فهرست مطالب

مدیریت جامع حوزه های آبخیز - سال دوم شماره 1 (پیاپی 3، بهار 1401)
  • سال دوم شماره 1 (پیاپی 3، بهار 1401)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/03/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • اسماعیل حیدری علمدارلو، حسن برابادی، پویان دهقان رحیم آبادی، حسن خسروی*، جواد رفیع شریف آباد صفحات 1-14

    بیابان زایی یکی از مسایلی است که در بسیاری از کشورهای جهان ازجمله کشورهای واقع در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک توسعه یافته که نتیجه این فرآیند از بین رفتن منابع تجدیدشونده در هر یک از این کشورها است. تخریب زمین در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک به وسیله تغییر اقلیم و فعالیت های انسانی، شرایط را برای بیابان زایی فراهم می کند. به عبارت دیگر بیابان زایی روندی است که سرزمین و منابع اش را به سوی تخریب سوق می دهد. هدف از این تحقیق، ارایه راهکارهای مدیریتی بیابان زایی در دشت یزد- اردکان بر اساس مدل SWOT است. جهت اجرای این پژوهش، عوامل درونی (دانش بومی قوی، اقلیم خشک و وجود کانون های فرسایش باد در منطقه) و عوامل بیرونی (تغییر تنوع پوشش و ورود گونه های گیاهی غیربومی و ناسازگار با شرایط منطقه با آثار مخرب، برهم زدن تعادل زیست محیطی ناشی از اجرای طرح ها و عدم نظارت بر آن ها) موثر بر فرآیند بیابان زایی در منطقه موردنظر توسط روش دلفی تعیین و توسط مدل SWOT جمع بندی و راهکارهای کنترل بیابان زایی ارایه شدند و نقاط قوت، ضعف، فرصت ها و تهدیدها مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. بعد از این که عوامل داخلی و خارجی شناسایی شد و امتیاز نهایی این عوامل به دست آمد با استفاده از ماتریس چهارخانه ای عوامل داخلی و خارجی (IE)، راهکارهای مطلوب از بین راهکارهای ارایه شده انتخاب شدند. نتایج نشان داد که امتیاز نهایی عوامل درونی و بیرونی موثر در بیابان زایی به ترتیب 65/2 و 96/1 است؛ بنابراین بهترین راهبردها جهت کنترل پدیده بیابان زایی در دشت یزد- اردکان، راهبردهای مقابله با تهدیدات است. هرچند با توجه به ماهیت بیابان زایی و پیچیدگی این پدیده، توجه به تمامی راهکار ها حایز اهمیت بوده و مجموعه ای از تمامی راهکار ها، می تواند ضامن کنترل بیابان زایی در این منطقه باشد. درنهایت می توان گفت نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه در انتخاب راهکار مناسب جهت کنترل و مدیریت بیابان زایی در دشت یزد- اردکان با توجه به اهمیت بالای تمامی عوامل درونی و بیرونی، می تواند ضامن کنترل بیابان زایی در این منطقه باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: بیابان زایی، راهبرد، یزد- اردکان، SWOT
  • علیرضا زارع زاده، احمد پهلوانروی، مرتضی دهقانی، عباس خاک سفیدی* صفحات 15-31

    فرسایش بادی باعث تخریب اراضی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک شده و چالشی جدی در برابر تولید پایدار و مدیریت اراضی کشاورزی محسوب می شود؛ بنابراین لازم است عوامل موثر بر فرسایش بادی و پتانسیل آن در هر منطقه شناسایی و در برنامه ریزی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. در این پژوهش به منظور تعیین و برآورد پتانسیل فرسایش بادی منطقه چاهداشی شهرستان نهبندان استان خراسان جنوبی در سال 1399 از مدل IRIFR.2 و قابلیت ها و امکانات نرم افزار ArcGIS10.3 استفاده شده است. با توجه به اینکه مدل IRIFR پتانسیل فرسایش بادی را در رخساره های ژیومورفولوژیکی محاسبه می کند در این پژوهش، با استفاده از نقشه های پایه (توپوگرافی، مدل رقومی ارتفاع، زمین شناسی و کاربری اراضی) و بازمشاهده های میدانی، رخساره های ژیومورفولوژیکی مختلف منطقه شناسایی و رقومی گردید و امتیاز عوامل نه گانه مدل بر اساس مبانی هر عامل و واقعیت های میدانی نمره دهی و درنهایت نقشه های پتانسیل فرسایش بادی و شدت آن تعیین گردید. بر این اساس شدت فرسایش از خیلی کم تا خیلی زیاد در واحدهای مختلف متفاوت است. بیشترین فرسایش بادی منطقه، مربوط به رخساره 1-3-3 (ریپل مارک و سیلک) با 8635 تن در کیلومترمربع در سال است. اراضی کشاورزی با پتانسیل فرسایش 319 تن در کیلومترمربع در سال در کلاس فرسایش کم قرار می گیرد. بر اساس این مدل، عامل اصلی فرسایش بادی در این منطقه، عوامل محیطی می باشد زیرا در اغلب واحدهای کاری، عامل محیطی وضعیت باد با 2/234 امتیاز، بیشترین امتیاز را دارا بوده و به عنوان عامل اصلی تشخیص داده شد. پتانسیل فرسایش بادی محدوده مورد مطالعه در تمام رخساره ها بیش از توان خاک زایی منطقه (با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی و ادافیکی خاک) است و وجود بادهای با سرعت بیش از 5/4 متر بر ثانیه و همچنین فقدان پوشش گیاهی و در بعضی رخساره ها وجود ذرات خاک حساس به فرسایش، از مهمترین دلایل فرسایش بادی در منطقه است.

