فهرست مطالب

  • سال دهم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1401)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/04/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • قاسم لرستانی، علی شهریار* صفحات 1-18

    برخان ها از فعال ترین لندفرم های تراکمی در مناطق خشک می باشند و با توجه به میزان جابجایی آن ها، می توانند سهم بسزایی در زندگی ساکنان مناطق خشک و خلق مخاطرات محیطی داشته باشد. بنابراین با توجه به نقش برخان ها در انتقال ماسه های روان به سکونتگاه ها، هدف این تحقیق شناخت میزان حرکت برخان های واقع در جنوب غربی کاروانسرای تاریخی مرنجاب می باشد چرا که حرکت این برخان ها می تواند دسترسی به این منطقه را برای گردشگران مشکل سازد. جهت انجام این پژوهش، 11 برخان از شمال بند ریگ کاشان انتخاب و با انجام بازدیدهای میدانی، استفاده از آرشیو تصاویر گوگل ارث و روش میله کوبی در سال 2013 تا 2019، فاکتورهای مربوط به جابجایی برخان ها، در دوره های زمانی مختلف بررسی و اندازه گیری شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد سرعت متوسط جابجایی برخان های منتخب 6/7 متر در سال با دامنه تغییرات بین 5/5 تا 5/8 متر می باشد و نرخ جابجایی در سه مقطع زمانی، بیانگر افزایش میزان جابجایی در دوره زمانی جدیدتر نسبت به دو دوره قبل از آن می باشد. بررسی و تحلیل ارتباط حجم با میزان حرکت برخان ها در آزمون همبستگی پیرسون از وجود همبستگی بسیار ضعیف منفی بین حجم و میزان حرکت برخان های منتخب حکایت دارد و شاخص پایایی نیز بیانگر ناپایداری و حرکت برخان های مورد مطالعه می باشد. در نهایت با توجه به دینامیک نسبتا بالای برخان های این منطقه مهم گردشگری، پیشنهاد می شود در مباحث مربوط به تثبیت ماسه های روان، به برخان ها توجه ویژه ای شود به خصوص که با توجه به شکل خاص برخان ها می توان جهت حرکت آن ها را به راحتی مشخص نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: تپه های ماسه ای، ماسه های روان، برخان، شاخص ناپایداری، بند ریگ کاشان
  • مهدی معصومی، علی اکبر عنابستانی*، غریب فاضل نیا، امیدعلی خوارزمی صفحات 19-47

    هدف تحقیق حاضر ارزیابی عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری و توسعه گردشگری تجاری در سکونتگاه های روستایی منطقه تجاری دهشیخ- سیگار در شهرستان لامرد است. این تحقیق به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، جامعه آماری تحقیق حاضر شامل دو گروه می باشد: گروه اول شامل تمامی روستاییان ساکن در 13 روستای منطقه تجاری دهشیخ -سیگار در شهرستان لامرد است که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران با سطح خطای 06/0، تعداد 235 خانوار به عنوان خانوارهای نمونه براورد و به روش تصادفی مورد پرسشگری قرار گرفتند. گروه دوم شامل 25 نفر از اساتید، خبرگان محلی و کارشناسان سازمان های مرتبط با گردشگری می باشد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، از نرم افزارهای، ANP، MABAC، DEMATEL ، Arc GIS و آزمون T تک نمونه ای در نرم افزار SPSS استفاده گردیده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که در تمامی متغیرهای تحقیق (اقتصادی 46/3، محیطی 36/3، برنامه ریزی- مدیریتی 33/3، اجتماعی- فرهنگی 25/3، زیرساختی- رفاهی 19/3 و تبلیغات، بازاریابی و اطلاع رسانی 11/3) میزان اثرگذاری عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری و توسعه گردشگری تجاری در منطقه تجاری دهشیخ- سیگار شهرستان لامرد بالاتر از میانه ی نظری (3) است. علاوه براین، معیار های تبلیغات، بازاریابی و اطلاع رسانی و اقتصادی به ترتیب با وزن نرمال 304/0 و 261/0 دارای بیشترین تاثیر در توسعه و شکل گیری گردشگری تجاری در منطقه مورد مطالعه می باشند. در نهایت نتایج حاصل از تکنیک MABAC، نشان داد که، عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری و توسعه گردشگری تجاری در روستاهای سیگار، دهشیخ و کره مچی دارای بیشترین تاثیر، در روستای چاه شیخ، چاه نوده شیخ، کاکلی و جری دارای عملکرد متوسط و در سایر روستاها از عملکرد ضعیفی برخوردار می باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه گردشگری، گردشگری تجاری، توسعه روستایی، استان فارس
  • احمد مزیدی*، وحید سلامتی هرمزی، کمال امیدوار، غلامعلی مظفری صفحات 47-65

    این پژوهش با بهره گیری از روش ناپارامتریک من کندال و آزمون شیب سن، روند تغییرات بارش، در مقیاس سالانه، فصلی و حداکثر بارش 24 ساعته جنوب شرق ایران مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. داده های مورد استفاده در این تحقیق ، داده های بارش روزانه 17 ایستگاه سینوپتیک سه استان سیستان و بلوچستان، هرمزگان و کرمان طی دوره 2016-1987 می باشد خروجی آنها به صورت جداول، نمودارها ونقشه های روند در محیط نرم افزار سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی تهیه گردید. نتایج حاصل از روش من-کندال نشان داد روند میانگین بارش سالانه و همچنین فصول بهار، تابستان و پاییز جنوبشرق ایران معنی دار نبوده و تنها بارش زمستان دارای روند معنی دار و از نوع کاهشی میباشد. برآورد شیب سن حاکی از کاهش شیب بارش جنوب شرق ایران در فصل زمستان برابر با 350/0- میلی متر در سال است. روند بارش سالانه ایستگاه های بندرعباس، بندرلنگه، ابوموسی و کیش در سطح 95% و ایستگاه های جاسک و ایرانشهر در سطح 90% معنی دار و کاهشی می باشد. آماره های آزمون سن نشان دادند که بیشترین کاهش بارش سالانه، مربوط به ایستگاه بندرلنگه به میزان 16/4- میلی متر در سال است. در فصول بهار، تابستان و پاییز، روند بارش در هیچ یک از ایستگاه های جنوب شرق ایران معنی دار نبوده و بارش فصل زمستان در ایستگاه های بندرلنگه، جاسک و کیش در سطح معنی داری 95% دارای روند کاهشی می باشد. بررسی تغییرات بارش بارش24 ساعته نشان داد که بارش مذکور در اکثر ایستگاه ها دارای روندی کاهشی بوده، که این روند در ایستگاه های بندرعباس در سطح 9/99 درصد و در ایستگاه های بندرلنگه، جاسک، ابوموسی و کیش در سطح 95% معنی دار می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: بارش، روند، من-کندال، شیب سن، جنوب شرق ایران
  • ستاره تازه دل، سید مسلم سیدالحسینی*، اسماعیل شیعه، کیومرث حبیبی صفحات 65-83

    نواحی مادرشهری باید قلمروهای متنوعی را مدیریت کنند و مدیریت آن‎ها فراتر از مدیریت محلی است. روابط و پیوندهای بین عناصر و فعالیت‎ها تا حدی بدون مرز و پیچیده است و هدایت آن نیازمند مدیریتی در سطح منطقه‎ای خواهد بود. این مقاله با هدف تدوین مدلی برای مدیریت یکپارچه‎ی ناحیه‎ی مادرشهری مشهد انجام شده است. روش تحقیقی این مقاله نوع نظریه‎ی زمینه‎ای است. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات مصاحبه‎ی نیمه‎ساختاریافته است. جامعه‎ی آماری خبرگان و متخصصین حوزه‎ی مدیریت شهری مشهد درنظرگرفته شده است. روش نمونه‎گیری ترکیبی هدفمند است؛ که از ترکیب دو روش معیاری و گلوله‎برفی شناسی شده‎اند. روش تحلیل داده‎های مصاحبه نیز به صورت تفسیری می‎باشد و از نرم افزار Atlas-Ti استفاده شده است. همچنین برای اولویت‎بندی مولفه‎های منتج شده از مدل از روش SWARA که یکی از روش‎های تصمیم‎گیری چند معیاره است استفاده می‎شود. ابزار گرآوری در این بخش پرسشنامه است. یافته‎های مصاحبه 12 مولفه‎ی اصلی و 4 مولفه محوری را برای دستیابی به مدیریت یکپارچه در ناحیه‎ی مادرشهری مشهد شناسایی کردند. مولفه‎های طرح‎های ملی و منطقه‎ای، قوانین و مقررات، پویایی قوانین متناسب با مسایل موجود و مشارکت انواع بخش‎های مدنی و خصوصی، دولتی و عمومی، مهم‎ترین عوامل موثر در دستیابی به مدیریت یکپارچه‎ی ناحیه‎ی مادرشهری مشهد هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: تفرق مدیریتی، ناحیه‎ ی مادرشهری، مدیریت یکپارچه، نظریه‎ ی زمینه‎ ای، SWARA
  • محمد فاریابی* صفحات 83-100

