فهرست مطالب

Wildlife and Biodiversity - Volume:6 Issue: 2, Spring 2022
  • Volume:6 Issue: 2, Spring 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/03/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Morteza Masoudi, Hasan Zare Maivan*, Ahmadreza Mehrabian Pages 1-21

    Danae racemosaL., an endangered species, is an erect, evergreen shrub thatgrows in the shaded forest understory in the Hyrcanian forests of Iran. Except for limited knowledge of the sporadic occurrence of D. racemosain unique moist locations, there is not much information about its ecological preferences andenvironmental requirements. This study investigated the relationship of D. racemosapresence (abundance) and occurrencewith static (soilproperties and elevation from sea level) and dynamic (climate, precipitation,and human disturbance) variables.Plant and soil samples from 21 locations of occurrence (sites) of D. racemosawere collected along the Caspian Sea’ssouthern coastline. At eachsite of occurrence (site), three 100 m2(10×10 m) plotwasset up, and plant biometry and density were recorded. Soil samples were taken fromdepths of 0-25 cm and leftto air dry in the lab.Later, dried soil samples were crust leftto passthrough a 2 mm mesh sieve and analyzed for different physicochemicalproperties. Meteorological data over the past 10 years(2009-2019)in the relevant area were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. Cluster analysis classified21 sampling sitesinto fourgroups of habitats.Data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)methodsand habitats are classified based on environmental factors. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and density showed that soil texture (clay content), precipitation,and human activity are the most important factors affecting the abundance of D.racemosa. The findingsof this investigationareuseful in developing D.racemosa habitat protection, restoration,and management guidelinesas well asnecessitateurgency of awareness-raising.

    Keywords: Ecologicalfactors, habitat management, priority for conservation
  • Nafiseh Momeni*, Hamid Reza Rezaei, Mohsen Ahmadpour, Paul Hapeman Pages 22-34

    he Eurasian coot (Fulicaatra; Linnaeus, 1758)is a widely distributed waterbird consistingof four subspecies and found throughout northern Eurasia to the western Sahara, Australia,and New Zeeland that recentlyhas experienced regional population declines.Population declines may impact genetic diversity and little information is available on genetic diversity in coots. We extracted genomic DNA from muscle tissues of coots collected from Fereidoonkenar International Wetland (FIW; n = 7) and Gorgan Bay (GB; n = 5) in Iran and sequenced 513-bp of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b marker and published sequences from Genbank. Localities in Iran were characterized by two haplotypes high haplotype and low nucleotide diversities. The Fstvalue (0.177) indicated a high level of genetic differentiation between FIW and GB. The phylogenetic analysis that included published sequences, supported groupings that likely correspond to migration flyways of coots. Moreover, specimens from Australia were not associated with coots from other localities in our sample. Our results showed that cootsnumber of cyt b haplotypes was low for the overall samplebuthave retained substantial levels of genetic diversity in our study sites

    Keywords: Biodiversity, Fereidoonkenar International Wetland, Genetic Conservation, Miankaleh International WetlandResearch Article
  • Heremerose Matutes*, Libertine Agatha Densing Pages 35-60

    Leyte Sab-a Basin Peatland (LSBP) is one of the two confirmed peatlands in the Philippines threatened by land-use conversion and degradation. No published study has investigated the degradation of LSBP and its impact on the species diversity of the avian community.We conducted a rapid assessment of bird presence in the four sites (Alangalang, Sta Fe, San Miguel, and Tacloban). Species richness data were measured based ona combination of transect walks, opportunistic listing, acoustic surveys,and vantage point observation in forest edges and inside the LSBP areas.Secondary data were collated from different literature, websites, and available publications to form a unified field checklist of avifauna.We recorded 67 avifauna species from 37 families/other taxa. The highest species richness was recorded in Alangalang (41) and Sta Fe (40), followed by San Miguel and Tacloban with 33 and 26 species.We recorded18 endemics, five threatened, and 13 migratory bird species.Principal Coordinates Analysis(PCoA)revealed a high degree of dissimilarity in beta diversity among sites. Avian species that are under a threatened category and are Key Biodiversity Area trigger species: Blue-naped Parrot (Tanygnathus lucionensis), Rufous Hornbill (Buceros hydrocorax), Philippine Duck (Anas luzonica), Philippine Hanging-parrot (Loriculus philippensis), and Azure-breasted Pitta (Pitta steerii). LSBP harbored a significantly high number of avian species, thus, their ecological role in terms of habitat refuge and breeding ground for migratory, forest-dependent, threatened, endangered, and critically endangered species and endemicsshould not be disregarded. The strict protection zone should be established first, especially on the last remaining untouched areas of the peatland, while enhancing the vegetation of those affected ones

    Keywords: Critically Endangered, endemic, Key Biodiversity Area, Leyte Sab-a Basin Peatland, trigger speciesResearch Article
  • Reihaneh Rasoolzadeh*, Naghmeh Mobarghaee Dinan, Hassan Esmaeilzadeh, Yousef Rashidi Pages 61-73

