فهرست مطالب

Anthropogenic Pollution Journal - Volume:6 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2022
  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/02/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Eghbal Sekhavati, Reza Jalilzadeh * Pages 1-7
    Construction industry is known as one of the most dangerous industries in the field of air pollution which causes damage to environment and endangers human health. Therefore, in order to reduce and control risks by construction industry, planning is done. The method which is used to discuss the risks is MCDM. After interview with experts who were 15 people, the weights of scales were discussed .Some criterion is used to risks, in this study, the insights and suggestions are used which are risk comprehension, risk evaluation, safety risk and safety performance. Weight of four main scales was performed by Super Decision software. Paired comparison of main scales is performed in terms of 9 hourly quantitatively scale and is same as AHP process. According to the research, the more weight was pertinent to risk comprehension and the less weight is pertaining to safety insight. The results show that in order to control risks, risk comprehension has high priority in building environments.
    Keywords: MCDM, Risk Evaluation, Building Environments, AHP
  • Najiyeh Abavisani Joghtaee, Amir Farajollahi Rod *, Mansour Yeganeh Pages 8-20

    The purpose of this study is to achieve the effective components and criteria in the design of green residential settlements with an environmental protection approach in Mashhad. The research method is applied and in terms of implementation is descriptive-analytical. Using the TM sensor and LANDSAT satellite, satellite images of the study area were prepared and modeled by superimposing data related to energy consumption through GIS tools and Arcview software to final synthesis and mapping. Then, using the opinions of experts to extract and prioritize the appropriate components and criteria from each of the mentioned systems. Data were analyzed by structural equation method with least squares approach and Smart - PLS2 software was used for final analysis. Then, after explaining the components and criteria, according to the available data, the optimal limit (10% -20%) for 10 components was proposed as a scenario. Then modeling was done through Design Builder software. The results showed that a total of 4 categories of macro variables have been identified as the main components affecting energy consumption, which are: "management", "environmental performance", "economic performance" and "social performance" variables, all of which have divergent validity. Also, 11 topics and 61 criteria were extracted and explained as components for assessing the sustainability of residential buildings. Finally, it was found that with the implementation of energy optimization strategies, the heating system will be reduced by 36%, the cooling system energy by 41% and the total cooling and heating energy by 38% compared to the base state.

    Keywords: Optimal Energy Consumption, Green Building, Modeling, zoning, Mashhad Metropolis
  • Farhad Hashemian * Pages 21-25
    The present studies deal with the issue of selecting a site for industries in Ardebil city using the concepts of Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) and also methods for supporting the DSS decision making processes that are used to select appropriate space(s) for industrial development. In this direction we have been inspired by SMCE model that has recently been developed into ILWIS software in the form of an non-compensational methods taking the objective and spatial priorities of decision makers into account. Also, in the present research processes of the issue of selecting suitable sites for industrial development of Ardebil city, Province Center, has been studied. On the basis of different development objectives existing and available fundamental information including different kinds of maps (gradient, making use of lands, geology, crevasse dispersion, earthquake, etc.), descriptive information in the from of tables, and also the region’ s social and economical indexes that are used for modeling the spatial selection, were gathered and put into operation. In case of this study, decision making framework and planning have been developed. In the first phase of Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation potential sites ( plan for selecting the solutions) are determined and studied, and in the second phase, using economical, social, and technical characteristics, cites with required relations are evaluated for final selection( selecting the options).
    Keywords: Site Selection, Spatial multi criteria evaluation, Technical development, ILWIS
  • Maryam Ahmadi, Askar Jalalian *, Ali Faghih Habibi Pages 26-35

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental and health risk of PM2.5 microns in district 10 of Tehran. Initially, data related to the year 2019 were collected and analyzed through pollutant measurement at the regional level. Based on Kriging's interpolation the corresponding raster was produced and classified according to the minimum and maximum range. Finally, according to the air quality index, the level of importance of health safety was classified and the relevant map was prepared. Through the IO technique, the location layer of sensitive and vulnerable land uses and the carbon monoxide contaminant zoning layer were mapped. Results showed that District 10 of Tehran with the average concentration of 42µg/m3 is the most polluted area in terms of this contaminant in Tehran. Also, most of the PM2.5 pollutants belong to the northern, southern and western half of the region. Also, December was the most polluted month of the year with an average concentration of 56μg/m3. From the point of view of the air quality index based on the type of pollutants, the area had 104 days of unhealthy and unhealthy days for sensitive groups. Environmental and health risk assessment of these pollutants indicates that according to William Fine method, the risk number is 105, which indicates the average risk level. Therefore, it requires corrective and emergency risk control measures.