    در سال های اخیر، کاهش ذخایر آب زیرزمینی موجود در آبخوان های آبرفتی باعث توجه به منابع آب موجود در سازندهای متراکم شده است. یکی از مهمترین انواع سازندهای متراکم از دیدگاه هیدروژیولوژی، سنگ های آهکی هستند. در جنوب شرق دشت جیرفت، سنگ های آهکی دوساری متعلق به دوره الیگومیوسن (معادل سازند قم) رخنمون دارند. این تحقیق به منظور تعین عوامل موثر بر رفتار هیدروژیولوژیکی چشمه های موجود در این سنگ ها انجام شده است. به این منظور از داده های آبدهی و کیفیت آب چشمه های موجود استفاده شده است. شکستگی ها و خطواره ها نیز با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره ای استخراج و مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد با وجود خاستگاه یکسان چشمه ها، تفاوت هایی در میزان آبدهی و روند تغییرات زمانی آن مشاهده می شود. بر اساس مطالعات انجام شده رژیم تغذیه چشمه ها، یک رژیم انتشاری است. بر اساس مدل مفهومی تهیه شده در این تحقیق، تفاوت در مساحت حوضه آبگیر چشمه های مورد مطالعه و مسیرهای متفاوت جریان آب در آبخوان کارستی، باعث تفاوت آبدهی چشمه ها و روند تغییرات زمانی متفاوت آن ها شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: آب زیرزمینی، چشمه کارستی، دبی، پارامترهای کیفی، توده آهکی دوساری
  • اسماعیل نصیری هنده خاله*، حسن حکمت نیا، اسحاق جلالیان، منصور رضاعلی، فهیمه جمالی هنجنی صفحات 101-119

    احساس امنیت گردشگران در فضاهای تاریخی شهر امری انکارناپذیر است، لذا امنیت از اثرگذارترین شاخص های جذب گردشگردراین گونه فضاهای شهری محسوب می شود. در میان عوامل تاثیرگذار برامنیت گردشگران، مولفه های کالبدی بافت تاریخی شهر دارای اهمیت ویژه ای است که کمتر به آن توجه شده است بنابراین هدف این پژوهش بررسی مولفه های تاثیرگذار بر امنیت در دربافتهای تاریخی در شهر یزد است. این شهر با داشتن جاذبه های گردشگری تاریخی هر ساله تعدادزیادی از گردشگران را جذب می کند. پژوهش حاضر از لحاظ هدف کاربردی و از لحاظ ماهیت و روش - توصیفی، تحلیلی با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کلیه گردشگران تشکیل می دهد که تعداد حجم نمونه با استفاده از روش دسترسی 189 نفر محاسبه شد. روایی سوالات پرسشنامه توسط اساتید و متخصصان حوزه گردشگری شهری تایید شد و پایایی آن نیز با استفاده از آزمون آلفای کرونباخ رقم 748/0 محاسبه شد. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده های حاصل از مطالعات پیمایشی از نرم فزار SPSS استفاده شد. براساس نتایج پژوهش همه مولفه های کالبدی (کیفیت معابر، مبلمان و پوشش گیاهی، فرم و خوانایی بافت، تنوع کاربری و کالبدی) بر احساس امنیت گردشگران تاثیرگذار هستند. محاسبات نشان داد که متغیرهای فرم و خوانایی بافت با 328/0 Beta=و تنوع کالبدی و کاربری نسبت به سایر متغیرها پیش بینی کننده قوی تر هستند. کاربرد پژوهش آن است که یافته های آن میتواند افق گسترده ای را فراروی برنامه ریزان برای جذب گردشگران ارایه دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، محور گردشگری، بافت تاریخی، شهریزد
  • علی اکبر تقی پور*، ابوالفضل مشایخی، پارسا احمدی دهرشید صفحات 119-141

    یکی از نیازهای اولیه شهروندان، جابجایی در شهر است. برای پاسخ به این نیاز، روش های مختلفی نظیر استفاده از سیستم حمل ونقل عمومی و خودرو شخصی وجود دارد. تاکسیرانی یکی از روش های حمل ونقل عمومی است. این سیستم، با پیشرفت زیرساخت های اینترنتی دستخوش تحولاتی شده است. تاکسیرانی اینترنتی آخرین تحول در استفاده از تاکسی است. این پژوهش باهدف شناسایی عوامل موثر در رضایتمندی شهروندان از تاکسی های اینترنتی در شهر دامغان، انجام شده است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی-تحلیلی است و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از روش های کتابخانه ای و پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. مقدار KMO در این پژوهش برابر 938/0است که این عدد نشان می دهد داده ها برای تحلیل عاملی مناسب هستند. نتایج این بررسی نشان می دهد که چهار عامل در رضایتمندی شهروندان از حمل ونقل عمومی اینترنتی موثر است که عبارت اند از: دسترسی و رفاه اقتصادی، امکانات رفاهی، قانون مندی و امکان جابجایی کالا. این عوامل 781/72درصد از موضوع را تبیین کرده اند. دراین بین، عامل دسترسی و رفاه اقتصادی با62/24 درصد از واریانس کل،بیشترین تبیین کنندگی را در میان عوامل داشته است. پس از آن عوامل قانون مندی با 24/21، امکانات رفاهی با 28/16 و امکان جابجایی کالا با 52/10 به ترتیب بیشترین تبیین کنندگی را دارا بوده اند. سنجش این عوامل در شهر دامغان نشان می دهد که رضایت شهروندان از عامل دسترسی و رفاه اقتصادی و قانون مندی در سطح متوسط قرار دارد. همچنین نبود نظارت کافی بر رانندگان و وجود طیف گسترده ای از اتومبیل ها در ناوگان باعث شده است تا رضایت شهروندان از عامل امکانات رفاهی در سطح متوسط ارزیابی شود.

    کلیدواژگان: حمل ونقل عمومی، رضایتمندی، سیستم های نوین حمل ونقل، تحلیل عاملی، دامغان
  • علی دلشاد* صفحات 141-168

    در فضای بسیار رقابتی گردشگری عصر حاضر، مقصدهایی شانس رقابت ‏پذیری بیشتری دارند که بتوانند از نظر شاخص‏های رقابت ‏پذیری و جذب گردشگران نوین، موقعیت‏های ممتازی را کسب کنند. هوشمند شدن مقصدهای گردشگری یکی از عوامل کسب این موقعیت ممتاز است. هدف از انجام این تحقیق، سنجش، شناسایی و تحلیل وضعیت هوشمندی و رقابت‏پذیری مقصد گردشگری شهر یزد در کل و به تفکیک مولفه‏ های هریک است. برای دستیابی به هدف تحقیق سه مرحله پژوهشی تدوین گردید. در مرحله اول با روش تحلیل داده ‏های آرشیوی به ‏گردآوری و تلفیق پژوهش‎های پیشین و تعیین مولفه ‏ها و شاخص‏های سنجش هوشمندی و رقابت ‏پذیری مقصدهای گردشگری شهری پرداخته شده و یافته‏ ها با استفاده از نظر خبرگان گردشگری اعتبارسنجی گردید. در مرحله دوم، با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه و نظرسنجی از خبرگان گردشگری شهر یزد، داده‏ های مربوط به وضعیت هوشمندی و رقابت‏ پذیری مقصد گردشگری شهر یزد گردآوری و میزان تاثیر هریک از مولفه‏ های هوشمندی و رقابت‏پذیری تعیین شد. در مرحله سوم با استفاده از آزمون تی تک نمونه ‏ای، وضعیت هوشمندی و رقابت ‏پذیری مقصد گردشگری شهر یزد در کل و به تفکیک مولفه ‏های هریک سنجیده شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که بر اساس آزمون تی تک نمونه‏ای، وضعیت هوشمندی و مولفه ‏های آن در شهر یزد پایین‏تر از میانگین است. نتیجه این آزمون از نظر رقابت‏پذیری، نشان داد که وضعیت چهار مولفه سیاست و برنامه‏ ریزی گردشگری، مدیریت مقصد، زیرساخت‏های عمومی و خدمات گردشگری در شهر یزد پایین‏تر از میانگین است.