    کلیدواژگان: بیابان زدایی، چاهداشی، رخساره، رسوب، فرسایش بادی
  • احسان تمسکی*، عرفان تمسکی، احمد اسدی می آبادی صفحات 33-47

    در سال های اخیر گستردگی و شدت طوفان های گردوغبار در نواحی غربی ایران با توجه به موقعیت جغرافیایی و شرایط اقلیمی این مناطق موجب شده که این پدیده به عنوان یکی از عمده ترین و تاثیرگذارترین پدیده های مخاطره آمیز زیست محیطی در این نواحی مطرح شود. با توجه به گستردگی طوفان های گردوغبار و اثرات گسترده آن بر سلامت، اقتصاد، محیط زیست و کشاورزی و روند فزاینده ی آن ها توجه بسیاری از محققین را به خود جلب کرده است. در این مطالعه، از داده های سازمان هواشناسی ایران، داده های سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست، داده های NCEP، مدل رهگیری جریان باد و تصاویر سنجنده مودیس جهت شناسایی الگوی جوی و منشایابی طوفان گردوغبار فرین در ایستگاه سینوپتیک کرمانشاه استفاده شد. این تحقیق طوفان گردوغبار حادث شده در غرب ایران از 14 تا 17 فروردین سال 1387 را مورد بررسی قرار داده است. این طوفان از نظر کاهش میدان دید و افزایش جرم ذرات معلق، یکی از شدیدترین طوفان ها در سال های اخیر بوده است. نتایج رهگیری جریان باد که با استفاده از مدلHYSPLIT و تصاویر ماهواره ای در بحرانی ترین روز این گردوغبار انجام شده است، نشان می دهد که این توده گردوغبار نشات گرفته از مناطق غرب عراق و شرق سوریه است که با جهتی نسبتا شمال غربی- جنوب شرقی وارد مناطق غربی ایران می شود. بررسی های جوی نشان می دهند که در این زمان با وجود یک کم فشار قوی در شرق ایران و پرفشاری در غرب، بادهای غربی ایجاد شده سبب ورود گردوغبار بیشتر به منطقه می شوند. نتایج نشان می دهد که شاخص NDDI به دست آمده از تصاویر سنجنده مودیس به همراه مدل رهگیری جریان باد و بررسی های جوی قابلیت مناسبی جهت تشخیص و پایش مسیر حرکت طوفان های گردوغبار را دارا است. در مجموع نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که تلفیق داده های زمینی، مدل رهگیری جریان باد و بررسی های جوی و شاخص های ماهواره ای ضمن هم افزایی موجب شناخت رفتار طوفان های گردوغبار می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: آلودگی هوا، جریان باد، رهگیری شاخص گردوغبار، کرمانشاه، گردوغبار
  • مسلم سواری، حامد اسکندری دامنه* صفحات 49-60

