فهرست مطالب

Transportation Engineering - Volume:9 Issue: 4, Spring 2022
  • Volume:9 Issue: 4, Spring 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/04/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Alireza Mahpour *, Hossein Forsi, Alireza Vafaeenejad, Arman Saffarzadeh Pages 749-761
    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for transportation and location-based services. The rapid progress in wireless and positioning systems caused an ever-increasing use of these systems in vehicles and transportation. Navigation of vehicles relies on matching received positions by Global Positioning System (GPS) or other sensors with the map of road networks to show the user which part of the road they are on. There is a possibility that the algorithm can't recognize the correct link out of the candidate links due to errors in positioning sensors, digital maps, and map matching algorithms. Location-based services, intelligent transportation systems, and users may be misled by incorrect road detection. By combining a topological map-matching algorithm with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) optimization method, a compound method has been devised. As the material of the study, we have used Garmin GPS data and a 1:2000 urban map of the national cartographic center. We conducted a case study in a dense part of Tehran City in order to test the efficiency of the algorithm. There are three components to the algorithm, one being an initial map match, two being a mapping on a link, and three being a mapping at a junction through the AHP method. The algorithm has been executed in a dense urban network. Because of the presence of high buildings in urban areas we have the most errors in this area. From 906 positioned points the link has been successfully realized in 97.3% of cases. The results are acceptable, and in 2.7% of the remaining cases, error in the positioning system is responsible for the error and it is recommended to improve positioning system errors.
    Keywords: Topological Map-matching, Analytical hierarchy process (AHP), Intelligent Transport System (ITS), Location-based services (LBS)
  • Hossein Motevalli Habibi, Hamid Mirzahossein *, Shahriar Afandizadeh Pages 763-780
    The passengers’ expectations of road transportation systems' service quality lead transportation policy-makers to determine the technical requirements to meet these expectations. It means that Road trip Designs (RDs) as technical requirements should be translated based on Road users’ Requirements (RRs) as passengers’ expectations. We classified the RRs and RDs to 8 and 10 requirements, respectively. The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method can translate the RRs to RDs in road transportation systems. On the one hand, due to the inherent uncertainty in decision-makers viewpoints in such systems, the Fuzzy QFD (FQFD) can be applied as a more accurate translation of RRs to RDs. On the other hand, the Evidential Reasoning (ER) approach, as one of the best evidence-based decision analysis methods, deals with the raised ambiguity and chaos by decision makers’ viewpoints. Accordingly, a novel hybrid FQFD-ER approach to prioritize the service quality criteria in road transportation systems has been provided in this paper. Moreover, a novel mathematical lemma is provided to hybridize and link the decision-making approaches of the FQFD and ER. Considering the weights of decision makers and fuzzy trapezoidal numbers to achieve the better results are other innovations of this paper. Totally, this study aims to integrate the FQFD with the ER approach to prioritize the RDs based on RRs in related road transportation systems to the Arba'een ceremony as a real case study. The obtained results by hybrid FQFD-ER revealed that the suitable road lanes in terms of width and number mostly improve the service quality.
    Keywords: Road Transportation Systems, Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (FQFD), Road users’ Requirements (RRs), Evidential Reasoning (ER), Road trip Designs (RDs)
  • Morteza Khashaypoor, Fernando Da Silva, AmirReza Mamdoohi * Pages 781-799

    The world's population is trending up, while a striking proportion of it resides in urban areas. Today, with the development of urbanization and the deficiency of sustainable transport infrastructure in most developing cities, urban mobility has become one of the staple challenges in such metropolitan areas. In this paper, research on urban mobility issues, their challenges and, policy approaches are succinctly reviewed. Furthermore, a review of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) and the approaches of distinct countries in this connection along with their lessons from these experiences are outlined. Finally, a new approach to improving Tehran's urban mobility has been proposed, and assorted alternatives have been compared and appraised. In the same vein, the transportation macroscopic model was applied to measure and compare proposed alternatives. Research findings depict that car-based cities confront intricate urban mobility issues and the approach of most cities has been to develop sustainable urban mobility based on improving the quality of their residents' life. Apart from that, for the city of Tehran, applying a combination of alternatives has been more effective in boosting the sustainable urban mobility of this metropolis. Put differently, by examining distinct strategies, a mixed alternative involving the development of soft modes along with congestion pricing for private cars entering CBD has been proposed. It is projected that founded on the proposed policy approach alongside the implementation of a superior alternative, the proportion of the congested network in the central area will be diminished by 1.9 percent.