    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، هوشمندی، رقابت ‏پذیری، مقصد گردشگری یزد
  • فاطمه درگاهیان*، سمانه رضوی زاده صفحات 169-187

    در این مقاله به منظور تعیین سهم عوامل اقلیمی موثر بر رخداد گردوغبار از داده های مربوط به پارامترهای هواشناسی و شاخص های اقلیمی و برخی از نمایه های تغییر اقلیم استفاده شده است. نمایه های تغییر اقلیم با استفاده از نرم افزارClimPACT در محیط برنامه نویسی R 2.10 محاسبه شدند. در این تحقیق گردوغبارهای داخلی و خارجی از هم تفکیک و سپس به منظورتعیین سهم اهمیت هریک از عوامل در رخداد انها از اجراهای مختلف شبکه عصبی پرسپترون چند لایه استفاده گردید. در این بررسی70 درصد داده ها به عنوان داده ی آموزشی و30 درصد داده ها به عنوان داده ی تست وارد شبکه گردید. جهت ارزیابی دقت توابع مختلف، مجموع مربعات خطای داده های آموزشی، مجموع مربعات خطای داده های تست، خطای نسبی داده های آموزشی، خطای نسبی داده های تست و همچنین ضریب همبستگی بین مقادیر اندازه گیری شده و تخمین زده شده رخداد گردوغبار و عوامل اقلیمی با یکدیگر مقایسه گردید و در نهایت مدلی که کمترین میزان خطا و بیشترین ضریب همبستگی را نشان داد، به عنوان مدل بهینه انتخاب شد. نتایج نشان داد؛ 77 درصد گردوغبارها با منشاء خارج از ایستگاه و 33 درصد با منشاء اطراف ایستگاه ثبت شده است. . عامل متوسط حداقل رطوبت، بارش موثر و فراوانی رخداد باد و دو روز مرطوب متوالی به ترتیب بیشترین سهم اهمیت را در رخداد گردوغبارهای خارجی داشته اند.در رخداد گردوغبارهای داخلی و یا با منشاء اطراف ، متوسط رطوبت وسرعت باد 6 متربرثانیه، خشکسالی SPEIو باد با سرعت 15 متر بر ثانیه به ترتیب اهمیت قرار دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: گردغبار داخلی و خارجی، کریدور باد، رسوبات ریزدانه، مدل های شبکه عصبی
  • محمود آروین*، احمد پوراحمد صفحات 189-216

    فرم شهرها در ایران به خصوص کلان شهرها به صورت پراکنده گسترش یافته است. اما شهرسازی سنتی در ایران همواره با توجه به ساختار فضایی فشرده در ارتباط با زمینه خود (جغرافیا، فرهنگ) شکل می گرفته است. فشردگی در فرم و ساختار فضایی شهری مفهومی است که برای سازمان دهی شهرها از حالت آشفتگی و پراکندگی مطرح می شود و به طور گسترده در برنامه ریزی و توسعه شهری پایدار، شهر فشرده را تفسیری عمیق از آنچه که یک شهر پایدار باید باشد، می دانند. هدف اصلی پژوهش، سنجش پذیرش اجتماعی شهر فشرده در شهر اهواز می باشد. تحقیق از نظر هدف، کاربردی، از نظر روش توصیفی -تحلیلی است. با بررسی مطالعات مرتبط شاخص های تحقیق در دو بخش شهر فشرده و توسعه پایدار شهری تدوین گردید. جامعه آماری اول شهروندان شهر اهواز می باشند که با توجه جمعیت شهر اهواز با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 384 نفر به عنوان حجم نمونه انتخاب گردید. جامعه آماری دوم شامل متخصصان مدیران و کارشناسان برنامه ریزی شهری شهر اهواز می باشد که با استفاده از نمونه گیری هدفمند 30 نفر به عنوان حجم نمونه انتخاب شده است. به منظور تحلیل داده ها از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری در نرم افزارهای Amos و Smart-pls استفاده گردید. نتایج حاکی از این است شاخص های شهر فشرده شامل تراکم، تنوع، تشدید و حمل ونقل عمومی بر شاخص های توسعه پایدار شهری شامل محیطی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی در شهر اهواز تاثیر مثبت و معنی داری دارند. بنابراین شهروندان و مدیران بهره گیری از شهر فشرده را بسترساز تحقق توسعه پایدار شهری در شهر اهواز می دانند.

    کلیدواژگان: فرم شهری، شهر فشرده، توسعه پایدار شهری، اهواز، مدل سازی ساختاری
  • هاجر ناصحی، حمید صابری*، صفر قائد رحمتی، احمد خادم الحسینی صفحات 217-237

    مکانهای سوم بعنوان یکی از مهمترین نهادهای حوزه عمومی، مکانهای عمومی و جذابی هستند که به زندگی غیر رسمی شهروندان معنا میدهند. این پژوهش به لحاظ هدف توسعه ای کاربردی و از لحاظ روش شناسی توصیفی تحلیلی مبتنی بر مطالعات کتابخانه ای و بررسی های میدانی است. جامه آماری کلیه ساکنان مناطق (3، 4، 6، 8 و 9) شهر اصفهان هستند. که 375 نفربعنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. برای دستیابی به اهداف تحقیق، شاخص های 16 گانه شامل (مکان های سوم، دسترسی، دعوت کنندگی، پویایی و سرزندگی، آسایش و امنیت، انعطاف پذیری، عملکرد، فرم، معنا و محتوا، پایداری اجتماعی، امنیت اجتماعی، تعامل اجتماعی، عدالت اجتماعی، مشارکت اجتماعی،حس تعلق اجتماعی و هویت اجتماعی) استخراج شد. برای کشف روند الگو جهت طبقه بندی شاخصهای پایداری و نقش مکانهای سوم بر آنها از آزمون های T تک نمونه ای، همبستگی پیرسون، و آزمون فریدمن استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد، شاخص‏های ‏16 گانه پایداری مکان های سوم ؛ مناطق منتخب شهر اصفهان وضعیت نسبتا مناسبی دارند. نتایج پراکندگی شاخص های کلان در بخش مکان های سوم به عنوان مقادیر خروجی به صورت خوشه ای تثبیت و دارای یک خودهمبستگی فضایی مثبت (الگوی متمرکز) بودند،بین مناطق مختلف شهری بالاترین میزان پایداری اجتماعی مکان های سوم مربوط به مناطق 3 و 4 شهری و پایین ترین میزان پایداری اجتماعی در مناطق 6 و 8 شهری بوده است که این خود به خود ارتباط مستقیمی با میزان جمعیت و سطح سرانه-های موجود با توجه به حجم جمعیت، مساحت ، طول شبکه معابر و متوسط تولید پسماند و همچنین مساحت پارک های شهری در سطح مناطق منتخب شهر اصفهان را دارا می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: تبیین، مکان های سوم، پایداری، اصفهان، شاخص اجتماعی
  • سجاد بازوند*، محمدکریم رئیسی صفحات 239-258

    هدف پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی اثرات حکمروایی خوب روستایی بر زیست پذیری روستاهای گردشگرپذیر تمندان است. این پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش کار توصیفی- تحلیلی است که به دو روش مطالعه کتابخانه ای و پیمایشی میدانی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را تمام مردم روستای تمندان که بر طبق سرشماری سال 1395، 272 نفر است تشکیل می دهد که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران به تعداد 160 پرسشنامه به صورت تصادفی ساده تکمیل شده است. جهت روایی پرسشنامه از نظرات اساتید و کارشناسان مربوطه استفاده شده است. همچنین جهت بدست آوردن پایایی پرسنامه از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شده است. مقدار آلفای کرونباخ بدست آمده برای شاخص های حکمروایی برابر 84/0 و برای شاخص های زیست-پذیری 81/0 بدست آمده است.برای تجزیه و تحلیل یافته های پژوهش از آزمون تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و آزمون تی تک نمونه ای استفاده شده است.نتایج آزمون تی تک نمونه ای نشان داد که وضعیت حکمروایی خوب روستایی با میانگین 884/2 در روستای تمندان پایین تر از حد مطلوب و وضعیت زیست پذیری با میانگین 100/3 بالا تر از حد مطلوب ارزیابی شده است. نتایج ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین شاخص های حکمروایی و زیست پذیری ارتباط قوی و معناداری برقرار است شاخص برابری با ضریب همبستگی 676/0 بیشترین رابطه و همبستگی را با زیست پذیری و شاخص آگاهی اجتماعی با ضریب همبستگی 556/0 کمترین رابطه و همبستگی با زیست پذیری را دارد.همچنین نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نشان داد که حکمروایی بیشترین تاثیر را با ضریب بتای 365/0 برمتغیر اجتماعی دارد و کمترین تاثیر را با ضریب بتای 132/0 بر متغیر زیست محیطی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: حکروایی، حکمروایی خوب روستایی، زیست پذیری، روستاهای گردشگرپذیر، روستای تمندان
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  • Ghasem Lorestani, Ali Shahriar * Pages 1-18
    Introduction

    Wind erosion and the formation of sand dunes are common phenomena in many arid regions around the world. More than 100 types of sand dunes have been classified by geomorphologists based on shape and size criteria (Lancaster, 1995). One of the most common and simple types of sand dunes, in areas with one-way winds throughout the year and the inability of sand to cover the entire surface of the area, is the crescent-shaped hills called Barchan (Suerman et al., 2000). Barchan is a single crescent-shaped hill that forms a cohesive and solid surface on the ground, such as a ridge, pediment, or desert pavement (Cook et al. 1993).

    Methodology

    To do this research, 11 barchans from the southwest of Mariana Rig were selected, 30 km from Aranbidgol city. Using the images of the Google Earth software archive, the determination of the area of the study area was carried out and then, with field observations, the measurements of the barchans were made. The Google Earth software was used to check and record the amount of displaced barchans over time periods between 2013 and 2019. Also, by using the bar method in 2013 and estimating the amount of displacement relative to the fixed bars in 2019, the measurement of the speed of the barchans along with parameters of area, volume, height, density, periodic variation and length to width ratio Was evaluated and analyzed. Also, in order to investigate the role of wind in the movement of Aeolian sand and Barchans, the 31-year statistics of Kashan meteorological station were used. For this purpose, the desired data was entered in Wrplot 5.0 software and finally the annual flower of Kashan station was drawn. The wind of Kashan station indicates the prevailing northeast wind in this region.