    در سال های اخیر به دلیل کاهش آب‏های سطحی به دلایل مختلف، فشار مضاعفی از طرف کشاورزان برای بهره‏برداری بیشتر از آب‏های زیرزمینی صورت گرفته است که این امر پیامدهای بسیاری را برای بخش‏های کشاورزی و محیط زیست به دنبال داشته است؛ بنابراین نیاز است کشاورزان و سیاست‏گذاران این حوضه با یک برنامه‏ریزی جامع و استراتژیک زمینه استفاده ایمن از آب‎‏های زیرزمینی را فراهم کنند و خود را با شرایط جدید سازگار سازند. در این راستا هدف کلی این تحقیق، پیامدهای بهره‏برداری بی‏رویه از منابع آب زیرزمینی در مناطق روستایی می باشد. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل همه‏ی بهره‏برداران دارای چاه‏های نیمه عمیق و عمیق، در حوضه غرب تالاب جازموریان در سال 1397 بوده (N: 6112) و با استفاده فرمول نمونه‏گیری کوکران 174 نفر برای مطالعه انتخاب شدند. ابزار اصلی تحقیق پرسش نامه‏ای بود که روایی آن توسط گروه متخصصان و پایایی آن توسط ضریب آلفای کرونباخ تایید شد (α>0.7). نتایج ضریب تغییرات برای اولویت‏بندی پیامدهای بهره برداری بی‏رویه از منابع آب زیرزمینی در بخش کشاورزی بر اساس دیدگاه پاسخ گویان نشان داد که مهمترین پیامدهای بهره‏برداری بی‏رویه از منابع آب زیرزمینی در بخش کشاورزی در منطقه مورد مطالعه شامل موارد «افزایش پدیده فقر در بلندمدت» و «مدیریت سخت مزرعه» بود. همچنین نتایج تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی در این پژوهش نشان داد که این پیامدها در میان جوامع محلی منطقه در عامل‏های محیطی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و روان شناختی طبقه‏بندی می گردند که این چهار عامل در مجموع 85/76 درصد از کل واریانس را تبیین می نمایند. 34/23 درصد واریانس باقی‏مانده مربوط به عواملی بوده که در این تحلیل شناسایی نشده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تالاب جازموریان، توسعه پایدار، مدیریت آب، منابع آب زیرزمینی، مناطق روستایی
  • شاهین آقامیرزاده، فاطمه گنجه ای زاده روحانی*، حمزه سعیدیان، کامران گنجه ای زاده صفحات 61-72

    آلودگی ناشی از فلزات سنگین یکی از مهمترین نوع آلودگی ها در آب های مختلف به شمار می رود. با پیشرفت صنایع، میزان ورود آلودگی با فلزات سنگین به آب-های سطحی و زیر زمینی افزایش می یابد. در این تحقیق به بررسی آلودگی آب های سطحی و زیرزمینی در حوزه آبخیز سرچشمه استان کرمان پرداخته شده است و تغییرات عنصر آلومینیوم در این آب ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. سپس مقایسه آماری و پراکنش آلودگی آلومینیوم در آب رودخانه شور، تعدادی قنات و چاه در حوزه آبخیز مورد مطالعه در فصل های خشک و تر انجام شد. مقایسه آماری نمونه های آب رودخانه، چاه و قنات ها در دو فصل تر و خشک به روش t-test انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد در فصل خشک و تر میزان عنصر آلومینیوم در معدن مس سرچشمه بیشترین مقدار است و با فاصله از معدن از غلظت این عنصرکاسته می شود. با بررسی پراکنش عنصر آلومینیوم در آب های زیرزمینی در فصل خشک مشاهده شد که غلظت عنصر آلومینیم در مظهر قناتی که به معدن مس سرچشمه نزدیکتر است زیاد است. در فصل تر نیز روند تغییرات غلظت آلومینیوم برای همه قنات ها تقریبا یکسان است. همچنین نتایج نشان داد آب های سطحی و زیرزمینی این منطقه بیش از حد مجاز سازمان بهداشت جهانی آلومینیوم دارند و قابل آشامیدن نیستند. همچنین نتایج به طور کلی نشان داد میزان غلظت عنصر آلومینیوم در فصل تر در آب های سطحی منطقه مورد مطالعه بیشتر از فصل خشک می باشد و میزان غلظت عنصر آلومینیوم در قنات ها و چاه منطقه مورد مطالعه در فصل خشک بیشتر از فصل تر می باشد.و میزان غلظت عنصر آلومینیوم در قنات ها و چاه منطقه مورد مطالعه در فصل خشک بیشتر از فصل تر می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: آلومینیوم، رودخانه شور، قنات، معدن مس سرچشمه
  • سمیه امیری*، زینب جعفریان جلودار، شفق رستگار صفحات 73-87

