فهرست مطالب

Chemical Health Risks - Volume:12 Issue: 2, Spring 2022
  • Volume:12 Issue: 2, Spring 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
  • Tabinda Sattar * Pages 131-142
    The review briefly focuses the wide usage of sources of mercury, despite its hazardous effects. This study is aimed at the search for alternate sources of the mercury, in order to minimize its poisoning effects. This review elaborates the precautionary measures which may be adopted to reduce mercury poisoning. Due to its multifunctional properties in different fields of life, mercury has actually proved a necessary poison up till now. Previously mercury toxicity in human life was considered minimal because of ignorance about the hazards created by even very low amounts of mercury exposures to human body. Mercury poisoning can cause serious chronic and neurological disorders in humans if they are exposed to it for longer times. Fetal autism disorders areone of the critical aspects caused by mercury exposures of pregnant women. After Minamata mercury poisoning influences, there is a strict need to use alternative materials of mercury in order to reduce mercury poisoning. Methods to reduce mercury poisoning include the use of alternative materials like polymer resins rather than mercury.Case study of this review briefly discusses the mercury sources, mercury hazards and precautionary measures of mercury poisoning, related to present age. Concluding remarks elaborate that mercury poisoning can be reduced if some precautions are adopted.
    Keywords: Mercury poisoning, Mercury sources, Dental amalgam hazards, Polymer resins, Precautionary measures for Mercury
  • Majid Ramezani *, Maryam Ghalenoei Pages 143-150
    In this study, trace amounts of manganese ions were extracted using a sensitive, selective, rapid, and simple micro-funnel magnetic stirring-assisted liquid phase microextraction (MF-MSA-LPME) method and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). 1-(2-Thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol) (TAN) and 1-octanol were chosen as chelating agent and extraction solvent, respectively. The effective parameters on extraction efficiency such as type and volume of extraction solvent, pH of sample solution, ligand concentration, extraction time, and ion strength ‎were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum form, limit of detection (LOD), relative standard deviation, and the enrichment factor were 0.16 μg L-1, 2.9%, and 252, respectively. The calibration graph was linear over the range of 1-120 μg L-1 with correlation of coefficient r2 = 0.995.The proposed method could successfully determine trace amounts of manganese ions ‎in the real water samples with good accuracy and validity.
    Keywords: Micro-funnel magnetic stirring-assisted liquid phase Microextraction, Manganese, Flame atomic absorption spectrometry, Water samples
  • Hajar Khedmati Morasa, Razzagh Mahmoudi *, Zahra Hosseinabadi, Ali Mehrabi Pages 151-164
    The prevalence of contaminated foodborne diseases has always been a major challenge all around the world. A huge amount of money is spent on treating these diseases every year. This study investigated the status of chemical and microbial contamination of confectionery products in Iran. Data were collected from electronic databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Elsevier, SID, Magiran, and Google Scholar during 2001 - 2017. Search keywords included microbial contamination, chemical contamination, confectionery products, cream-filled pastry, and Iran. The results indicated that the highest contamination rates in South Khorasan, Tehran, Gorgan, and Isfahan were related to Staphylococcus aureus (80%), Escherichia coli(57%), Enterobacteriaceae (25.1%), and yeasts (100%), respectively. Moreover, the least prevalent pathogens in west of Tehran, Tabriz, east of Gilan, and south of Tehran were S. aureus (4.81%), Coliform (2.51%), Bacillus cereus (1.2%), and E. coli (2%), respectively. In addition, there was no Salmonella in southeast of Tehran and Yasouj. Most confectionery products contained unauthorized artificial dyes, and authorized artificial dyes were also overused. The most commonly used artificial dye was sunset yellow with 80% use in Arak. Moreover, 100% of the samples in Arak contained unauthorized artificial dyes. Confectionery products are an important part of food products in the country. The likelihood of microbial and chemical spoilage of these products increases due to the use of such ingredients as eggs, milk, and color additives. Further training and supervision on the preparation and maintenance of these products by the local health authorities can be effective in reducing the contamination.