    Findings

    The maximum total total displacement during the years 2019-2013 in Barchan No. 9 has been calculated at 68 meters with an average annual displacement rate of 8.5 per year. The minimum total total displacement during the years 2019-2013 has been calculated in Barchan No. 7 at the rate of 43.9 meters with an average annual rate of 5.5 meters. The rate of 103.5 percent compared to the percentage of negative changes of 93.34, shows the net rate of change of 10.16 percent positive. In other words, during the years 2013 to 2019, the rate of expansion of sand dunes in the study area shows an increasing trend, and on the other hand, the sand zone created during the years 2013 to 2019 has had a lot of area fluctuations. According to the reliability index, the higher the annual displacement of the Barchans, the more unfavorable the reliability index will be. According to Table 8, most of the brooches in the study area with a displacement between 6 to 9 meters are in the category of instability and only one brook is in the category of very low reliability.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the average displacement speed of selected Barchans is 7.6 meters per year with a range of changes between 5.5 to 8.5 meters per year and the displacement rate in three time periods indicates an increase in displacement in the period 2019-2017 compared to two The period is before that. Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between volume and cell movement. Pearson correlation between the two variables is calculated to be -19.19 and sig is equal to 0.558, which indicates a very weak negative correlation between the volume and the amount of movement of the selected braces. It is somewhat reduced and this correlation is not completely linear. However, the study of the relationship between length to width ratio with the amount of cell movement shows that by increasing and decreasing the length to width ratio from a numerical value of one, the amount of cell movement decreases significantly. In other words, the maximum displacement of selected Barchans will be when there is a proportion in the ratio of length and width of Barchans. Looking at the periods under study, it can be seen that during the years 2019-2013, when the length-to-width ratio is around one, the highest amount of Barchans movement has occurred. Precipitation also plays a very important role in the rate of cell displacement. The annual precipitation data of Kashan station during the years 2019-2013 indicate the direct effect of rainfall on the displacement of the Barchans, so that in the years with increasing rainfall, the movement of the studied Barchans has increased and in the years with decreasing rainfall, the movement of the Barchans can be significantly Attention has been reduced. The reliability index also indicates the instability of the studied Barchans, so that according to the calculated amount of movement of selected Barchans, this index indicates the average movement of regional Barchans compared to the amount of movement recorded in previous studies in Iran and the world.

    Keywords: Sand Dunes, Blowing sand, Barchans, Instability index, Band-e-Rig Kashan
  • Mahdi Masoumi, Aliakbar Anabestani *, Gharib Fazelnia, Omid Ali Kharazmi Pages 19-47

    This research is descriptive-analytical. The statistical population of the present study includes two groups: The first group includes all villagers living in 13 villages of Dehshikh-Sigar commercial area in Lamerd county. Using Cochran's formula with 0.6 error level, 235 households were estimated as sample households and were randomly surveyed. The second group includes 25 professors, local experts and experts from tourism-related organizations. To analyze the data, software, ANP, MABAC, DEMATEL, Arc GIS and single-sample T test were used in SPSS software. The research findings confirm that: in all research variables (economic 3.46, environmental 36.3, planning-management 33.3, socio-cultural 3.25, infrastructure-welfare 3.19 and advertising, marketing And Information 3.11) The impact of factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism in the Dehshikh-Sigar commercial area, Lamerd city is higher than the theoretical average (3). Also, the results of pairwise comparison of factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism using the ANP method, according to experts, showed that the criteria of advertising, marketing and information, and economics with normal weight of 0.304 and 0.261 have the greatest impact information And the development of commercial tourism in the study area. Finally, the results of the MABAC technique showed that, the factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism in the villages of Sigar, Dehshikh and karehmoochi have the most impact, in the village of Chah Sheikh, Chah Nodeh Sheikh, Kakoli and Jari with moderate performance and In other villages, they have poor performance.The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism in rural settlements of Dehshikh-Sigar commercial area in Lamerd county. This research is descriptive-analytical. The statistical population of the present study includes two groups: The first group includes all villagers living in 13 villages of Dehshikh-Sigar commercial area in Lamerd county. Using Cochran's formula with 0.6 error level, 235 households were estimated as sample households and were randomly surveyed. The second group includes 25 professors, local experts and experts from tourism-related organizations. To analyze the data, software, ANP, MABAC, DEMATEL, Arc GIS and single-sample T test were used in SPSS software. The research findings confirm that: in all research variables (economic 3.46, environmental 36.3, planning-management 33.3, socio-cultural 3.25, infrastructure-welfare 3.19 and advertising, marketing And Information 3.11) The impact of factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism in the Dehshikh-Sigar commercial area, Lamerd city is higher than the theoretical average (3). Also, the results of pairwise comparison of factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism using ANP method, according to experts, showed that the criteria of advertising, marketing and information and economics with normal weight of 0.304 and 0.261 have the greatest impact in formation And the development of commercial tourism in the study area. Finally, the results of MABAC technique showed that, the factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism in the villages of Sigar, Dehshikh and karehmoochi have the most impact, in the village of Chah Sheikh, Chah Nodeh Sheikh, Kakoli and Jari with moderate performance and In other villages, they have poor performance.The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism in rural settlements of Dehshikh-Sigar commercial area in Lamerd county. This research is descriptive-analytical. The statistical population of the present study includes two groups: The first group includes all villagers living in 13 villages of Dehshikh-Sigar commercial area in Lamerd county. Using Cochran's formula with 0.6 error level, 235 households were estimated as sample households and were randomly surveyed. The second group includes 25 professors, local experts and experts from tourism-related organizations. To analyze the data, software, ANP, MABAC, DEMATEL, Arc GIS and single-sample T test were used in SPSS software. The research findings confirm that: in all research variables (economic 3.46, environmental 36.3, planning-management 33.3, socio-cultural 3.25, infrastructure-welfare 3.19 and advertising, marketing And Information 3.11) The impact of factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism in the Dehshikh-Sigar commercial area, Lamerd city is higher than the theoretical average (3). Also, the results of pairwise comparison of factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism using ANP method, according to experts, showed that the criteria of advertising, marketing and information and economics with normal weight of 0.304 and 0.261 have the greatest impact in formation And the development of commercial tourism in the study area. Finally, the results of MABAC technique showed that, the factors affecting the formation and development of commercial tourism in the villages of Sigar, Dehshikh and karehmoochi have the most impact, in the village of Chah Sheikh, Chah Nodeh Sheikh, Kakoli and Jari with moderate performance and In other villages, they have poor performance.

    Keywords: Tourism Development, Commercial tourism, Rural Development, Fars province
  • Vahid Salamati Hormozi, Kamal Omidvar, Gholamali Mozafari Pages 47-65
    Introduction

    Precipitation as the most important climatic element is always studied from two perspectives of time and place. Emphasis on the time perspective determines temporal changes and emphasis on the location perspective determines the spatial variation of precipitation. Since Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid region, it lacks large internal and adjacent water resources to supply moisture to its precipitation, and as a result, most of its precipitation moisture sources must be supplied from the surrounding water levels. One of the methods that can be used to study the course of rainfall in the past and present is to analyze the trend of time series at different scales. So far, statistical methods have been presented for the analysis of time series routines, which can be divided into two general categories: parametric and non-parametric methods. Southeastern Iran, which includes Sistan-Baluchestan province, Kerman, southern Khorasan and the eastern parts of Hormozgan province, They are one of the arid regions of Iran. Restriction on water resources and annual precipitation in this part of the country have severely limited agricultural and industrial activities. The lives and deaths of the majority of people are also related to the low precipitation that falls throughout the year. Therefore, considering that a comprehensive study on precipitation trends in the region has not been done, the purpose of this study is to investigate the annual and seasonal precipitation trends by stations in southeastern Iran. The results of this study can play an important role in understanding the precipitation trend in the southeast region for planning related to water resources management, management of unexpected events such as floods and also the optimal utilization of those precipitations.

    Methodology

    In order to conduct this study, in order to recruit rainy periods, daily precipitation data were obtained from synoptic stations in the southeast of the country, including selected stations in the three provinces of Hormozgan, Sistan and Baluchestan and Kerman during a 30-year period (1987-2016). Two Mann-Kendall tests and the Sen’s Slope Estimate are among the most common non-parametric methods of trend analysis when considering hydrometeorology. Various studies conducted using these two methods indicate the importance of their widespread use in the rapid evolution of time. Identify the data change using the Man-Kendall method, specify its type and time. The non-parametric Kendall test was proposed by Mann and then developed by Kendall (1975) based on ranking data in a time series. This method is widely and widely used in the analysis of the process of hydrological and meteorological series.