    Keywords: PM2.5, Risk Assessment, air pollution, Sensitive uses, District 10 of Tehran Municipality
  • Armin Jalalzadeh *, HamidReza Rabieifar, Hamidreza Vosoughifar, Arash Razmkhah, Ebrahim Fataei Pages 36-46

    A critical aspect of qualitative management of water resources is the optimal waste load allocation in a river system. Zarrineh Rud is one of the crucial, permanent, water-rich rivers in West Azerbaijan province in the northwest of Iran and the Urmia lake basin. In this study, with the aim of quality management of Zarrineh Rud river, QUAL2K computer simulation model was used. The simulation parameters in this study included discharge, DO, BOD, NO3, NH4, PO4, which were collected from 5 sampling stations S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 in spring and summer. The results showed that the amount of oxygen saturated solution of Zarrineh River varied between 7-8 mg / l, which is higher than the maximum standard value required. The results showed that BOD could increase by 16% in spring and summer, respectively, and should decrease by 70% in summer to meet the required standard. The station S5 at the river downstream with 3.53 mg/L dissolved oxygen deficit was the most critical point for cold-water fish farming, and the 26th kilometer of the river with a dissolved oxygen deficit of 2.05mg/L was the most critical point for maintaining the aquatic life; therefore, some scenario must be developed for waste load reduction at this station. In order to improve the quality of Zarrineh River, construction of a wastewater treatment plant is necessary for Miandoab sugar factory, villages adjacent to the river and also slaughterhouse.

    Keywords: Water Quality, Quality Managment, Modeling, Qual2K, Zarrineh-rud River
  • Anbu Clemensis Johnson * Pages 47-54
    Air pollution in China is a recurring issue and requires continuous attention and rigorous action. This research aims to study the standard air pollutants and air quality index in the Jiangsu province of China. The present study will complement the existing understanding on the distribution of criteria air pollutants in different cities of Jiangsu province and its seasonal variation. Spatial analysis indicated Xuzhou city in the northern part of the province to have high average values of particulate matter (PM2.5: 63.4 µg/m3, PM10: 115.4 µg/m3), sulphur dioxide (30 µg/m3), carbon monoxide (1.18 mg/m3), and air quality index (102.5). The air quality index showed a strong positive correlation with particulate matter in most cities in the province. All primary pollutant concentrations and air quality index were higher during winter, whereas ozone in summer. From temporal analysis it was evident that particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and air quality index reached maximum during January, and nitrogen dioxide and ozone during December and June, respectively. All air pollutant concentrations and air quality index from 2014 to 2018 were on a decreasing trend, except for urban ozone, which increased by 9.6 %.
    Keywords: Air quality index, Data Analysis, Ozone, Primary pollutants, Spearmans correlation coefficient
  • Hooman Fathi, Seyed Bagher Mirabbasi *, Mansoor Pournoori Pages 55-65
    Seas have a special place in human life; In order to meet its needs to any extent, it has always considered the seas as one of the important geopolitical resources and today, regardless of the important role of the seas in other areas such as temperature regulation and food supply, this water area is the choice. It is the primary and irreplaceable human species for trans boundary transportation of goods. The purpose of this study is to identify the role of international environmental law in the protection of the seas. This research is a review that has been done through extensive studies. The results indicate that the attention to the transportation of dangerous goods is noteworthy because of their destructive and potential effects on the marine environment. The type of transportation and safe storage of hazardous materials in ports is an important issue emphasized by all governments and international maritime organizations. The international responsibility of governments and international organizations for marine pollution can be considered as one of the main causes of the evolution and development of international environmental law in this field. In addition, the damage caused by the maritime transport of hazardous materials is different from the maritime transport of other materials, and this requires the international community to provide effective means of managing the transport of hazardous materials with the most destructive effect. Put on the marine environment, adopt.
    Keywords: marine pollution, Environmental Protection, hazardous materials, maritime transport, International Conventions, International law
  • Mohammad Mohammadiun *, Mojtaba Montazeri, Hamid Mohammadiun, Meisam Sadi, MohammadHossein Dibaee Bonab Pages 66-74

    Today, energy efficiency is one of the global requirements. The purpose of this study is thermodynamic modeling of using a horizontal heat pump system in residential houses in Shahrood climate and to investigate its effect on optimal energy consumption. For this purpose, a heat pump system was designed. Through mathematical functions and modeling equations, the technical, environmental and economic aspects of conventional systems and the proposed model were compared. In order to calculate the hot and cold design loads required in the optimization, Carrier HAP software was used. Initially, a hypothetical residential unit with an area of 96 square meters was designed using Google Sketchup software. The modeling results show that the proposed system (GSHP) is superior to conventional systems in all aspects except one, which is the initial cost of design and construction. So that the reduction of electricity consumption is 11.7% and the reduction of energy consumption is 4.4% and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is about 83%. Also, the optimal consumption of heat pump for cooling and heating in Shahrood is 2.8 and 6.3, respectively. Finally, the energy efficiency is 77%. As a result, given the rise in fossil fuel costs, rise in concerns regarding the damages to the environment, and the need of countries for sustainable development, growing tendency to this technology is not far from mind.