    Keywords: microbial contamination, Chemical contamination, Confectionery Products, Cream-Filled Pastry, Iran
  • Matin Hajjizadeh, Hossein Ganjidoust *, Shahriar Ghammamy, Forough Farsad Pages 165-177
    The generation of leachate is one of the main problems of municipal solid waste disposal, which can lead to a severe threat to surface and groundwater. In this research, landfill leachate was treated through modifiying bentonite with HDTMA-Br (Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The effects of surfactant intercalating quantity, pH, contact time, and adsorbent dose was investigated  in a batch experiment. Raw and modified clay was also characterized using different techniques including Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optimization experiment revealed that 50 min of equilibration, 50g.L-1 of dosage and pH= 3, for the clay loaded with a capacity of 1.0 CEC (cation exchange capacity), were the optimum condition for COD removal of landfill leachate. The maximum turbidity reduction rate was 92.1%, at a pH  of 11, absorbent dosage of 40 g.L-1, and the contact time of 30 min. The findings of this research showed that this modified clay could be used as an affordable adsorbent for reducing COD and turbidity from landfill leachate.
    Keywords: Leachate treatment, Adsorption, surfactant, organoclay, bentonite
  • Firas Faris Rija *, Marwah Isam Sulaiman Musa, Hind T. Hamad Pages 179-182
    A chronic disease categorized by high blood sugar called diabetes mellitus (DM), Its prevalence is rapidly increasing all over the world. Peptin is a peptide produced by cells of pancreas. It plays as a physiologic enhancer of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. There, the current study aimed to note differences in the levels of newly diagnosed patients with T2DM controls. This study was directed at Salah el-Deen medical Clinic in Tikrit city and included women from Salah al-Din Hospital in Tikrit in the period since Feb to Jul 2020, 40 newly diagnosed patients T2DM and 40 healthy elderly women. Preptin, Hba1c, fasting blood glucose (FBS), blood urea (BU), and serum creatinine levels will be examined. The present study discovered a significant rise in Preptin (362.460.01pg ml-1), Hba1c (8.82.7 %), FBS (205±25.7mg dl-1), BU (20.71 ±4.3 mmol l-1), and creatinine (1.1±0.2mg dl-1) in female T2DM patients compared to the control group (222.8±30.7pg ml-1, 4.6±1.3 %, 99±15. The observed link between preptin level and diabetes mellitus a suggests that this peptide may play a role in the pathogenesis of DM, which may be of particular interest to a group DM that constitutes  a major public health problem.
    Keywords: Preptin, Type 2 DM, Diabetes, Mellitus, HbA1c
  • Fatemeh Heydarpour, Sousan Heydarpour *, Fatemeh Dehghan, Masoud Mohammadi, MohammadHosein Farzaei Pages 183-196

    The use of herbs during pregnancy is on the rise today, but some of these plants can not only cause side effects in the mother and fetus but also have drug interactions. This systematic survey and meta-analysis reading were administered to define the outbreak of herbs used by women during pregnancy. The present work was performed using the meta-analysis method from March 2000 to February 2019. The search process was carried out in Iranian databases such as SID, Regional Information Center for Science and Technology (RICST), Mag-Iran, IranDoc, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Iranian National Library and international databases such as PubMed / Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Sciences, Embase, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. keywords including medicinal herbs, Medicinal plant, Plant, Extract, Women, and pregnancy. The heterogeneity of investigations was scrutinized using the I2 index. Analysis was carried out using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. A total of 73 articles were contained in the meta-analysis process. Based on the results, the general outbreak of medicinal herbs use during pregnancy was 32.4% (95% CI: 28.2%-36.8%). The results of meta-regression showed that increasing in sample size leads to decreased overall prevalence of herbal medicine consumption during pregnancy and increasing in the year of research leads to increased overall prevalence of herbal drug use during pregnancy, which both were statistically significant (P <0.05).The prevalence of medicinal herbs consumption during pregnancy is relatively high.

    Keywords: Herbal medicine, pregnancy, Women, Prevalence, Systematic Review
  • Arezoo Tahan *, Fatemeh Alimohammadi Pages 197-204
    The Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Tomasi’s Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) were used to investigate the effects of solvent dielectric constant on the structural stability and 15N NMR tensors of Medazepam (MDZ) drug. The results revealed that the structural stability of MDZ in polar protic solvents was higher than that in the polar aprotic and non-polar solvents; and its value depended on the solvent dielectric constant and its structure. so that in most cases, relative stability increased by increasing the solvent dielectric constant and the most stable structures were observed in water media at DFT level and in methanol at MP2 level. In this regard, natural bond orbital (NBO) interpretation showed that the tetravalent N1 nucleus of diazepine ring in the MDZ structure had the highest value of negative charge and the resonance energy related to LP (1)  N1 → σ* and π* delocalizations among heteroatoms of MDZ structure in the tested solvents. The findings reported that with an increase in the solvent dielectric constant, the resonance energy related to LP (1) N1 → σ* and π* delocalizations increased and the highest value of resonance energy was observed in water media. Furthermore, NMR results represented that the N1 nucleus had a higher value of chemical shielding than the trivalent N4 nucleus in all of the tested media. However, it may be concluded that by increasing the accumulation of negative charge and lone pair electrons participation of nitrogen nuclei in the resonance delocalizations, isotropic chemical shielding around them increase.
