فهرست مطالب

Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences - Volume:7 Issue: 2, Jun 2021
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, Jun 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Nahid Alimoradi, Negar Firouzabadi * Pages 73-80

    The global pandemic of COVID-19 accounts for more than 3 million deaths globally. COVID-19 is a contagious infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Wide range of clinical manifestations from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, loss of smell and taste and mild and severe respiratory infection to death has been reported with COVID-19. However, not much is known about the role of genetics in predisposition and progression of COVID-19. It is assumed that immense diversity of symptoms in infected individuals may be due to differences in host genetic characteristics and that genetic variations may be involved in determining the outcome of disease. However, the exact underlying mechanisms of these variations is unknown to date. Profound understanding of the underlying factors such as host genetics that determine the degree of susceptibility to infection and the disease severity may assist in better prediction of the population with the highest risk of infection along with achieving better medical treatment. In this review, we focused on the play of genetic variants associated with the susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 disease in the recent pandemic.

    Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Genetics, Polymorphism
  • Maryam Monajati, Samira Sadat Abolmaali *, Alimohammad Tamaddon Pages 81-92

    Immunotherapy is a new approach applied in treatment of infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer by activating or suppressing the immune system. Pre-clinical and clinical investigations on discovering new products with high efficacy and low side effects are still ongoing. Clinical studies revealed numerous advantages of immunotherapy over chemotherapy, including prolonged progression-free survival and improved overall survival rate. However, immunotherapy may cause occasional severe adverse reactions due to an overactive immune system. This review gives an overview of new immunotherapeutic products approved by FDA/EMA in 2020. Moreover, the technologies used in manufacturing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), and CAR-T cells are explained. In 2020, mAbs approved for the first time in management of migraine, autoimmune CNS disease, and thyroid eye disorder. In addition, new ADC and CAR-T cell therapeutics were authorized by FDA for mAb-targeted treatment of metastatic breast cancer and multiple myeloma, and mantle cell lymphoma, respectively. Despite the complexity and ambiguity of the technological development, ADCs and CAR-T cell therapy have great potential for further clinical applications in cancer therapy.

    Keywords: immunotherapy, Monoclonal antibody, antibody-drug conjugate, CAR-T cell
  • Maryam Shamsaei *, Abdollah Gholami Pages 93-104

    One of the topics of modern theology in the field of theological studies is to explain the relationship between science and religion from the perspective of thinkers and researchers. Researchers in this field have different perspectives to express the relationship between science and religion in a way that includes conflict, differentiation, interaction and adaptation. The relationship between science and religion can be examined from different angles, so what is more important It examines the "relationship between religion and science" from an epistemological perspective. In this study, exploring epistemological factors means the tools and cognitive resources of the products of science and religion. This research, which is descriptive-analytical and library method, has analyzed the data after collecting documents. Discussion about the sources and tools of cognition in the two fields of science and religion, shows that based on the different epistemological foundations that we see in these two approaches, both in the definition of tools and sources of cognition and in the amount of knowledge and realism of sources there is a difference. While the scientific approach is based on the denial of abstract beings. Therefore, on the subject of the relationship between science and religion, it is appropriate to extend the discussion of the analysis of tools and resources to the discussion of "epistemological foundations" While analyzing the ontological foundations of both, the fate of many scientific controversies will be clarified in more depth. In that case, the commonalities and differences between science and religion become clear.