    Discussion and results

    The trend of average annual, seasonal precipitation and maximum 24-hour precipitation in southeastern Iran Considering that in the annual, seasonal and maximum 24-hour precipitation trend diagrams, the intersection of the U and U' sequences above and below the significant lines did not occur, which means that acceptance is random (acceptance of H0 hypothesis) and there is no significant trend (H1) variable. Precipitation is in the southeast of Iran and in fact the condition is -1.96 (ti)< U or 1.96 (ti) >U and has a static series.In the Sen's Slope Estimate test, the total reduction of winter precipitation slope was equal to -0.350 mm, which in the case of 95% confidence of the upper and lower slopes of this slope is equal to -0.123 and -0.835, respectively, and in the case of 99% of the slopes. High and low are 1.604 and -2.318, respectively, per year. The Sen’s Slope Estimate test for annual rainfall, summer, autumn, winter and maximum 24-hour precipitation has estimated the negative precipitation slope. Mann Kendall test estimate shows a decrease in precipitation in winter of -1.71 per year.Annual, seasonal and maximum 24-hour precipitation trend by stations in southeastern IranIn the study of changes in annual precipitation using Mann-Kendall test, it is observed that the annual precipitation trend in most stations in the southeast (except Bam and Chabahar) has a decreasing trend. The Sen’s Slope Estimate showed is the highest precipitation at any given time at Bandar-Lengeh station at -4.16 mm per year. The time series of Man-Kendall test in the seasons of the year indicates that in spring, summer and autumn, the precipitation trend in most stations is decreasing, but this trend is not significant in any of the stations in southeastern Iran and only in winter precipitation In Bandar-Lengeh, Jask and Kish stations, it has a decreasing trend at 95% significance level. Sen’s Slope Estimate data showed that the amount of precipitation decreases in the mentioned stations.

    Conclusion

    The results of by using Methods the Mann-Kendall test showed that the mean annual precipitation trend as well as spring, summer and autumn seasons of southeast Iran was not significant and only winter precipitation had a significant and decreasing trend. Estimates of the slope of sen indicate that the slope of precipitation in southeastern Iran in winter is -0.350 mm in year. The annual precipitation trend of BandarAbbas, BandarLengeh, Abumousa and Kish stations at 95% and Jask and Iranshahr stations at 90% were significant. Test statistics showed that the highest annual precipitation reduction was at the Bandar-e-Lange station at -4.16 mm in year. In spring, summer, and fall, precipitation was not significant in any of the stations in the southeast of Iran and winter precipitation in Bandar-e-Lengh, Jask, and Kish stations had a 95% significant decrease. Assessment of 24-hour rainfall variations showed that the above mentioned precipitation had a decreasing trend at 99.9% at BandarAbbas stations and 95% at Bandarlange, Jask, Abumousa and Kish stations. According to the tests and analyzes performed in this study, what is certain is that in all stations in southeastern Iran, a significant positive trend in annual, seasonal and maximum 24-hour rainfall was not observed at the level of 99% and 95%, and most precipitation trends from It is a kind of decrease and has revealed the fact of decrease in rainfall in the southeastern climate of Iran during the years 1987 to 2016, which decrease in annual rainfall is mostly related to the winter of -1.71 per year.

    Keywords: Precipitation, Trend, Man-Kendall, Sen’s Slope, Southeast of Iran
  • Setareh Tazehdel, Seyed Moslem Seyedolhosseini *, Esmail Shieh, Kiomars Habibi Pages 65-83
    Introduction

    Management and planning at the level of metropolitan areas can not be limited to the boundaries of the city (Rahmani, 2013); Because metropolitan areas have to manage diverse domains (Pirlone, 2017). The management of Iranian metropolitan in the main city and surrounding settlements (urban and rural areas) is separate and the organization is not responsible for coordination between organizations and municipalities. The management of these areas is limited to the program and plan level only. The metropolitan area of Mashhad suffers from disorder due to managerial divisions in the region. This study aims to develop a model for integrated management of Mashhad metropolitan area and seeks to answer the question of what factors should be considered to achieve managerial integration at the level of Mashhad metropolitan area? In the following, the components obtained from the final model will be prioritized.

    Methodology

    This research has been done in two stages. In the first stage, the integrated management model of Mashhad metropolitan area is determined and in the second stage, the categories affecting the integrated management of Mashhad metropolitan area are prioritized. In the first stage, a qualitative method based on grounded theory is used. A systematic method that has three main stages: open encryption, axial encryption, and selective encryption. To collect qualitative information, semi-structured interviews with experts and specialists in the field of urban and regional management in Mashhad have been used. In the second step, the SWARA method is used to prioritize the categories. SWARA is one of the structural equation modeling methods. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared for city managers. The sample size was 60 people. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed based on the views and opinions of experts. Reliability was also assessed as good with Cronbach's alpha confirmation. Finally, the components were prioritized by calculating the final normal weight.

    Discussion and Results

    To formulate the model in the first stage after the open encryption operation, in the second stage of encryption, common and similar concepts were semantically classified into 12 major categories. In the second stage, according to the identified categories, the central categories including "political integration", "organizational institutional integration", "governmental political integration" and "integration of interests and groups" were identified. And in the third stage, which was selective coding, the final model was obtained. Based on this model, the phenomenon of "managerial integrity in the mother city" was identified as the center phenomenon. The two categories of "coordinating organization" and "adaptation of the territory of urban management to political divisions" are causal conditions. The five categories of "rules and regulations", "amendment of laws", "plan", "contracts and agreements of municipalities" and "participation through elections" were considered strategies. "Decentralization" and "rules and regulations" are considered intervening conditions. "Participation of public, public and private sector groups" and "interaction of stakeholder groups" are the underlying factors within the field. "Organizational institutional integration", "Political integration", "Integration of interests and groups" and "Political-governmental integration" are the consequences.

    Conclusion

    In this research, an attempt has been made to provide comprehensive and complete indicators based on the opinion of local urban managers; The main difference between the indicators introduced in this study compared to other indicators in the literature of regional innovation is attention to all aspects of integration. According to the interviews in the first stage (open coding), several concepts were identified in the form of 12 components. These concepts include national and regional plans, laws and regulations, the dynamics of laws in line with existing issues, the participation of various civil and private sectors, public and public, the interaction of participatory groups, participation through elections, coordinated organization. Municipal contracts and agreements, non-overlap in the functions of organs, unity of command, adaptation of the territory of urban management to political divisions and decentralization. In the second stage, centralized coding was performed and the components obtained in a more general category of four components of "organizational institutional integration", "political integration", "integration of interests and groups" and "policy-government integration" They were grouped. In the third stage, the central phenomenon which is the "managerial integration in the field of mother city"; And the pivotal and primary components in the model were placed around the main phenomenon. After prioritizing the categories, it was determined that the components of national and regional plans, with a weight of 0.378, ranked first, rules and regulations, with a final weight of 0.215, ranked second, the dynamics of rules According to the existing issues, with a weight of 0.139, the third rank and the participation of various civil and private, public and public sectors, with a weight of 0.093 are in the fourth rank. Finally, it is proposed to develop an integrated management model in the metropolitan area of Mashhad in order to implement indicators and criteria.

    Keywords: Grounded theory, Integrated Management, Managerial Differentiation, Metropolitan Area, SWARA
  • Mohammad Faryabi * Pages 83-100
    Introduction

    In many areas in the world, karst springs constitute the main source of water supply. In recent years, the decline in groundwater storage of alluvial aquifers has led to attention to water resources of hard formations. From a hydrogeological point of view, limestone is one of the most important types of hard formations. Karstification of limestone rocks lead to the development of conduits and fractures networks, which causes the drainage to the karst springs. Karst springs are the most common way of groundwater discharge from the limestone rocks. Sometimes, karst springs with similar geological conditions shows different hydrogeological behaviors. The study of different studies of karst aquifers indicates the influence of factors such as surface geomorphology, altitude, rainfall, temperature, tectonic status, geology, etc. on the hydrodynamic characteristics of karst aquifers.The Dosari limestone body, belonging to the Oligo-Miocene, is located in the southeast of Jiroft plain. The Dehdivan and Barkhordar springs are the most important springs in the Dosari area. Despite the same origin of the springs, there are differences in the spring discharge rates and its temporal changes. This study was conducted to investigate the hydrogeological characteristics of the Dosari limestone rocks and their springs.

    Methodology

    The objective of this study is to delineate the karst hydrogeology and hydrogeological behavior of karst springs of the Dosari limestone body. For this purpose, discharge data and water quality of existing springs have been used. Fractures and lineaments have also been extracted and analyzed using geological maps and satellite images. Saturation index of carbonate minerals was calculated to delineate the equilibrium status of Calcite and Aragonite minerals in the groundwater. With respect to the abovementioned data, the primary conceptual model of groundwater flow in limestone aquifer is also presented.