    اکوتوریسم به عنوان پایدارترین شکل گردشگری با رشد فزاینده ی خود، نقش موثری در توسعه ی جوامع ایفاء می کند. در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش تجزیه و تحلیل سیستمی به تعیین پتانسیل طبیعت گردی در مراتع ییلاقی کجور نوشهر پرداخته شده است. پس از شناسایی عوامل موثر بر کاربری طبیعت گردی شامل شیب، جهت، ارتفاع از سطح دریا، بافت خاک، پوشش گیاهی، سنگ شناسی، فاصله تا چشمه و رودخانه، فاصله تا جاده، فاصله تا مناطق مسکونی، فاصله تا شهر، فاصله از گسل و دکل برق فشار قوی، نقشه های مربوط به این عوامل با کمک سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) تهیه شدند و با روش سیستمی مخدوم طبقه بندی، تلفیق و روی هم گذاری نقشه ها انجام و نقشه اولیه تفرجی تهیه و در سه طبقه، کلاسه بندی شدند. سپس با تلفیق نقشه تفرجی اولیه و نقشه مراتع، نقشه تفرج نهایی تهیه و کلاسه بندی شد. نتایج نشان داد همه مرتع چناربن دارای توان تفرج گسترده طبقه دو، در مرتع دشت لاشک 51/46 درصد دارای توان تفرج گسترده طبقه دو و 49/53 درصد نامناسب برای تفرج، در مرتع اسلام آباد 2/75 درصد دارای توان تفرج گسترده طبقه دو و 98/24 درصد نامناسب برای تفرج، در مرتع کهنه لاشک 19/96 درصد دارای توان تفرج گسترده طبقه دو و 81/3 درصد نامناسب برای تفرج، در مرتع کجور 24/87 درصد دارای توان تفرج گسترده طبقه دو و 76/12 درصد نامناسب برای تفرج، در مرتع لرگان 54/12 درصد دارای توان تفرج گسترده طبقه دو و 46/87 درصد نامناسب برای تفرج و در مرتع پیده 31/57 درصد دارای توان تفرج گسترده طبقه دو و 69/42 درصد برای تفرج نامناسب بودند. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده 83/65 درصد منطقه دارای قابلیت تفرجی و 17/34 درصد از منطقه برای تفرج نامناسب هستند که علت آن شیب بالا، ارتفاع بالا و وجود اراضی زراعی و باغ ها در منطقه است؛ بنابراین پیشنهاد می شود اقدامات عملی و مدیریتی لازم به بهره برداران منطقه آموزش داده شود. این امر در کنار مدیریت اصولی به استفاده از توان بالقوه طبیعت گردی منطقه می انجامد و کمک درآمدی برای بهره برداران مراتع محسوب می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: اکوتوریسم، روش تجزیه و تحلیل سیستمی، سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)، کجور، مراتع ییلاقی
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  • Esmail Heydari Alamdarloo, Hassan Barabadi, Dehghan Dehghan Rahimabadi, Hassan Khosravi *, Javad Rafieh Sharifiabad Pages 1-14
    Introduction

    Desertification is an important issue in many countries around the world, including those which are located in arid and semi-arid regions. Land degradation in arid and semi-arid regions provides the conditions for desertification due to climate change and human activities. In other words, desertification is a process which leads to the destruction of the land and its resources. Nowadays, it is necessary to know the exact criteria and indicators affecting the occurrence of desertification in order to provide a model to show the severity of degradation and determine the most important factors affecting it. Therefore, using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) methods and recognizing internal and external factors (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) to identify and evaluate the process of desertification and land degradation enable one to obtain the best options and plan appropriately for desertification management for its management. This study aims to provide solutions for desertification management in Yazd-Ardakan plain based on SWOT model.

    Materials and Methods

    The study area is Yazd-Ardakan plain, which is located in the central part of the central plateau of Iran. In this plain, due to environmental conditions, resources must be managed and used in such a way that the resources available are not destroyed. The purpose of this study is to provide desertification management solutions in Yazd-Ardakan plain based on SWOT model. For this purpose, internal and external factors affecting the desertification process in the plain were determined by Delphi method and summarized by SWOT model. Also, desertification control strategies were presented and Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) were examined. After internal and external factors were identified and the final score of these factors was obtained, using the quadratic matrix of internal and external factors, the desired solutions were selected from the proposed solutions.

    Results

    The results showed that the final score of internal and external factors affecting desertification is 2.65 and 1.96, respectively. Therefore, the best strategies to control desertification in the Yazd-Ardakan plain are to deal with threats. However, due to the nature of desertification and the complexity of this phenomenon, it is important to pay attention to all solutions. In other words, using all of the solutions can guarantee the control of desertification in this region. Regarding the strengths and weaknesses of Yazd-Ardakan plain in relation to the control of desertification phenomenon, it can be said that the strengths have a relative advantage over the weaknesses, which is evidenced by the sum of internal factors (2.65). Having said that, the advantage is not great and the weaknesses of the region have a high score and show their high importance along with their strengths. The arid climate of the region and successive droughts,wind erosion centers in the region along with traditional agriculture with high water consumption and low efficiency, the concentration of environmental polluting industries and insufficient control over them have made it difficult to revive the desert despite the strengths of the region. Therefore, in order to determine desertification control strategies, it is very important to pay enough attention to the weaknesses along with the strengths. The close scoring of most of the internal factors of the region in relation to the phenomenon of desertification illustrates this well.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    Regarding the opportunities and threats in Yazd-Ardakan plain in relation to the control of desertification phenomenon as well as internal factors, it can be said that the advantages of all factors are close, which shows the high importance of all factors. The difference between external and internal factors in the Yazd-Ardakan plain in relation to the phenomenon of desertification is the relative superiority of the negative points of the region over the positive points in relation to desertification, which is evidenced by the total score of external factors. In the case of external factors, as well as internal factors, social and economic issues have shown great importance.The existence of the idea of ​​full preference of industrial and mining activities over environmental protection and the possibility of transferring labor from agriculture to industry and mining scored highest. Therefore, the strategies that can solve these problems can be considered as the most important strategies. The results of this study in choosing a solution to control and manage desertification in the Yazd-Ardakan plain, given the high importance of all internal and external factors, can guarantee desertification control in this region.

