- Volume:1 Issue: 1, Summer 2018
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/13
- تعداد عناوین: 5
From a sociological point of view the majority of ins tances of violence and social disorders have their roots in war. Islamic teachings, serving as the key to happiness and salvation, are essentially based on peace and peaceful coexis tence and fighting wars is only warranted in quite particular and exceptional ins tances. Mention has been made of twenty such ins tances, one of which is prevention of WMD. In this s tudy an attempt has been made to subs tantiate such prevention – in addition to Muslim scholars’ consensus, Imāmī juris ts’ and those of the four Sunni schools of Shāfi‘ī, Ḥanafī, Mālikī, and Ḥanbalī, as well as other Sunni schools, e.g. the Ẓāhirī School – by verses of the Holy Qur’an and traditions from the Sunnah of the Prophet of Islam.Keywords: Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), religions, denominations, Verses of the Holy Qur’an, hadiths (traditions), consensus (ijmā‘)
The Qur’anic view on peaceful coexis tence and encouraging dialog with non-Muslims (in particular ‘the people of the Book’) is a topic of significance in international law, peace, and peaceful coexis tence between followers of different religions and is indicative of the role that may be played by major religions, particularly Islam. There exis t more than fifty Muslim countries with various economic, political, and social ties with each other and also with non-Muslim countries. It is of great significance to demons trate ‘genuineness of the idea of peaceful coexis tence in Islam’ as it practically paves the path to cooperation of Muslim countries with others based on common principles and peaceful relations.
The rapid spread of Islam at the time of the Prophet has attracted scholarly attention, in particular that of orientalis ts. They maintain that different factors were of significance in the spread of Islam at the time of the Prophet, but emphasis is laid on the importance of war and jihad. This s tudy commences with a brief survey and classification of views held by orientalis ts on the mechanics of expansion of Islam and proceeds to present an assessment and a critique of views on the profound ties between spread of Islam and jihad and their discrepancies with Islamic theoretical foundations and his torical evidence. The article comes to an end by explication and clarification of two issues: the poll tax (jizyah) levied on ‘the people of the Book’1 and ‘basic jihad’,2 both misrepresented as imposition of beliefs and resorting to exercising force in spreading Islam. It is said in the final section that the poll tax in ques tion is levied by the Islamic s tate for rendering certain services to the people of the Book and basic jihad is a kind of defending the ‘rights of God’3 and human rights and elimination of impediments to people’s choice of belief.Keywords: jihad, İslam, the Prophet of Islam, Orientalists
Being an important problem of political thought, utopia is deemed to have various functions and applications. Mulla Sadra makes use of the concept of utopia in order to criticize his contemporary political setup and present an alternative pattern. In Mulla Sadra’s utopia citizens and regulations are of great importance. This is because no society can be es tablished without these elements. More important than these is, however, the executive sys tem. On his view, a utopian society is one over which a prophet, an Imam or a juris t rules. In addition to having numerous benefits, his utopia brings about a situation in which the inner and the outer realms of exis tence get to some sort of harmony. It is by living in this society that man gets back to the right track determined by his Lord attaining thus ultimate happiness.Keywords: Mulla Sadra, Utopia, Citizen, Regulation, Ruler