    Discussion and Results

    The dependence of Barkhordar spring discharge on rainfall is very high. The discharge of this spring reacts to rainfall very quickly. But the Dehdivan spring shows more discharge fluctuations due to rainfall events. There are relatively low temporal changes in the springs chemical parameters during the study period. The low temporal changes in the chemical characteristics of the springs indicate the similarity of the discharge regime of Dehdivan and Barkhordar springs. The discharge of Dehdivan spring has a maximum threshold, after which the fluctuations of the Barkhordar spring discharge will increase. It seems that this discharge threshold also affects the water quality of the springs. In other words, reaching the maximum discharge rate of Dehdivan spring increases the flow of water to the Barkhordar spring and changes the chemical quality of the spring water. In the case of Dehdivan spring, the reverse temporal trend of spring discharge and its electrical conductivity can be seen well. But in the case of Barkhordar spring, the trend is different. These different trends can be a reason for the delayed discharge of the Barkhordar spring. Dosari spring is recharged by rainfall, but Barkhordar spring is affected by both rainfall and discharge threshold of the Dehdivan spring.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, the springs recharge regime is of the diffuse type. The Dehdivan spring has less distance to the main recharge catchment of the springs and the main direction of groundwater flow in the limestone of Dosari limestone body is from the recharge area to Dehdivan spring and then the Barkhordar spring. The difference in the catchment area of the springs and the water flow paths in the aquifer have caused the difference in the discharge of the springs and its temporal changes. Increasing recharge to Dehdivan spring due to rainfall causes the flow of old stored groundwater to the Barkhordar spring. The entry of these waters into the Barkhordar spring causes abnormal changes in the spring discharge, water quality (Ions concentration and electrical conductivity) and balance status of carbonate minerals in the Barkhordar spring water. So that when the discharge rate of the Barkhordar spring increases, the amount of electrical conductivity and saturation index of carbonate minerals increases. This indicates the discharge of old water stored in the karst aquifer.Increasing recharge to Dehdivan spring due to rainfall causes the flow of old stored groundwater to the Barkhordar spring. The entry of these waters into the Barkhordar spring causes abnormal changes in the spring discharge, water quality (Ions concentration and electrical conductivity) and balance status of carbonate minerals in the Barkhordar spring water. So that when the discharge rate of the Barkhordar spring increases, the amount of electrical conductivity and saturation index of carbonate minerals increases. This indicates the discharge of old water stored in the karst aquifer.

    Keywords: Groundwater, Karst spring, Discharge, Chemical parameters, Dosari limestone body
  • ESMAEL NASIRI HENDEH KHALEH *, Hasan Hekmatnia, Eshak Jalalian, Mansor Rezaali, Fahimeh Jamali Pages 101-119

    The feeling of security of tourists in the historical spaces of the city is undeniable, so security is one of the most effective indicators of attracting tourists in such urban spaces. Among the factors influencing the safety of tourists, the physical components of the city's historical fabric are of particular importance that have received less attention. Therefore, attention to the physical structure in such spaces can greatly affect the sense of security and attraction of tourists, so the purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting security in historical contexts in Yazd. With its historical tourist attractions, the city attracts a large number of tourists every year. The present study is analytical in terms of practical purpose and in terms of nature and method - descriptive using questionnaire tools. The statistical population of the study consists of all tourists, the number of sample size was calculated using the access method of 384 people. The validity of the questionnaire questions was confirmed by professors and experts in the field of urban tourism, and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha test of 0.748. SPSS software was used to analyze the data from survey studies. According to the research results, all physical components (quality of passages, furniture and vegetation, texture and readability of texture, user and physical diversity) affect the security of tourists. Calculations showed that the variables of texture and readability of the texture with 0.328 Beta = and physical and user diversity are stronger predictors than other variables.The feeling of security of tourists in the historical spaces of the city is undeniable, so security is one of the most effective indicators of attracting tourists in such urban spaces. Among the factors influencing the safety of tourists, the physical components of the city's historical fabric are of particular importance that have received less attention. Therefore, attention to the physical structure in such spaces can greatly affect the sense of security and attraction of tourists, so the purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting security in historical contexts in Yazd. With its historical tourist attractions, the city attracts a large number of tourists every year. The present study is analytical in terms of practical purpose and in terms of nature and method - descriptive using questionnaire tools. The statistical population of the study consists of all tourists, the number of sample size was calculated using the access method of 384 people. The validity of the questionnaire questions was confirmed by professors and experts in the field of urban tourism, and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha test of 0.748. SPSS software was used to analyze the data from survey studies. According to the research results, all physical components (quality of passages, furniture and vegetation, texture and readability of texture, user and physical diversity) affect the security of tourists. Calculations showed that the variables of texture and readability of the texture with 0.328 Beta = and physical and user diversity are stronger predictors than other variables.The feeling of security of tourists in the historical spaces of the city is undeniable, so security is one of the most effective indicators of attracting tourists in such urban spaces. Among the factors influencing the safety of tourists, the physical components of the city's historical fabric are of particular importance that have received less attention. Therefore, attention to the physical structure in such spaces can greatly affect the sense of security and attraction of tourists, so the purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting security in historical contexts in Yazd. With its historical tourist attractions, the city attracts a large number of tourists every year. The present study is analytical in terms of practical purpose and in terms of nature and method - descriptive using questionnaire tools. The statistical population of the study consists of all tourists, the number of sample size was calculated using the access method of 384 people. The validity of the questionnaire questions was confirmed by professors and experts in the field of urban tourism, and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha test of 0.748. SPSS software was used to analyze the data from survey studies. According to the research results, all physical components (quality of passages, furniture and vegetation, texture and readability of texture, user and physical diversity) affect the security of tourists. Calculations showed that the variables of texture and readability of the texture with 0.328 Beta = and physical and user diversity are stronger predictors than other variables.The feeling of security of tourists in the historical spaces of the city is undeniable, so security is one of the most effective indicators of attracting tourists in such urban spaces. Among the factors influencing the safety of tourists, the physical components of the city's historical fabric are of particular importance that have received less attention. Therefore, attention to the physical structure in such spaces can greatly affect the sense of security and attraction of tourists, so the purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting security in historical contexts in Yazd. With its historical tourist attractions, the city attracts a large number of tourists every year. The present study is analytical in terms of practical purpose and in terms of nature and method - descriptive using questionnaire tools. The statistical population of the study consists of all tourists, the number of sample size was calculated using the access method of 384 people. The validity of the questionnaire questions was confirmed by professors and experts in the field of urban tourism, and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha test of 0.748. SPSS software was used to analyze the data from survey studies. According to the research results, all physical components (quality of passages, furniture and vegetation, texture and readability of texture, user and physical diversity) affect the security of tourists. Calculations showed that the variables of texture and readability of the texture with 0.328 Beta = and physical and user diversity are stronger predictors than other variables.

    Keywords: Security, Tourism, historical context, Yazd city
  • AliAkbar Taghipour *, Abolfazl Mashayekhi, Parsa Ahmadi Dehrashid Pages 119-141
    Introduction

    Cities are expanding. One of the problems that cities face is the need to relocate population. Usually, as cities get bigger, the problems of intra-city transportation become more complex. Since the construction and operation of public transportation systems requires a lot of money, choosing the best intercity public transportation system requires careful consideration and evaluation. Without any exaggeration, since the beginning of the arrival of motor vehicles in Iran, transportation management in our cities has faced challenges for many reasons, such as the importance of tools and the lack of a culture of use. Also, due to the serious weakness of public transportation, taxis have become important and have a special place in the urban transportation system, to the extent that in some small and medium-sized cities up to 80% of intra-city transportation is done by taxi. Advances in technology have led to the increasing use of the Internet by various groups and occupations. This issue has also entered the transportation system and has led to the creation of new methods in world transportation. One of the reasons for the low satisfaction of citizens with public transportation is the lack of attention to the expansion of Internet systems. Failure in using online systems has increased costs and confused travelers. Continuation of the existing trend can lead to new issues such as increasing the maintenance costs of transportation infrastructure and reducing their use. The high share of taxis as a method of public transportation in urban transportation in Iran, puts addressing the issue of efficiency and effectiveness of this device first, according to its new type (smart taxis such as Maxim, etc.) and a large number of stakeholders including taxi drivers and citizens. In this research, the intelligent transportation system in Damghan city has been studied and seeks to answer this question: What factors have made citizens satisfied with intelligent transportation systems?

    Methodology

    The present research is descriptive - analytical and in terms of essence is practical. By reviewing different texts and research background, indicators of citizens' satisfaction with the intelligent transportation system were collected. The questionnaire was used to collect information. The statistical population of the present study is students living in Bustan and Golestan neighborhoods of Damghan in year 1399. This statistical population has been selected for two reasons. The first reason is the weakness of Damghan public transportation system in this part of the city and the second reason is the greater desire of students to use ridesourcing taxi systems. Sampling was done by using random sampling methods. Citizens' opinions were then analyzed using SPSS software. Factor analysis method was used to analyze the data. In this method, all indicators are divided into 4 categories: mobility, access and economic well-being, legality and welfare facilities. Then, the impact of these factors on explaining citizens' satisfaction with Internet transportation has been determined. The Cronbach's alpha value for the whole questionnaire was 0.976, which indicates that the questionnaire has high reliability.

    Discussion and Results

    At this stage, after entering the questionnaires in SPSS, a table of commonalities related to each variable was formed, which shows the amount of common variance of each variable with other variables. Then variables with commonalities less than 0.4 are removed to increase the explanatory rate of the model. The KMO value was 0.938, which indicates that the data are suitable for factor analysis. Also, the level of significance is 0.000 and this shows that this analysis is at a desirable level of significance. Finally, the factor matrix is rotated so that each of the relevant indicators has the most relationship with the relevant factors. The final 4 factors were identified as effective factors on citizens' satisfaction. The first factor, which explains 24.628 of the total variance, was correlated with indicators such as ease of access at different times, coverage, can be named access and economic efficiency. The second factor, which explains 21.242 of the total variance, was correlated with safety indicators, compliance with the rules, and can be named as legality. The third factor explains 16.382 of the total variance and has been correlated with the indicators of car number, heating and cooling facilities, can be named as welfare facilities. The fourth factor, explains 10.58 of the total variance and was correlated with the indicators of return of leftovers and security of goods, can be named as the possibility of moving goods.