    Keywords: 1, 4-Benzodiazepines, Polarized Continuum Model (PCM), Chemical shielding, NBO analysis
  • Fatima Ebich *, Rachida Hassikou, Hassan El Bari, Azzouz Essamri, Rajaa Layachi Pages 205-211
    Banana peel is a concentrated source of putrid organic waste; this waste is considered as a source of the energy produced by the process of anaerobic digestion. The objective of this study is the evaluation of methane production by anaerobic digestion of banana peels. The experiment was carried out under mesophilic conditions using a semi-continuous laboratory digester (1.5 L) with a constant agitation that maintains the bacterial activity in the digester and reduces the risk of sedimentation. The treated substrate is obtained from the region of ELGHARB, and it was cut and crushed to particles whose size is less than 1 cm. Throughout the period of the experiment, the pH was around neutrality, between 7.4 and 7.9.  The average value of alkalinity was 1500 mg L-1 which permits the well function of the process. In addition to the control of stability parameters of the anaerobic digestion, there was also a control of the organic loading rate presented by the total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS). A daily control of methane production shows that the methanogenic potential is 257 m3 t-1.
    Keywords: Alkalinity, anaerobic digestion, Banana peels, Digester, methane, Methanogenic potential, pH
  • Mojtaba Khorani, Mohsen Mansouri *, Seyyed Hossein Hosseini, Naimeh Setarehshenas Pages 213-221
    The rupture of flammable materials is one of the significant hazards existing in huge industry. In this study, the rupture of methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) tank in Ilam gas treatment refinery was modeled by PHAST (Process Hazard Analysis Software Tool) software. Distances with high risk was determined in fire and explosion scenarios versus consequence modeling. The results revealed that the catastrophic rupture scenario of MDEA tank in summer climates is the worst case with the highest risk, since in this case, the affected distance is about 2,450 meters for explosion overpressure, and 840 meters for vapor release; thus, these distances should be nonresidential. By considering a bund wall around the tank, the abovementioned distance reduce to 1,860 meters for explosion overpressure and 780 meters for vapor release.
    Keywords: Consequence Assessment, Release, Catastrophic Rupture Scenario, Methyl Diethanolamine Storage Tank
  • Hadiza Muhammad *, Jeremoth Adama, Adamu Kabiru, Adil El Yahyaoui, Sami Darkaoui, Youssef Maazouzi, Hussaini Anthony Makun Pages 223-236
    Toxic metals are implicated in many health implications especially in areas of indiscriminate mining activities. A total of 100 (50 husked and 50 de-husked) rice samples were randomly collected from Kebbi and Niger States, Nigeria. Arsenic, cadmium and lead were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic was highest (172.58 ± 5.75) µg kg-1 in husked rice from Koshaba while the de-husked rice samples from Gwadan gaji had highest concentration (114.29 ± 3.97) µg kg-1 of arsenic. Highest concentrations of cadmium was obtained in both the husked (43.29 ± 2.06) µg kg-1 and de-husked (66.13 ± 1.20) µg kg-1 rice samples from Tondi Yauri. Husked rice samples of Dukune had highest lead concentration (53.19 ± 3.09) µg kg-1 while the de-husked rice samples of Yauri had highest lead concentration (60.11 ± 2.18) µg kg-1. Percentage daily intake (%TDI) of arsenic was highest in most samples while contamination below detection limits was observed in few samples.
