus aureus. The author concludes that eggs from chickens immunized with specific immunogen might be considered as a special type of oral anti-idiotypic vaccines. It was shown by development of anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies that were developed against various epitopes.

    Keywords: Immunogenicity, Anti-idiotypic antibodies, Vaccines, Methodological study
  • Pathologies cardiac discrimination using the Fast Fourir Transform (FFT) The short time Fourier transforms (STFT) and the Wigner distribution (WD)
    Sid Mohammed Elamine Debbal*, Lotfi Hamza Cherif, Fadia Mezinai Page 3

    This paper is concerned with a synthesis study of the fast Fourier transform (FFT), the short time Fourier transform (STFT and the Wigner distribution (WD) in analysing the phonocardiogram signal (PCG) or heart cardiac sounds.     The FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) can provide a basic understanding of the frequency contents of the heart sounds. The STFT is obtained by calculating the Fourier transform of a sliding windowed version of the time signal s(t). The location of the sliding window adds a time dimension and one gets a time-varying frequency analysis. the Wigner distribution (WD) and the corresponding WVD (Wigner Ville Distribution) have shown good performances in the analysis of non-stationary and quantitative measurements of the time-frequency PCG signal characteristics and consequently aid to. signals. It is shown that these transforms provides enough features of the PCG signals that will help clinics to obtain diagnosis. Similarly, it is shown that the frequency content of such a signal can be determined by the FFT without difficulties qualitative

    Keywords: Phonocardiogram, signal processing, sounds, Time-frequency analysis, signal analysis, FFT, STFT, WD
  • Evaluation of Microscopy Sensitivity, Specificity in Detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, Using Monoplex real-time PCR, Gezira, Sudan
    Moahmed Babiker*, Bakri Nour, Osman Saeed, Adam Abakar Page 4
    Background

    Malaria is still account for 200 million cases annually. Microscopy is the gold standard technique for malaria parasites detection. PCR-based techniques can detect malaria infections with high sensitivity. The study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of microscopy technique in the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, using monoplex real-time PCR, Gezira State, Central Sudan.

    Methods

    Microscopic examination for the presence of malaria parasite was performed for 200 Giemsa blood smears. QIAamp DNA Mini Kit Qiagen, Germany, was used for parasite's genomic DNA. Monoplex Real-time PCR was used for the identification and detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria.

    Results

    71% of samples were positive for P. falciparum by both microscopy and the P. falciparum species-specific real-time PCR and 15% were negative by both. Out of the 40 negative samples by microscopy, 5% were found positive for P. falciparum by P. falciparum species-specific real-time PCR and 2.5% were positive for P. vivax by P. vivax species-specific real-time PCR. 18 samples that were found positive by microscopy for P. falciparum were found negative by real-time PCR, and were positive for P. vivax by P. vivax species-specific real-time PCR.

    Conclusions: 

    There is concordance rate of 86% between microscopy and the species-specific real-time PCR. In malaria endemic areas, adoption of high quality control procedures for microscopy, as gold standard in accurate diagnosis and species differentiation, with well trained staff following WHO criteria is needed

    Keywords: Real-time PCR, P. falciparum, P. vivax, malaria species differentiation, Central Sudan