    Keywords: Desertification, Strategy, SWOT, Yazd-Ardakan
  • Alireza Zarezade, Ahmad Pahlavanravi, Morteza Dehghani, Abbas Khaksefidi * Pages 15-31
    Introduction

    Wind erosion causes land degradation in arid and semiarid regions and is a serious challenge for sustainable production and farmland management.  Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors affecting wind erosion and wind erosion potential in each area and use them in planning. Wind erosion conditions exist mainly in arid and semi-arid climates of Iran (large parts of the central and eastern regions) at the same time and in today's situation, it has intensified due to improper management.

    Materials and Methods

    In this research, in order to determine and estimate the wind erosion potential of Chahdashi region of Nehbandan city of South Khorasan province, IRIFR.2 model and capabilities and facilities of ArcGIS10.3 software have been used. Given that the IRIFR model calculates wind erosion potential in geomorphological facies, in this research, geomorphological facies of the region were identified using basic maps including topography, DEM, geology, vegetation, land use and field visits,. IRIFR.2 model is introduced to estimate erosion of arable lands. This model enables the user to estimate the wind erosion potential of the field according to the questionnaire, seeing the effects and signs on the soil and field surface. To determine the amount of wind erosion of agricultural lands In IRIFR. 2 model, 9 factors including sedimentology of soil texture or land sediment, topography and location of the studied lands, wind speed and continuity of strong or erosive winds, roughness or the degree of unevenness of soil surface, impact soil compressive strength and turbulence, soil moisture and irrigation conditions, salt content and type of salts in soil and irrigation water, density of vegetation and straw remaining over the ground surface, and farm management (planting patterns, presence of windbreaks around the field, crop rotation) were examined. The score of each factor was determined and the score of these factors was added together.The deposition potential was then determined. After calculating the amount of erosion, the classification of erosion intensity was determined and finally the sediment potential and erosion intensity were mapped in each facie.

    Results and Discussion

    In the study area, 22 facies were identified and the facies of Rig-e-Danehriz plain, with the code 3-3-2 and with 29.5%, have the highest percentage of area and the area of agricultural lands, rangelands and uncovered lands were respectively 0.33, 99.03 and 0.64% of the available rangeland plants of 13 plant types. Erosion intensity class in different facies varies from very high to very low. Field visiting showed that areas with very low erosion have high rock cover. In fact, there is no soil for erosion in these areas. Accordingly, Arable lands have less potential for erosion than other work units. The results of the quality status map of the wind erosion intensity of this model showed 5 classes, of which 8.3% of the area is in the very low class, 28.6% in the low class, and 57.5% in the middle class. Vegetation, surface gravel and hardened clay surface prevent wind erosion in these areas, 1.8% in high class and 3.8% in very high class, which mostly includes active sand dunes. The highest erosion intensity score is related to the landuse of ripple and silk hills with facies code 1-3-3 and with a total score of 9 factors equal to 107, Qualitatively, it is related to the severity of erosion and covers 3.8% of the area. Also, the lowest score of wind erosion intensity belongs to stone outcrop unit with 1-1-1 facies code and total score of 3.8, which is qualitatively characterized by very low erosion intensity and the area of this unit covers 1.5% of the area. Agricultural lands are in the low erosion intensity class in terms of erosion potential with 3.2 tons per hectare per year.

    Conclusion

    According to IRIFR.2 model, the main factors contributing to wind erosion in Chahdashi area are environmental factors because environmental factors (wind condition and vegetation) with the highest scores were identified as the main factor in most work units. The wind erosion potential of the studied area in all facies is more than the soil potential of the region (due to climatic and edaphic soil conditions), wind speeds more than 4 m/s and also the lack of vegetation and in some facies the presence of soil particles sensitive to erosion, are the most important reasons for wind erosion in the region. The rate of erosion in the hill facies is 86.3 tons per hectare, which is the highest among the geomorphological facies of the region. Due to the favorable conditions for wind erosion, especially the lack of adhesion between soil particles, this facies has a deposition rate of more than 6000 tons per square kilometer per year.