    Keywords: thermodynamic analysis, horizontal geothermal heat pump, CO2 emission, Carrier HAP software
  • Yasser Baharfar, Mahmoud Mohammadyan *, Faramarz Moattar, Parvin Nassiri, MohammadHasan Behzadi Pages 75-83

    Particulate matter, as one of the biggest problems of air pollution in metropolises, is the cause of many respiratory, lung and cardiovascular diseases, which timely awareness and announcement can reduce these adverse effects on human health. Therefore, considering that children are more exposed and more sensitive to this pollution, this research was conducted to introduce an evaluated mathematical model to predict PM2.5 concentration levels, indoor selected preschools located in one of centeral district of Tehran (district 6), using determination of related factors to PM2.5 concentration. Classroom environmental information, Meteorological information and urban fixed monitoring stations data were collected through measuring Indoor and outdoor classroom PM2.5 concentrations using direct-reading instruments, adjusted questionnaire and conducted organizations, simultaneously. Results showed the spring and autumn had the lowest and highest indoor and outdoor concentrations (17.1 and 20.5 μg m-3 & 48.7 and 78 μg m-3respectively). Multiple linear regression model was introduced by statistical analysis and the results of indoor PM2.5 concentration predictions were compared and evaluated with measured data. The results of introduced this model, consisting of identifying seven main factors affecting the mean concentrations of indoor PM2.5, including outdoor PM2.5, the number of pupils, ambient temperature, wind speed, wind direction and open area of the doors and windows, showed that it has good accuracy (R2 = 0.705) and significantly correlated(p < 0.001). The Multiple Linear Regression Model can be used with good accuracy to predict indoor PM2.5 concentration of preschool classes in Tehran.

    Keywords: multiple linear regression, PM2.5, preschool, Tehran air quality
  • Mehdi Behravesh, Abbas Poorhashemi *, Mostafa Panahi, MohammadReza Parvin Pages 84-91

    One of the most important goals of sustainable development, which is a requirement for all countries, is the protection of habitats and biodiversity. The purpose of this study is to investigate and determine the position of Iran in achieving the goals related to the protection of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and the realization of sustainable development indicators (SDG17). For this purpose, in this article, by comprehensively reviewing all valid international reports and documents, the rank and score of Iran has been determined and compared worldwide. The results showed that Iran has a score of 70.01 in achieving the goals of sustainable development, which is 74th among 165 countries in the world. Overall, based on the research findings, it can be said that Iran's ranking in achieving goal number 14 is slightly better than goal number 15. In other words, Iran has performed better in the field of marine biodiversity protection than inland biodiversity protection. The situation of Iran in the field of SDG14; Significant challenges remain and score moderately improving, insufficient to attain goal. The situation of Iran in the field of SDG15; Major challenges remain and score decreasing.

    Keywords: Sustainable Development, Indicators, Habitat, Biodiversity, environmental rights
  • Shadi Shoghi Beygi *, S.Ali Jozi, Mojtaba Zamani Pages 92-99
    The most important objectives of the present study include finding a legal solution to prevent the spread of coronavirus, compensation for damages caused by the negligence of human factors, determining the basis for this responsibility, and the rate of compensation for these damages. The present study, through library and field studies, made it possible to compensate for the damage caused by the spread of coronavirus infections. Pollution caused by a human is one of the most important environmental law challenges. Neglect of the human factor has caused losses due to the spread of this disease. In the present study by preparing a researcher-made questionnaire, the opinion of lawyers specializing in the field of civil responsibility was also inquired. The results of the research show that by resorting to the "risk theory" and the "fault assumption" basis, the rights of the victims of the Coronavirus can be better secured. At present, legal systems are not sufficiently determined to compensate the victims of the Coronavirus. While environmental jurists believe that strict rules and regulations should be applied to combat the spread of coronavirus infection and to impose compensation for damages caused by negligence in observing health standards on its human factors. In Iran, several juridical and legal rules are a good basis for preventing the spread of coronavirus and human infections.
    Keywords: civil responsibility, Environmental pollutants, Pandemic, Coronavirus
  • Hamid Rahmati, Parvin Farshchi *, Mansoor Pournoori Pages 100-108

    The purpose of this study is to Assessment and zoning of water resources pollution in the water resources of Minoo Island in the south of the IRAN. The type of research is applied and the method of laboratory is done through field harvesting. For this purpose, the study area was networked and the networks that had an aquatic ecosystem were selected as the study area. Sampling of water (surface and underground) in the area was performed and transferred to a trusted laboratory. The results showed that there are 3 types of water resources in the study area; Arvand River, surface rivers and groundwater. The average of TDS was between 1100-1600 parts per million (ppm). The Arvand River is more polluted than other sources. The highest levels of AS, Fe, Mn, Cr and Al are 0.425, 0.585, 0.883, 0.102 and 2.22 mg / l, respectively. The pH is normal and will not be a problem for sensitive plants. Also, groundwater resources located in the northern half of the study area show the highest level of pollution.

    Keywords: zoning, Environmental pollution, Mino Island, Water resources