    Keywords: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Contamination, Risk Assessment
  • Malihe Jahani *, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad, Homa Mahmoodzadeh, Sara Saadatmand Pages 237-246
    The incessant use of nanoparticles (NPs) may pose serious threats on ecosystem and plants are at maximum risk of their delivery into the environment. The goal of this research was to explore the influence of nano-sized Co3O4 on seed germination, early growth and physio-biochemical parameters of 6-day-old seedling of canola. Seeds were sprouted in Petri plates involving eight various dosages of nano-sized Co3O4 (0-4 g L-1) for 6 days. Germination and early growth parameters (fresh and dry weights of seedling and lengths of radicle and seedling) stimulated at 0.05 and/or 0.1 g L-1 of nano-sized Co3O4 but retarded after 0.1 g L-1 NPs. However, the length of plumule retarded after 0.25 g L-1 NPs. The antioxidant capacity and H2O2 content raised at higher dosages of nano-sized Co3O4. The activity of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by nano-sized Co3O4 treatment but were repressed at higher dosages. The activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase and phenol content incremented at 0.5 and 1 g L-1 of nano-sized Co3O4 but decremented at higher dosages. The content of malondialdehyde and lipoxygenase activity heightened after 0.1 g L-1 of nano-sized Co3O4. Altogether, the results confirmed the inducive oxidative stress of nano-sized Co3O4 that was accompanied by plant defense system including enzymes, phenolic compounds and compatible osmolytes such as proline. However, high dosages of the NPs caused toxic impacts on physio-biochemical traits of canola seedling as an oilseed crop.
    Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Canola seedling, Nano-sized cobalt oxide, Oxidative stress, Plumule, radicle growth, Seed germination
  • Vajagathali M, Iyshwarya B.K, Ramakrishnan V * Pages 247-254
    Pharmacological surveillance research has usually focused on maintaining chronic experience to marginally efficient blood levels to manage adherence and prevent withdrawal symptoms. The reasoning to use targeted therapies checking in regards to atypical antipsychotics is being discussed, at least in the context of its actual therapeutic efficacy. However, there is proof that it can enhance utility, particularly when psychotic individuals do not react or improve adverse effects while using an effective dose. Moreover, plasma drug levels identifications may be helpful in medical-legal conditions. This study focused on the therapeutic pharmacokinetic information for clozapine and briefly discussed the relationship with plasma levels. Clozapine research showed a link between plasma levels and therapeutic signs, with a 350–420 m m-1limit related to positive therapeutic outcomes. Since elevated plasma concentration levels of clozapine can raise the threat of epilepsy, targeted therapies surveillance is well defined. Several components impact plasma clozapine levels, including modified cytochrome P450 1A4 action, age, sex, and cigarette smoking.
    Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Clozapine, Atypical antipsychotics, Cytochrome, Therapeutics
  • Mohammad Noshad *, Mohammad Hojjati, Mina Hassanzadeh, Reza Zadeh-Dabbagh, Marjan Hosseinkhani Pages 255-264
    The present study aims at using xanthan and guar gums in producing and application of oleogels (Ole-XG) as an alternative to shortenings on quality properties of sponge cake (Oleo-cake). The influence of xanthan and guar gums on rheological, thermal and structure properties and fatty acid compositions of the oleogels was evaluated. Results showed that application of xanthan and guar gums oleogels has no effect on the amount and type of fatty acids. The use of guar gum in xanthan solution with short spacing peaks can show higher intensity than with long spacing peaks. They enhanced both elastic modulus and viscous moduli and the strain-thinning behaviour for storage modulus in high strain amplitudes.   As substitution of shortening with oleogels is increased to 75%, firmness, cohesiveness and chewiness of cake samples were decreased. Results showed that substituting the shortening with oleogels increased L* and a* colour values. Sensory analysis showed that substituting the shortening with oleogels up to 75% increased overall acceptability of cakes.
    Keywords: Guar gum, Oleogels, Physicochemical properties, Sponge cake, Xanthan gum
  • Durgham K. Taj-Aldeen, Batool H. Al-Adily * Pages 265-269
    The seeds of Portulaca olearcea L. were grown evenly as possible in these pots, then they were watered with tap water, and after (10 days) after the seeds germinated, each group of them was flooded with concentrations of NaCl salt, which are (5, 10, 20 ) dSm-1 and distilled water. The increase in NaCl concentration in irrigated water led to a decrease in chlorophyll a and b, carotenes, protein, TAA, and vitamin C continent. At the same time, it induced increases in both proline and TSS. Irrigated water salinity decreases vitamin C until in lower concentration (5dSm-1). They reduced each vitamin A, total alkaloids and flavonoids, and six kinds of fatty acids a-lenolic acid, ecosopentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, linoleic acid, palmate acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid, which all were decreased under salinity.