    Keywords: Chahdashi, Desertification, Facies, Sediment, Wind erosion
  • Ehsan Tamassoki *, Erfan Tamassoki, Ahmad Asadi Meyabadi Pages 33-47
    Introduction

    According to their specific geographic and climatic conditions, the extent and intensity of dust storms in the west and southwest parts of Iran have made this phenomenon one of the principal environmental hazards in these regions. The extent of dust storms, their significant effects on health, economy, environment, and agriculture, and their increasing trend have drawn the attention of many researchers. The recent study is composed of data analysis of dust storms by Iran Meteorological Organization Earth Database, synoptic analysis of weather and climate patterns causing and transmitting dust using middle and upper atmosphere data in Sanandaj, Kermanshah, and Ilam stations and tracking wind packages carrying dust particles using HYSPLIT model with forward and backward methods.

    Materials and Methods

    To analyze atomosphoric patterns, the middle and upper atmosphere data such as the sea level pressure data, level of 500 hPa geo-potential height from NCEP/NCAR databasewere drawn using GRADS software. HYSPLIT model and MODIS images for dust storms.were used to recognize the origin of dust storms and wind flow routing in the stations.

    Results and Discussion

    Earth database investigations show that the year 2008 has one of the most extreme dust storms in terms of visibility reduction and durability of days with dust storm in the study period. From 2 to 5 April 2008 the most extreme dust storms with visibility of fewer than 500 meter occured in the stations. The results of wind flow routing by the HYSPLIT model showed that the origin of the dust storm mass was North West of Iraq and east of Syria, which had entered Iran with a north west-south east direction. The middle and upper atmospheric circulation base results show that west winds occurred with a low-pressure center in the East of Iran and high pressure in the North of Africa, causing the entrance of dust to this region. As one of the most intense dust storms of recent years, the mentioned dust storm can help by recognizing atmosphere patterns causing this phenomenon and routing winds transmitting aerosols.

    Conclusion

    According to the results of this study which has examined the relationship between large scale synoptic patterns and a variety of space-time dust storm activities in Iran using synoptic maps of sea level pressure circulation patterns, 500 hPa geo-potential height of dust storms in the studied stations, and wind flow routing model, it can be concluded that dynamic models can be presented by consensus of various specialists for this destructive environmental phenomenon-although using satellite imagery and dust storm capability and investigating them can be of great importance for future studies. In general, the results of this research show that wind flow routing model and atmosphere studies have the suitable capability for recognizing and monitoring dust storm paths.

    Keywords: Air pollution, dust storms, HYSPLIT, NDDI, Kermanshah
  • Moslem Savari, Hamed Eskandari Damaneh * Pages 49-60
    Introduction

    Groundwater is an essential resource for agriculture in all areas, including arid and semi-arid regions. It also plays an important role in the social and economic development of different regions (Savari & Amghani, 2022). Water is needed for a variety of economic activities, including energy and food production (Marston et al., 2018). In addition, it is closely related to the preservation of human generations (Singh et al., 2020). Increasing population growth in Iran as a result of land use changes and increased urban, industrial and agricultural activities has increased the use of groundwater resources so that in recent years these resources are at risk of pollution, quantitative decline and quality degradation. In recent years, due to the reduction of surface water which results from frequent and successive droughts, there has been increased pressure from farmers to exploit more groundwater through authorized and unauthorized wells, which has had many negative consequences for the agricultural and environmental sectors. Therefore, farmers and policymakers in this area need to be aware of the consequences of excessive use of groundwater to provide a comprehensive and strategic planning for safe use of groundwater. In this regard, the present study was conducted with the general purpose of an analysis of the consequences of improper exploitation of groundwater resources in rural areas of the western basin of Jazmourian Wetland.

    Materials and Methods

    This research is a descriptive correlational study in terms of the nature of quantitative research, according to the applied purpose, in terms of data collection. The statistical population of the study included all operators with wells (semi-deep and deep) in the area of Jazmourian wetland (N: 6112). Using Cochran's sampling formula, 153 of them were selected as a sample. To increase the validity of the findings, 185 questionnaires were distributed by random sampling method. Finally, 174 questionnaires were completed and analyzed. The main research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire which was pre-tested. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part included the item related to the individual, social and economic characteristics of the exploiters, and the second part included 24 items to investigate the consequences of improper exploitation of groundwater resources in the agricultural sector. To determine the validity of the questionnaire, a panel of experts including experts in the field of agricultural extension and education of Khuzestan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources was used. Based on their opinions and suggestions, the necessary amendments were made to the questionnaire. In order to estimate the reliability of the questionnaire,   Cronbach's  alpha coefficient test was used. The alpha value for the outcomes section was 0.88. Since the calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the questionnaire are higher than 0.7, the questionnaire has good reliability. In order to analyze the data in both descriptive and inferential sections, SPSS software was used. For this purpose, in the descriptive statistics section, frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used. In the inferential statistics section, exploratory factor analysis was used.