    Conclusion

    A total of 4 factors of access and economic welfare, legality, amenities and the possibility of moving goods show citizens' satisfaction with ridesourcing taxi drivers. The important thing about these factors is to prioritize them so that the change in each of the factors how much reduces or increases the amount of satisfaction. The factor of access and economic welfare has the highest priority among the factors and changes in its indicators such as increasing accessibility and reducing prices have a great impact on improving citizen satisfaction. The point that has reduced the citizens' satisfaction with the access factor and social welfare is the lack of easy access at night. After that, the legality factor has the second priority. It seems that the important point to increase citizens' satisfaction with this factor is monitoring. In terms of legality, night safety and compliance with traffic laws indicators have not been to the satisfaction of citizens. The third and fourth priorities are allocated to the welfare facilities and the possibility of moving goods. Changes in these two factors cannot have as many effects as the first and second factors, but will increase the motivation and desire of citizens to use ridesourcing taxi. In examining these factors, it is clear that citizens have given different answers to this issue. This difference stems from the fact that the existence of amenities in different cars are different, and in general, there are no specific criteria for reviewing amenities by the providers of these services.

    Keywords: Public Transportation, Satisfaction, New Transportation Systems, Factor analysis, Damghan
  • Ali Delshad * Pages 141-168
    Introduction

    In today's highly competitive tourism environment, destinations have a better chance of becoming competitive in terms of competitiveness and attracting new tourists. Smart tourism destinations are one of the factors in gaining this privileged position. In the field of smart and competitive tourism destinations, direct and comprehensive research has not been done and only the discussion of the effect of smartness on the competitiveness of tourism destinations has been mentioned sparsely in the literature on the subject of smartness and competitiveness. In this study, the city of Yazd has been selected as the subject of this study. This city has been one of the important destinations for domestic and foreign tourists in the country. In addition, several measures have been taken in the field of development of information and communication technologies and efforts to make the city smarter. However, a review of research background shows that no similar research has been conducted in the field of smartness and competitiveness in Yazd. In general, a review of the results of previous research shows that in general, the smartness and competitiveness of this destination is not in a good condition. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to measure, identify and analyze the status of smartness and competitiveness of the tourism destination of Yazd in general and separately for each component.

    Methodology

    This research can be divided into three stages in terms of data collection and analysis. In the first stage, archival data analysis method collects and combines previous research and determines the components and indicators for measuring the smartness and competitiveness of urban tourism destinations and the findings are validated using the opinion of tourism experts. In the second stage, using a questionnaire and a survey of Yazd tourism experts, data related to the status of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination and the impact of each of the components of smartness and competitiveness with factor analysis technique and Smart PLS software was determined. In the third stage, using one-sample t-test in SPSS software, the status of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination in general and separately for each component was measured.

    Discussion and Results

    With archival studies in the literature and research background and then with the validation of findings and determining the validity of content, 14 components (including 6 components of smartness and 8 components of competitiveness) and 99 measurement indicators (including 57 smartness indicators and 42 competitive indicators) was confirmed and selected. Then, by designing an online questionnaire, a survey of 96 tourism experts in Yazd was conducted. Based on the results of the analysis of data collected in this stage, the component of residents' lives/tourists' experience with a rate of 0.918 has the highest impact on smartness. The components of tourism environment, residents/tourists, governance/management, access/transportation, and tourism business environment are in the next ranks, respectively. In addition, the destination management component with a rate of 0.915 has the highest level of competitiveness. The components of public infrastructure, demand, reinforcing and supporting factors, tourism services, tourism policy and planning, key resources and attractions, and general destination conditions are ranked next, respectively. Also, the study of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination, showed that the competitiveness in general and its 4 components, including the general conditions of the destination, reinforcing and supporting factors, key resources and attractions, and demand in Yazd city is higher than average and suitable. The status of the other 4 components of competitiveness, including tourism policy and planning, destination management, public infrastructure and tourism services in Yazd city is below average and Yazd city in these 4 components is not in a good position. In addition, the status of smartness and its components in Yazd city is lower than average and this city is not in a good position in terms of smartness.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of the research, it can be argued that the unfavorable situation and below the average of smartness and its components have a negative impact on the competitiveness of this destination in the four components below the average. Especially due to this important finding that the situation of Yazd city is lower in the components of destination management and public infrastructure, which are in the first and second ranks with the greatest impact on the competitiveness of this destination. In the field of smartness, Yazd tourism destination has not been directly researched so that the results cannot be compared with the results of this research. However, in some researches related to the development of tourism in this destination, the unfavorable situation of Yazd city has been pointed out in some smartness indicators. In terms of competitiveness and its components in Yazd city, the results of previous research have been different. In general, the findings of previous research, despite some differences with the results of this study, is emphasized on the poor condition of this city in components such as public infrastructure, tourism policy and planning, destination management and tourism services, that is in line with the results of this research. According to the research findings, it is necessary to mention that improving the smartness situation of Yazd city, especially by emphasizing the indicators related to the city's livability, long-term sustainability and the use of various new technologies and indicators related to equality and social justice will have a positive impact on improving the competitiveness of Yazd city. Therefore, the attention of managers, policy makers and decision makers of Yazd tourism destination development should be focused on improving the smartness situation and its components and indicators according to the mentioned priorities and in a comprehensive package to be based on it.

    Keywords: Tourism, Smartness, Competitiveness, Yazd Tourist Destinations
  • Fatemeh Dargahian *, Samaneh Razavizadeh Pages 169-187

    Although most dust storms, especially those prevailing in Iran, are often regional in nature, But local centers dust, the dust belt and specifically in Iran, played a significant role. One of the origins of local dust in this belt is Yazd city and salt domes northeast of Ardakan. Understanding the characteristics of dust storms is important in terms of type, frequency, location and time of occurrence. Due to the dry climatic conditions and strong and erosive winds on it, the city of Yazd is faced with various dust events every year, which causes significant damage to the economic and biological resources of the city. In addition to climatic parameters and indicators, some indicators reveal that climate change can also affect the course of changes in dust occurrence. In addition to climatic parameters and indicators, some indicators reveal that climate change can also affect the process of change in the occurrence of dust in order to identify these indicators from the software ClimPACT is based on RClimDEX software and runs in R 2.10 software environment. In addition to identifying the trend of dust changes, the purpose of this study is to determine the importance of each factor affecting the occurrence of dust in Yazd. For this purpose, analysis and comparison of different functions of neural network, multilayer perceptron was used and finally the model with the least error rate and the highest correlation coefficient, as the optimal model to investigate the share of climatic factors affecting the occurrence of dust originating around and outside the station was estimated based on the optimal model. The occurrence of internal and external dust (dependent variable) was modeled and analyzed and the most important determining factors in the occurrence of internal and external dust were determined

    Keywords: Internal, external dust, wind corridor, fine sediments, Neural network models
  • Ahmad Pourahmad Pages 189-216
    Introduction

    The form of cities in Iran, especially in metropolitan areas, is sprawl. But traditional urban planning in Iran has always been shaped by the compact spatial structure associated with its context (geography, culture). Compactness in urban form and structure is a concept that is used to organize cities from a state of confusion and dispersion and broadly in sustainable urban planning and development, the compact city is seen as a profound interpretation of what a sustainable city should be. In studies related to compact cities, one of the topics that has been considered is the discussion of the acceptability and feasibility of compact cities. Social acceptability is an important factor in feasibility. Due to the importance of studying the acceptability and feasibility of urban forms, especially the compact form from the perspective of the public and residents and due to the lack of investigation of the impact of the compact city on the realization of sustainable urban development This research investigates the social acceptability of compact city in Ahvaz.

    Methodology

    The present research is applied in terms of purpose which is in the category of descriptive survey research. In terms of philosophy, this research is a deductive research that is based on the paradigm of positivism and quantitative approach and is considered as a cross-sectional research in terms of time index. The data collection tool in the present study is a questionnaire. Thus, to measure the theory of the compact city, four indicators including density, diversity, intensification and transportation and the theory of sustainable urban development, three environmental, economic and social dimensions have been used. The Likert scale was used to answer the questions and the numbers 1 to 5 were used to score the answers. The questionnaire was completed by two groups of citizens, experts and managers. The statistical population is the first group of citizens of Ahvaz who were selected as a sample using Cochran's formula 384 people. And the second statistical population is experts and managers of Ahvaz city, which was purposefully selected 30. The structural equations method in Amos was used to analyze the citizen-related questionnaire and the structural equations in Smart-pls software were used to analyze the questionnaire of experts and managers.