    Keywords: religious science, modern science, Epistemology, cognition tools, epistemological foundations
  • Seyede Zahra Ayatollahi, Gholamhosein Yousefi, Parmis Badr * Pages 105-110
    Pistachio hull (Pistacia vera from the Anacardiaceae family) is a by-product obtained after peeling pistachio fruits. Dried hull having numerous medical applications is sold in the herbal market of Iran. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, antimutagenic, cytoprotective, and antitumor activities of the hull have been proven. In the current study, two samples of pistachio hull were purchased from Shiraz, Iran. Hydrodistillation of samples and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of essential oils were carried out. Limonene and terpinolene were two major compounds of both essential oils although in previous studies, α-pinene has been reported as the major compound. The amount of limonene in samples 1 and 2 was 25.9% and 47.69% of total oils, respectively. The amount of terpinolene exceeded 24% of oils in both samples. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in both essential oils (57.65% and 94.86%). Because these compounds have numerous therapeutical effects, pistachio hull can be introduced as a valuable source for medicinal products.
    Keywords: Pistacia vera, Pistachio hull, Essential oil, GC-MS
  • Zahra Gholami, Roya Firouzi, Marzieh Rashedinia * Pages 111-116
    Food colorants are addictive substances that are creating a good and attractive appearance to foods The synthetic food dyes have been strictly controlled by the legislation in the world. Artificial food colorants may cause harmful effect on human health. As the safety of substances in some traditional food products is questionable, this study was conducted to evaluate the type and frequency of the food colorants in traditional confectionery, syrup and fruit juice, in Shiraz, Iran. Totally 806 samples were collected during 2017 to 2019. Analysis of samples was done using thin layer chromatography method according to the Iranian national standard. Results showed that 51.61% of samples did not have any additive color, and 48.39 % of samples contained artificial colors that should not be used in sweets and are not permitted for use according to the Iranian national standards. Tartrazine and Quinoline Yellow were the most frequently used as non- permitted food color. Therefore, about half of the samples are non-consumable. Use synthetic food dyes in a high percentage of supplied products in unauthorized places needs the necessity to increase supervision of relevant officials and raise the consumer awareness about the permitted food colors and adverse and toxic effects of forbidden colors.
    Keywords: food color, traditional confectionery, traditional beverage, TLC
  • Razie Sabet, Mohsen Sisakht, Leila Emami, Zahra Sabahi * Pages 117-126
    The Covid-19 pandemic is new challenge all around the world. This pandemic provides an emergency development of vaccines and drugs against this virus. As main proteases of CoV-19 have essential roles in the transmission and virulence of the virus.  So, this enzyme has been considered as a critical target to inhibit COVID-19. Natural compounds are well known as rich sources of antiviral drugs due to their structural diversity and safety. In this study, we have screened thirteen phenolic acids (Cinnamic acid and Hydroxy benzoic derivatives) to compare the potential inhibitory activity of these molecules against COVID-19 protease. Systematic molecular docking simulation was done using AutoDock 4.2.6 to achieve the binding affinities and interactions between phenolic acids and protease. Cinnamic acids are better protease inhibitors in comparison with benzoic acid derivatives. Among Cinnamic acid derivatives, Rosmarinic acid exhibited the minimum Gibbs binding energy and highest docking scores. Also, Chorgenic > Ellagic > Ferulic acid could more effective respectively . According to obtained results, Rosmarinic acid has formed strong hydrogen bonding interaction with His163A, Ser144A, Cys145A, Gly143A and Thr26A, while the propyl cyclohexadione of Rosmarinic acid formed hydrophobic interaction with residue Gly 143A. It seems that Cinnamic acid derivatives of phenolic acid, particularly Rosmarinic acid could be efficient SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitors. In the next step, it is necessary to survey the effect of these natural products in inhibition of SARS-CoV replication through cell culture and in vitro assays. This study will improve preclinical knowledge about potential of natural compounds as SARS-CoV inhibitors.
    Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, phenolic acid, main protease, docking
  • Mehrdad Hasibi *, Ali Asadollahi-Amin, Nozhat Besharati, Farahnaz Salehinia, Maryam Khoshnevis, Saiedeh Ahmadi, Sima Maziar, Goli Siri, Maryam Moosivand Darani, Maryam Taghizadeh Pages 127-134
    To assess the efficacy of interferon-beta1b (INF-beta1b) in combination with favipiravir in early treatment of patients with COVD-19 pneumonia.
    This prospective non-controlled study was performed on admitted patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease to Amir-Alam hospital. The diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia was based on positive RT-PCR test from nasopharyngeal samples and typical spiral chest CT scan findings. At the time of this study, there was the shortage of efficient anti-COVID drugs especially “Remdesivir” due to sanction of Iran. All the patients received subcutaneous IFN-beta1b plus favipiravir. The patients with severe infection received intravenous dexamethasone. Those who underwent invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, at the admission onset, were excluded from the study.
    One hundred and eighty-two patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia were included in this study. Among182 patients, 90 cases had moderate and 92 had severe pneumonia. Twenty-one cases with severe pneumonia and 14 cases with moderate pneumonia were transferred to ICU to receive invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. The mean duration of hospital ward admission and ICU stay was 10.69±7.54 and 5.45±2.72 days, respectively. One hundred and seventy-four patients (80.7 %) recovered completely and discharged without need to ICU admission. The response rate was the same in patients with moderate and severe pneumonia. Nine cases (4.9 %) were passed away. Diabetic patients had higher mortality rates.
    This study showed the efficacy of IFN-beta1b plus favipiravir in early treatment of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia who did not need to mechanical ventilation.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pneumonia, Interferon-beta1b, Favipiravir, Treatment
  • Prasenjit Mondal *, Megha Kulkarni, Rekhabai Thakur, Manukonda Kumar, Venu Kola Pages 135-150
    This present study was aimed to explore the anti obesity and anti arthritic activities of seed extracts of Citrullus vulgaris (Thunb) in cafeteria diet (CD), atherogenic diet (AD) induced obesity and Formaldehyde and Freund’s adjuvant (FA) induced arthritis in experimental animals i.e. rats. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus and maceration process respectively. Anti obesity activity of seed extracts of this plant was evaluated in CD and AD induced obesity and anti arthritic activity was evaluated in formaldehyde and FA induced arthritis in rats. Phytochemical studies with both ethanolic extract (ELSCV) and aqueous extract (AQSCV) revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, saponins, fixed oils, glycosides and steroids. No mortality or behavioral abnormality recorded in mice at the highest dose level of 2000 mg/kg tested for LD50 studies. Both the extracts with medium and high doses exhibited a significant anti obesity activity by reducing the body weight, food intake, organ and fat pads weight and serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with an increased high density levels in CD and AD induced obesity models in rats. Both extracts with medium and high doses exhibited a significant anti arthritic activity and reduced serum biochemical parameters in FA induced arthritis model in rats. The anti obesity and anti arthritic activities with extracts conformed the above mentioned activities because presence of flavonoids, saponins, fixed oils, steroids, alkaloids and glycosides.
    Keywords: Citrullus vulgaris seeds, Obesity, sibutramine, Arthritis