    Keywords: Urban mobility challenges, SUMP, Policy approach, Improvement strategies, Private cars, case study
  • Parastoo Rezaei, Kayvan Aghabayk *, Lyndel Bates Pages 801-818
    Although there is evidence of a significant impact of the family on children's safety and risky behaviors, few studies have examined this issue in detail. Children under the age of 10, although they rarely participate in traffic completely independently, are a vulnerable population from a traffic safety perspective. In addition to the number of children who die in incidents, some of them suffer from lifelong disabilities. Besides various educational methods and making safe school zones, there is a need to pay attention to the impact of parents on children's understanding of traffic safety. In this study, the effect of parent on children's perception of safety and danger on roads is investigated. For this purpose, through an interview, children aged 6-9 years were asked to identify 11 unsafe traffic behaviors. Parenting styles and demographic information were collected from their parents through a questionnaire. The results showed that children's risk perception is related to age, gender, and socio-economic status. In addition, children's ability to perceive risk is associated with negative parenting styles (corporal punishment and poor monitoring). The results of this study highlight the effects of parents' education on children's awareness of road safety. The importance of parenting styles and other factors affecting children's understanding of traffic risks should be informed to families. It is also important to establish the necessary infrastructure to increase children's safety by promoting parenting skills through beneficial policies and holding training workshops for parents.
    Keywords: children, parenting styles, risk perception, Hierarchical clustering, decision tree
  • Ali Tavakoli Kashani *, Nasrin Nazari, Saeideh Amirifar, Ali Afshar Pages 819-832
    Exceeding the posted speed limit is a contributing factor in rural crashes, and speed violations have a significant effect on road safety. The current study aims to identify at-fault driver features in speeding violations occurring at all rural roads of Iran using 11,636 drivers involved in two-vehicle speeding crashes. For this purpose, the quasi-induced exposure concept, Classification and regression tree, and logistic regression methods were employed. Drivers' gender had a significant effect on being at-fault, and women's risk was approximately two times higher than men. The risk of drivers in the ">58" age group was the highest and nearly twice the "18-27" group. In the vehicle type, the pickup had a risk of nearly 26 times higher than the bus. The finding showed that females have more risky behavior than male counterparts in speeding. Totally, the at-fault risk will grow more with increasing drivers' age. Type 1 driving license in speeding crashes has a significant effect on the risk of drivers' being at-fault. Moreover, among statistically significant vehicle types, the pickup had the highest risk. The results emphasize more attention to female and old drivers, their license type, pickup vehicles, and prepare practical countermeasures to reduce these crashes.
    Keywords: Speeding crashes, CART, Quasi-Induced Exposure, Datamining
  • Amir Ghahremanlou, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh *, Ali Naderan, Hassan Javanshir Pages 833-854
    Transportation and land use are the two major sectors that contribute the most to the spread of environmental pollution. Transportation through accessbility affects land use while land use through the production and attraction of trip affects transportation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the accessibility of 22 districts of Tehran metropolis, how the city develops and their impact on increasing air pollution. This is an applied research where the data and information used in this research were obtained from Tehran Municipality and Statistics Center of Iran and for their classification and analysis, depending on the need, SPSS, Arc GIS and Google Earth software have been used. The results of Pearson correlation show that about 24% of land uses in Tehran have a significant relationship, which indicates a high separation between types of land uses and ultimately the scattered growth of Tehran. By analyzing and calculating the accessbilities, it was found that 38% of the internal communications between the districts are at the level of good and very good accessbility, 32% have the average level of accessbility and 30% are at the level of poor and very poor. The average route factor of Tehran is estimated to be 1.52, which indicates that Tehran is classfied in the average level of accessbility. Another finding of this study is the effect of land uses and accessbility levels on increasing air pollution in Tehran which is important to urban planners and policy makers.
    Keywords: land use, Transportation, Air pollution, Tehran Metropolis