    Results and Discussion

    The results of descriptive statistics showed that the mean age of the beneficiaries studied was 43.58 with a standard deviation of 11.25 years, the youngest of who was 21 years old and the oldest of who was 74 years old. Their average annual income according to the results was 7.63 million Tomans. Also, the average use of communication media among the operators under study was 2.21 with a standard deviation of 2.25 hours per day. Their average agricultural work experience was 19.82 years with a standard deviation of 11.14 years. The exploited farmers had an average of 7.50 ha of land. In order to prioritize the consequences of improper exploitation of groundwater resources in the agricultural sector in the study area, the coefficient of variation was used. Based on the respondents' views, the results showed that the most important consequences of groundwater resources in the agricultural sector in the study area included «increasing the phenomenon of poverty in the long run» and «difficult farm management» The analysis of the consequences of improper exploitation of groundwater resources in the agricultural sector was the next case of statistical analysis, for which the exploratory factor analysis method was used. KMO coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the suitability of the data for factor analysis. The KMO value was 0.874 and the Bartlett test value was 632.895 (p= 0.000) which indicates the suitability of the data for factor analysis. In the meantime, four factors with values higher than 1 were extracted. These four factors explained 76.846% of the total variance. 33.59% of the remaining variance was related to factors that were not identified in this analysis. According to the specific value in Table 2, the first factor had the highest share (4.69) and the last factor (fourth) had the lowest share (2.73) in explaining the total variance.

    Conclusion

    Increasing groundwater consumption in order to develop the agricultural sector combined with successive droughts has led to a sharp decline in groundwater levels. This has led to landslides and soil erosion. In the current study, some economic and social issues of landslides caused by improper use of groundwater in the western basin of Jazmourian Wetland were investigated. The results of factor analysis summarized the consequences of improper use of groundwater in four environmental, economic, social and psychological factors that could explain more than 75% of the total variance.

    Keywords: Groundwater resources, Jazmourian Wetland, rural areas, Sustainable development, water management
  • Shahin Aghamirzadeh, Fatemeh Ganjei Zadeh Rouhani *, Hamzeh Saeediyan, Kamran Ganjeizadeh Pages 61-72
    Introduction

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important types of pollution in different waters. With the advancement of industries, the rate of contamination with heavy metals into surface and underground waters increases. There are many regions in the world that naturally contain large quantities of heavy metals. However, what usually causes contamination of surface and underground waters are industrial activities. Studying heavy metals due to environmental pollution is becoming increasingly important around the world. Also, determining their concentration, especially in rivers, wells and aqueducts holds great importance around the world, especially in Iran. Sarcheshmeh copper mine is one of the largest mining industrial complexes in the world. The Shour River is one of the most important seasonal rivers in Sarcheshmeh region. The sediment dam of Sarcheshmeh copper factory has been constructed on one of its branches, and the dam's spillway contaminates it.

    Materials and Methods

    In this study, water pollution in the Shour River, some wells and aqueducts were investigated and changes in Aluminum element in surface and groundwater of the region were investigated. Then, statistical comparison and distribution of Aluminum contamination in Shour river water, several aqueducts and wells in the watershed of the river was performed in wet and dry seasons using t-test method. Wet season sampling was performed in late April and early May and in dry season from late September to early October.

    Results and Discussion

    Special attention has been given to Sarcheshmeh copper mine in Iran and the world due to its place on the world copper belt. This mine can be named as the best copper producer in Iran, which is a subsidiary of The National Iranian Copper Industries Company. Therefore, scientific research on heavy metals in surface and groundwater of this mine and other similar mines in Iran and the world is becoming more and more important. The results showed that in dry and wet seasons, the amount of Aluminum in Sarcheshmeh copper mine is highest, ranging from 1 to 1.77 mg L-1. Distance from the mine lowers the concentration of this element. By examining the distribution of the Aluminum element in groundwater in the dry season, it can be observed that the concentration of Aluminum element is high in the epitome of aqueducts closer to the Sarcheshmeh copper mine. In the wet season, for the Aluminum element, the expansion of its concentration was such that the trend of Aluminum concentration changes is almost the same for all aqueducts.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that in dry and wet seasons, the concentration of Aluminum in surface and underground waters of the study area has a direct relationship with the distance of the sampling location of the waters of the region from the mine; the closer the sampling location, the higher the concentration of the element. The results also showed that the surface water and groundwater of this region have more Aluminum than the world health organization limits and are not drinkable. The results also showed that the concentration of Aluminum in wet season in the surface water of the study area is higher than the dry season and the concentration of Aluminum element in the aqueducts and well of the study area in the dry season is higher than the wet season.