    Keywords: Portulaca olearcea L, Salinity, Secondary products
  • Amin Abdollahzade Fard, Mahrokh Samadi, Alireza Shirpoor *, Yousef Rasmi Pages 271-280
    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) has several biological effects, including cell death, cell apoptosis and proliferation, and differentiation, as well as immune modulation. We characterized the alteration in TNF-α and the key receptors and molecular mediators related to TNF-α signaling pathway in the kidney after exposure to ethanol alone or in combination with curcumin (Cr). Accordingly, 24 male Wistar rats in 3 groups of control, ethanol, and Cr-treated - ethanolic groups were treated for six weeks. The ethanol group showed a significant elevation in TNF-α, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and endothelin 1 (ET1) than the control group. TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), TNF-α receptor 2 (TNFR2) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were found with a significant down-regulation, and of TNF-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-interacting protein-1 (RIP-1), and activator protein-1 (AP-1) were found with an up-regulation in the ethanol group than the control group. Cr and ethanol decreased the gene expression of TRAF-2, RIP-1 and AP-1, as well as increased the gene expression of TNFR1. Cr administration restored the increased levels of TNF-α, NF-κB and endothelin to these levels in the control group. Therefore, ethanol-related kidney injury addressed by our previous studies and others may in part be associated with the TNF-α signaling pathway, and such impacts can be rescued by Cr as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound.
    Keywords: ethanol, TNF-α, TNFR-1, RIP-1, NFқB, Curcumin
  • Nur Sabrina Azhar, Mazatusziha Ahmad *, Deong Jing Lie Pages 281-292
    Currently, conventional wastewater treatment process used chemical coagulant such as Aluminium sulphate. However, the residual aluminium in treated wastewater causes toxicity and serious health issues such as Alzheimer’ disease. Thus, in this study the potential of nanosized Carica Papaya (CP) seeds treated by silane coupling agent incorporated to pullulan on wastewater treatment was investigated. The biocoagulant produce prepared at a different composition of CP range from 1% to 9% was used to treat sewage wastewater. The biocoagulant was characterized by particle size analyser, FTIR and FESEM. The treated wastewater was analyzed by jar test in term of turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen and Total Suspended Solid with biocoagulant dosage at 0.6 g/L. The size of nanosized biocoagulant was obtained at 608.9 nm. Silane treatment provides well dispersion of nanosized Carica Papaya seed powder in the pullulan matrix phase. FTIR analysis shows the presence of O-H, C=O and Si-O-CH3 bond. The highest turbidity reduction observed at the composition of nanosized CP5/P and silane treated nanosized CP5/P up to 93.89% and 93.98% respectively. However, no significant changes observed on turbidity reduction with increasing CP seeds content for both biocoagulant. Further, at these compositions, the TSS reduced up to 20% and 60% respectively. The DO value of wastewater decreased from the initial value and the increased the pH from 6.58 to 6.69 lead to the neutral condition. Therefore, the effectiveness of both untreated and silane treated biocoagulant were further confirmed upon textile wastewater with turbidity reduction achieved up to 7.84% and 14.54 % respectively. Overall, silane treatment enhanced the effectiveness of nanosized CP modified pullulan as biocoagulant.
    Keywords: Biocoagulant, Wastewater treatment, Natural coagulant, Silane treatment
  • Behrooz Jannat, Sara Mohamadi *, Narges Abdoli, Tayebe Zeinali, Parisa Sadighara Pages 293-303
    The excessive presence of nitrate in foodstuff can be potentially toxic and carcinogenic to humans. This is because about 80% of the nitrate that enters the human body comes from vegetables. Therefore, the present study determined the nitrate content in agricultural products commonly consumed by Iranians. A total of 222 samples of 19 different varieties of these products, including vegetables (171 samples), cereals (42 samples), and legumes (9 samples), were randomly collected from major grocery stores in different cities in Iran between September 22 and December 15, 2020. The methods of HPLC-UV were used to evaluate the nitrate content. The detection limits (L.O.D.) and limit of quantification (L.O.Q.) were 0.071 and 0.22 mg kg-1, respectively. As a result, the mean nitrate levels in the different samples varied from 1042.50 mg kg-1 in lettuce to 49.90 mg kg-1 in wheat. Potato also had a higher mean nitrate concentration than the standard level. In addition, products such as tomatoes, eggplant, spinach, herbs, and lettuce had significantly lower average nitrate concentrations than the typical values. Moreover, the average nitrate concentration was highest in the central region (492.7 mg kg-1). In contrast, the lowest average nitrate concentration was in the northern region (121.7 mg kg-1) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the highest average nitrate concentration (468.52 mg kg-1) was found in the vegetable group and the lowest in the cereal group (50.40 mg kg-1) (P < 0.05). Taken together, this information could allow the establishment of a database for the quantification of nitrate exposure and its risk-benefit determination in the Iranian population.