    Discussion and Results

    Compact city assessment in previous studies has been done retrospectively with methods such as survey method, objective data and interview. In this research, a survey method has been used to investigate the feasibility and social acceptance capacity of the compact city and its impact on sustainable urban development in the city of Ahvaz. The variables and indexes that have been selected for the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable urban development are most evident in the city of Ahvaz, and these indicators are the consequences of sprawl growth and unsustainable development of the city in recent decades. Since the compact city has been proposed as a suitable solution in sprawl studies and urban sustainability, the indicators of the compact city have been selected as an independent variable. From the citizens' point of view, the highest coefficient of the route is related to the effect of transportation on the environmental variable, after that, the effect of the diversity variable on the economic variable has the highest coefficient. The impact coefficients of all hypotheses are higher than 0.60. The results of the experts' research indicate that the effect of density variable on three environmental, economic and social indicators is 0.870, 0.890 and 0.900, respectively. The coefficient of diversity path on environmental, economic and social indicators has been calculated as 0.830, 0.865 and 0.864, respectively. The intensification variable with path coefficients of 0.810, 0.853 and 0.872 has a significant effect on environmental, economic and social indicators, respectively. The coefficients of the variable of transportation on environmental, economic and social indicators are 0.790, 0.837 and 0.880.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that the indicators of the compact city including density, diversity, intensification and public transport have a positive and significant effect on the indicators of sustainable urban development including environmental, economic and social in Ahvaz city. Therefore, citizens and managers consider the use of the compact city as the basis for the realization of sustainable urban development in Ahvaz.In addition to the fact that all indicators of the compact city must be implemented at the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the issue of spatial planning and migration control in Khuzestan province and Ahvaz city in order to reduce problems and .obstacles in its implementation

    Keywords: urban form, compact city, sustainable urban development, Ahvaz, structural modeling
  • Hajar Nasehi, Hamid Saberi *, Safar Ghaedrahmati, Ahmad Khademolhoseiny Pages 217-237
    Introduction

    Undoubtedly, the discussion of sustainability and sustainable development, regardless of cities and urbanization, will be meaningless. Cities are considered as the main cause of instability in the world because the characteristic of our age is urbanization, increasing the population of cities and consequently the development of small and large cities. During the period 1990 to 2030, the population of urban areas will grow to about 3.3 billion people, of which 90% will be in urban areas of developed countries. Attracts urban planners to the concept of sustainable urban development, the reality of rapid urbanization growth in the world today and its continuation in the future on the one hand and the amazing growth of metropolises especially in southern countries and its harmful consequences for the inhabitants of these areas. is. The concept of sustainable development has been used in various ways in various forms, but the most central idea is the World Commission on Development and Environment, which was stated in 1987, according to this definition, is sustainable development. To be able to meet the needs of the present generation without sacrificing the ability of future generations to estimate their needs. In Iran, the process of rapid development without planning and considerations of urban centers; By sharing resources, it destroys the marginal lands, gardens, forests, creating incompatible uses, and finally, water, air, soil, etc. pollution on a large scale on the face of urban environments. It can be seen that it has upset the balance of natural ecosystems. The metropolis of Isfahan has been selected as the scope of the present study; Based on statistics and information available in various fields affecting urban sustainability, it has a considerable distance from global standards. On the one hand, the increase in population (more than 8 times) during the years 1335-1395 during recent decades, along with the natural increase in population has caused this city with numerous social, physical, environmental and housing problems. , Transportation, etc., on the other hand, inappropriate use and over-capacity of natural resources, change and destruction of natural ecosystems, land use change and the creation of unequal urban spaces in the city, environmental pollution Inadequate wastewater disposal, lack of interaction between different sub-sectors of transportation, low level of services, high population density and also insecurity, the existence of which can be considered as an important factor in urban development, this city with It faces serious challenges related to sustainable urban development.

    Research Methods

    This research is applied in terms of the purpose of the research and in terms of the nature of the methodology is based on descriptive-analytical research and based on library studies and field studies. The method of data collection is a questionnaire that 375 people were randomly selected by purposive sampling method. In order to achieve the research objectives, 16 indicators include (third place, accessibility, invitability, dynamism and vitality, comfort and security, flexibility, performance, form, meaning and content, social sustainability, social security, Social interaction, social justice, social participation, social belonging and social identity) were extracted. One-sample t-test, Pearson correlation, and Friedman test were used to discover the pattern trend to classify stability indices and the role of third places on them. The geographical area of this study includes all 15 regions. Is a city of Isfahan, which was selected to represent the entire city of District 8 in the north of Isfahan, District 9 in the west, District 3 in the center and historical context, District 4 in the east and District 6 in the south of Isfahan.

    Findings and Discussion

    Multiple sample t-test is used to determine the status of sustainability indicators. Multiple regression analysis is used to study the simultaneous effect of the eight components of the independent variable (third places) on the dependent variable (social stability). Is. For this purpose, first the social stability variable as a dependent variable and the eight components of third urban places (accessibility and permeability, inviting, dynamism and vitality, comfort and security, flexibility and functionality, function and structure, form and meaning And content) are entered as independent variables and studied by stepwise method. In order to evaluate the status of the dynamics and vitality component of urban third places, one-sample t-test was used. This test is one of the simplest types of t-tests that is used to determine whether the average observed in a random sample is equal to the assumed population average or not. In order to investigate the relationship between the quality variables of the third urban place (form, function and meaning and content) and the identification of urban spaces in Isfahan, Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to compare the situation of social stability in different urban areas of Isfahan. One-way analysis of variance was used and finally, in order to investigate the spatial correlation between effects (selected indicators) through the Weights Manager box, a set of tools available in Geoda software, weight and coefficient in the pattern process were obtained.

    Results

    Status of 16 indicators of sustainability of third places; Selected areas in Isfahan are in a relatively good condition. Also, the distribution of macro-indices in the third places as output values through the Moran I global index for this study were clustered in each index, respectively, and had a positive spatial autocorrelation (centralized pattern) so that Among different urban areas, the highest rate of social stability in the third places is related to urban areas 3 and 4 with averages of 89.09 and 87.61, respectively, and the lowest level of social stability is related to urban areas 6 and 8 with average, respectively. The dates were 83/20 and 83/42.

    Keywords: Explanation, third places, Sustainability, Isfahan, social index
  • Sajjad Bazvand *, Mohammadkarim Raesi Pages 239-258
    Introduction

    The world today is struggling with many issues and problems that it is not able to solve these problems, although sometimes solutions are offered by networks to solve these problems, but they can not completely solve these problems. And requires the collective and common wisdom of global actors. For decades, rural areas around the world have faced challenges such as declining economic activity, restructuring traditional agricultural industries, aging populations and migrating young people abroad for higher education, and reducing the quality of life in small towns and villages. The effective performance of public administration units is considered a condition for the development of regions, countries and communities. This well-known model provides the basis for the principles of good governance proposed by the World Bank in the 1990s. Governance has emerged as an alternative to traditional methods of governance and governance, and has emerged as a political structure or organization and NGOs to address policy issues and can serve as decision-making processes. Define a group of governmental and non-governmental actors to deal with different situations

    Methodology

    This research is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of nature and method of descriptive-analytical work, which is done in two ways: library study and field survey. In the descriptive study section, the library method has the main application because the theoretical foundations of research and aristocracy on the subject of research are available and documented only by reviewing existing studies and researches. It is also possible to know the current situation of the study area by describing what exists. The statistical population of the study consists of all the people of Tamandan village, which according to the 2016 census, is 272 people. Using the Cochran's formula, 160 questionnaires were completed randomly in such a way that each element of the target community was selected Are equal. It should be noted that the number of samples was selected from people over 18 years. For the validity of the questionnaire in the present study, the formal method has been used to increase the degree of validity. For this purpose, the questionnaire was given to experts, specialists and professors after compilation, and after collecting their opinions, the necessary corrections were made. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was also used to obtain the reliability of the questionnaire. The obtained Cronbach's alpha value for governance indices is 0.84 and for viability indices is 0.81. Multivariate regression analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient and one-sample t-test were used to analyze the findings.

    Discussion and Results

    The descriptive results of the study show that 50 respondents, equal to 30% of the frequency, are women and 110 respondents, equal to 70% of the frequency, are men. 57 people were married with 36% of the frequency and 103 people were married with 64% of the frequency. The lowest frequency is related to the age group of 20-30 years with a frequency of 16 people, 10% of the frequency and the highest frequency is related to the age group of 30-40 years with a frequency of 46 people, which is 29% of the frequency. . The highest frequency percentage is related to the diploma group with 39% and the lowest frequency percentage with 3% is related to the master's degree group and higher. The highest frequency is related to farmers with 35% and the lowest percentage is related to the occupational group of employees with 8% of frequency. The highest frequency percentage with 31% is related to the income of 700 thousand Tomans up to 1 million Tomans and the lowest frequency percentage with 10% is related to the income group higher than 2.5 million Tomans.

    Conclusion

    The results of the studies indicate that if good governance in the villages is in a good and desirable condition, it will undoubtedly increase the livelihood in the villages, which will prevent the migration of villagers to the cities. Improving the quality of life of the villagers, providing appropriate infrastructure in the village, reducing tensions and interactions among the villagers, creating green and pleasant spaces in the villages, involving the villagers in rural development projects and consulting with them, providing A safe and secure environment that leads to peace of mind for the villagers, increasing the sense of place among the villagers, increasing the level of trust among the villagers towards the village managers, providing desirable health and educational facilities in the village and providing conditions in the village for rural employment In the rural environment, all the factors that rural managers can provide in the form of good governance in the village and improve livability in the village, otherwise the livability in the village is reduced and the villagers seek to increase Quality of life will inevitably migrate from the village, which will cause instability in the village.

    Keywords: governance, good rural governance, viability, tourist villages, Tamandan village