    Keywords: Aluminum, Aqueduct, Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine, Shour River
  • Somayeh Amiri *, Zeinab Jafarian Jeloudar, Shafagh Rastgar Pages 73-87
    Introduction

    Nature tourism includes all forms and types of tourism, but the factors used to classify the different forms of tourism are not the same. In the ecological model of tourism, recreation is divided into two types: centralized and extensive. Centralized recreation includes those recreations that need to be developed, such as swimming, skiing, camping, etc. Extensive recreation includes activities that do not require development, such as mountaineering and hunting, or require little development, such as fishing, hiking, horseback riding, and wildlife watching, each of which is grouped into the first and the second class and unsuitable for recreation (Makhdom, 2010). Abbasi et al. (2022) in a study with the aim of designing a rural ecotourism entrepreneurship development model in Dezful city used a qualitative type in terms of implementation method, a mixture of qualitative content analysis and Delphi technique, and showed that the combination of social responsibility, biological responsibility, growth and development through ecotourism, ecotourism innovations, and creativity leads to the development of rural entrepreneurship.

    Materials and Methods

    In order to determine the natural tourism potential of Kojour summer rangelands, the system analysis method, which is the most common method of identifying, evaluating and planning land productivity in Iran, was used. In the first stage, ecological resources were identified. Ecological resources including physical resources (slope, direction, altitude and soil), etc. were prepared from a 1:25000 digital topographic map. By superimposing these three maps, a single map of the earth's shape was obtained. The next step involved analyzing and summarizing the resources, which in this step was prepared by combining and superimposing the earth shape map and other maps.

    Results and Discussion

    The initial recreation map was prepared in three floors. According to the initial recreational map, 0.61% of the study area has a wide recreational capacity of the first floor, 65.22% of the area has a wide recreational capacity of the second floor and 34.17 % of the area is unsuitable for recreation. According to these results, most of the area has a wide recreational capacity of the second floor with an area of 14486.95 ha. According to the final recreation plan and table 3, Chenarbon rangeland with an area of 1514.29 ha has a wide recreational capacity of the second floor, Dasht Lashak rangeland with an area of 79.74 ha, of which 46.51% has a wide recreational capacity of the second floor and 53.49% is unsuitable for recreation, also Islamabad rangeland with an area of 28.87​​ ha, of which 75.2% has a wide recreation capacity of the second floor and 24.98% is unsuitable for recreation, and the Kohneh Lashak rangeland with an area of 128.56 ha, of which 96.19 % has a wide recreational capacity of the second floor and 3.81% is unsuitable for recreation. In addition, Kojour rangeland has an area of 652.74 ha, of which 87.24% has a wide recreational capacity of the second floor and 12.76% is unsuitable for recreation, Lorgan rangeland has an area of 51.80 ha, of which 12.54% has a wide recreational capacity of the second floor and 87.46% is unsuitable for recreation, and Pideh rangeland has an area of 31.9168 ha of which 57.31% has a wide second-class recreation capacity and 42.69% has unsuitable recreation. Kojour summer area is in good condition in terms of slope factor for recreational planning, especially extensive recreation. In the studies of Kumari et al. (2010) slope layer has also been used as an important factor in evaluating recreational power. The north and east directions are usually suitable for summer recreation and the south and west directions are suitable for winter recreation (Makhdom, 2010). The results of the vegetation map showed that most of the area (31.43%) includes agricultural lands and gardens, which makes the area unsuitable for recreation, and the rest of the area with forest and pasture cover with canopy density between 5 and 50 percent is suitable for extensive recreation of first and second class, which is consistent with the results of Parham et al. (2011). Loamy soils are very suitable soils for recreation (Mahmoudi, 2006; 2007; Takihkhah, 2008). In general, there is no restriction in soil texture for ecotourism use in the study area, in Farajzadeh & Karimpanah. (2008), distance from water resources was used as an important factor in assessing the recreational potential of the region. Results of studies (Mahmoudi, 2006; 2007; Takihkhah, 2008; Ahmadsani et al., 2008) also showed that distance from water resources is one of the key factors in evaluating recreational power. Access routes can increase the amount of recreation, and in principle recreational planning for areas with recreational potential is consistent with studies (Mahmodi, 2006; Takihkhah, 2008). High-pressure faults and power towers are among the limiting factors in the region that lead to reduced recreation.

    Conclusion

    The results of determining the potential of the region showed that this region has a wide recreational capacity of the first and second floors. The results showed that 65.83% of the region has recreational potential and 34.17% of the region is unsuitable for recreation due to the high slope, high altitude and the presence of agricultural lands and gardens in the area. Also, among the seven rangelands studied, Chenarbon rangeland has the best resort conditions due to having all the recreational conditions. Therefore, it is possible to suggest the rangelands of the region, with the exception of high-altitude and sloping rangelands, especially Chenarbon rangelands, for tourism, and to teach its users the necessary practical and managerial measures for this purpose.

    Keywords: Ecotourism, Geographical Information System (GIS), Kojour, systematic analysis method, summer rangelands