    Keywords: Nitrate, Agricultural Products, Vegetables
  • S. Nasiru *, S.M. Dambazau, M. Garba, Abba Babandi, A.M. Wudil Pages 305-314
    Environmental pollution is a problem that has emerged due to increased industrialization with its attendant effects on well-being of people. This study determined the contamination level of cow milk by the heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) from three local governments (Bichi, Rano and Nassarawa) in Kano state. The results obtained showed that, the concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn were below permissible limits in milk. Whereas, moderate contamination by Fe and Cr were also observed. The data obtained were used to calculate   some risk indices such as daily intake of metals (DIM), and total hazard index (THI). The DIM in the three local governments was within the range of 3.4 × 10-4 – 6.8 × 10-3 µg l-1. b.w/day for Cr and 0.367 – 1.55 µg/l. b.w/day for Fe. Lead (Pb) was only detected in Rano local government within the range of 0.104 – 0.117 µg/l. b.w/day, while Zn was detected in Bichi and Rano within the range of 0.048 – 0.113 µg l-1. b.w/day. All hazard indices calculated for metals were found to be below 1. The result therefore, showed tolerable risk in consumed milk at the aforementioned locations. However, risk assessment should be carried out at intervals as a form of environmental assessment to assess the general health of the public, to prevent buildup of environmental pollutants and consequent consequences.
    Keywords: Environmental pollution, Industrialization, Milk, Heavy metals, General Health, DIM, THI
  • Ahmed Shemran Mutlaq Al-Wataify *, Hussain Naji Al-Shammary, Amna Ganem Abdul-Hussain, Qasim Fakher Alhussainy Pages 315-321
    to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency with or without anemia among hemophilia patients with its correlation with other factors including age, address, type and severity of hemophilia. Study design: Cross sectional study, it was conducted at Babylon hereditary blood disease center at Babylon Government/Iraq. For a period of 10 months, from 1st of February to end of November 2019.
    The study included 60 patients of hemophilia classified into: hemophilia A (40) patients and hemophilia B (20) patients; all of them were males; age ranged from 6 months to 15 years. All patients were sent for white blood cells count, Hb, Red blood cells indices, serum ferritin level, ESR, C-reactive protein and virology screening.
    The study reveals IDA occurred in 28.3% and 58.3% of patients developed ID. There was more declined in mean ferritin level among patients with IDA reached 3.7 ± 1.4 ng ml-1 , compared  to 5.7± 1.4 ng ml-1 in ID and in those with sever deficiency. Higher percentage of ID and IDA occurred in complicated hemophilia and those were lived in rural areas.
    Iron deficiency and IDA are common among hemophilia patients.
    Keywords: Arthropathy, Hemophilia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Iron deficiency joint bleeding, Serum ferritin
  • Princewill Udodi *, Edwin NNADI, Damian Ezejindu, Emeka OKAFOR, Ifechukwu Obiesie, Charles Oyinbo, Darlington Akukwu, Godwin Uloneme Pages 323-334
    Pyrethroid toxicity has been reported in animal models and some cases of poisoning have been reported in humans. This research was aimed at evaluating the effects of formulated pyrethroid insecticide on the substantia nigra of adult Wistar rat. Thirty two (32) adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, group A (control) inhaled fresh air, group B (short-term), group C (medium-term) and group D (high-term) were exposed to 10% formulated pyrethroid for 2hrs/day, 3hrs/day and 4hrs/day respectively for five times a week in four weeks. Wire suspension test was utilized to demonstrate the motor function. The brain tissues were homogenized for biochemical analysis while some tissues were fixed in 10% Neutral Buffered Formalin for 48hrs and grossed to isolate the brain tissue of interest for histological investigations. The neurobehavioral test presents statistical non significant decrease in the motor function of the exposed groups when compared to the control group (p<0.05). The malondialdehyde and glucose level of the exposed groups were significantly higher, while the total antioxidant capacity in the exposed groups were significantly lower. Mild to severe histopathological features were observed in the exposed groups which suggests substantia nigra. Neuronal degeneration on exposure to formulated pyrethroid. This study indicates acute exposure of formulated pyrethroid in rats exacts neurodegenerative changes in the substantia nigra via elevation of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant capcity. Thus, further studies should be carried out to demonstrate the long-term effect as well as the mechanism of action of formulated pyrethroid insecticide induced degeneration on the substantia nigra.
    Keywords: Formulated Pyrethroid, Substantia Nigra, Neurodegeneration, insecticide, Histopathology, Oxidative stress