    Urban greenspaces’ structure and function can promote human health and environmental quality and also decrease some challenges that have been increased due to urbanization. So,it is important to do some studies to investigate the urban trees’ diversity and structurebecause it can not only raise environmental awareness but also help policymakers for better management to achieve the desiredenvironment. According to our knowledge,there has been done no investigation on the diversity of the urban treesof Tehran. Thepresent study aims to assess the current structure and diversity of treesin Tehrangreen spaces(as a case study),using the i-Tree Eco model. Data from 316 field plots were collected during the growing season. It must be noted that the primarynumber ofplots was 330, but some of them were notaccessible. The plots were selected based ona randomizedclustersamplingmethodand analyzed using the i-Tree Eco model. Theresults indicatethat the overall tree density in Tehran isabout 97trees/ haand the number of trees isabout7,127,933. The most common tree species are Afghan pine (13.0 percent), Black locust (10.0 percent) and, Arizona cypress (9.4 percent). In Tehran, about 28 percent of the trees are Asian endemic species and most trees haveAmerican origin (26 percent of the trees). Tehran urban trees are composed of endemic and exotic tree species. Therefore, Tehran'surban forest often has a diversity that is higher than the surrounding native landscape. Thus, the paper illustrates a methodology toassessthe current structureand trees’ diversityof urban forests, which helps thedevelopment of future urban tree planting strategies and quantitative assessment

    Keywords: i-tree Eco model, Trees diversity, Urban green spaces
  • Radia Boufermes*, Zaina Amirat, Farida Khammar Pages 74-86

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in all tissues of the body, including gonadal function.InSundevall’sjird, Meriones crassus (Rodentia, Gerbillinea), caught in its natural biotope in the AlgerianSahara Desert, the testis activity was evaluated by testicular and seminal vesicles weights and plasma testosterone level.The thyroid activity was evaluated by plasma concentrations of total triiodothyronine (T3)and thyroxin (T4) using the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method.The testis activity is characterized by a maximum in spring, a regression duringsummer, a minimum in autumn,and a loweractivity in winter. The plasma concentrationsof total T3 and T4 varied non-significantly during the seasons. However, thyroid activity varied in contrast to testicular structure,especially during the breeding season when the testis activity is maximum. In order to specify the implication of thyroid function in testis seasonal variations, we investigated the relationship between both activities. This study could further explain the seasonal regulation of testicular function concerningthe environmentalcues in this jird.

    Keywords: Plasma T3, T4, Plasma testosterone, Seasonal variations, Sundevall’s jird
  • Alina Nekrich Pages 87-99

    Regular wildfire supports the balanced development of sclerophyll forests in Victoria (Australia), as well as, boreal forestsin Alberta (Canada). Also, they are a major part of local Aboriginal culture in these regions and a means of regulating ecological functions of flammable vegetation communities for improvingtheir productivity. Taking into consideration that burning is used as an effective tool for ecosystem management in Alberta and Victoria, it is relevant to assess the impacts of fire practices on the environment and to find connections between fire spread and key factors determining the scales and locations of burned areas. Basedon literary materials on fire practices, statistical data on wildfire cases occurring since the 1980s, geospatial data on the distribution of fire-prone plant communities’ locations, and results of correlation analysis of fire cases with climatic, environmental, infrastructural, and social factors author reveal the following patterns: fires frequency depends on the landscape features; an increase in the number of fire occurrences correlates with an increase of dry periods duration (number of days); human settlements, where Aboriginal population reaches 50%, are subject to fires more frequent; the risk to the environment and settlements damage on small populated rural areas is higher than on densely populated suburban and urban places. Reduction of out-of-control wildfire risk can be achieved through fire management practices directed to wildlife and biodiversity protection, considering these patterns.

    Keywords: Aboriginals, environmental hazards, flammable landscapes management, indigenous peoples, prescribed burningResearch Article
  • Bilichenko Irina N.*, Sergey A. Sedykh, Natalia N. Kichigina, Zehong Li Pages 100-114

    Forest wildfires cover vast territories of mountainous Siberia. As a result, the appearance of the landscape changes completely, as well as the properties of its components. The paper considers the impact of wildfires on the components of the mountain-taiga geosystems of the Primorskii Range, which stretches along the western shore of Lake Baikal. This is the driest area in the Baikal region, with Goletz and mountain-taiga landscapes, coupled with steppe areas. Wildfires regularly occur during hot and dry periods in all zones of the range, especially since 2015. We made landscape descriptions of the territory of the key site and compiled a map of the landscape structure with conflagration fires overlapped with partially and, optionally, completely burnt-out areas. The vegetation cover has suffered the most, and the characteristics of the hydrological regime and the properties of soils have changed. The vegetation is at the initial stage of recovery, and only a few species can be found in the herbaceous-subshrub cover. The characteristics of the water regime, primarily the temperature on the pyrogenically disturbed catchments, undergo significant changes. The mode of mineralization of streams is unstable, and the amplitudes of water level fluctuations are higher due to the destruction of the natural underlying surface of the catchment. The chemical composition of water in streams after wildfires is generally preserved. Although, an increase in the concentration of nitrates and hydrocarbons is possibly due to fires. Pyrogenic destruction of forest ecosystems inevitably leads to the degradation of mountain soils, which are restored over many decades. After fires in soils, acidity and, consequently, the content of organic matter decreases due to their mineralization.

    Keywords: Baikal region, mountain-taiga landscapes, mapping, wildfiresResearch Article