فهرست مطالب

Sustainable Rural Development - Volume:5 Issue: 1, Aug 2021
  • Volume:5 Issue: 1, Aug 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/04/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Benjamin Ajabuin *, Romanus Dogkubong Dinye Pages 3-13
    With issues of high interest rates, huge collateral demand, and high initial deposits among others, the mortgage industry remains unattractive and expensive especially to low-middle income earners. As the housing deficit continue to soars, these persons continue to build their homes incrementally. This has been described as an unsustainable means of home financing. As a result, this study in employing both qualitative and quantitative research paradigms within a case study approach, investigated the role of Savings and Credit Cooperative Unions (SCCUs) in housing delivery in the Kumasi Metropolis. Purposive sampling was used to select Three Savings and Credit Cooperative Unions (SCCUs). One hundred and twenty members of these cooperative unions were conveniently sampled and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that Savings and Credit Cooperative Unions (SCCUs) provide housing loans to co-operators. It was established that cooperative unions with strong membership are involved in direct housing construction and assist members in the acquisition of plots of lands. Furthermore, it was revealed that land tenure insecurity, high illiteracy rate, default in loan repayment, lack of government support and inadequate funds were the factors that militate against the role of SCCUs in housing delivery within the Metropolis. Despite these challenges, it was observed that Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies or Unions remain a viable financing medium for low-middle income earners in Ghana. The study therefore concluded by recommending among others the establishment of purposive community cooperative unions and self-supportive housing systems in the country.
    Keywords: Savings, Credit Cooperative Unions, Housing Delivery, Low-middle Income Earners, Housing Micro-finance, Kumasi
  • Afsaneh Majidi, Farhad Azizpour * Pages 14-30
    One of the development projects in the late 90's, concurrent with the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran is the rural master plan. These projects aim to achieve rural development as the most important official and legal document of rural development. However, they are in a similar situation to the urban master plan. In addition to creating a platform for physical development, these projects face challenges in the rural development such as growing demand for land-use change, rising land prices and the growth of the stock market and decrease the social trust of villagers. This study attempts to review and analyze the factors touching the adverse effects of these projects.
    This article is performed using the qualitative content analysis method by selecting fifty-six papers in a non-probabilistic and purposeful sampling from one hundred articles published in applied studies and research in the rural master plan in four valid citation databases according to the meta-combined analysis method.
    This study shows that the poor effectiveness of the rural master plan is affected by several factors that act in a dialectical action. These factors, however, each have their effects; however, their interaction with other factors doubles their effectiveness. This is a point that is less considered by the country's planning system. These include factors such as dominance and persistence of physical and sectoral attitude, the uncertainty of the village's situation in the planning system, the adequate allocation of credit resources in preparation and implementation, poor management of project implementation, the dominant urban view in project preparation, weak participation of villagers and implementation of rural master plan scientific weakness of project providers, lack of attention to the natural-ecological environment in planning and design, less attention to economics in planning and design and poor adaptation of the project to the needs of stakeholders
    Based on the meta-combined analysis of this study, the factors influencing inefficiency are often exogenous. In other words, as an intervening factor, the planning system has adopted a procedure for preparing and implementing rural master plan in which the internal capacities of the village on the one hand and the rapid developments and new demands of the villagers, on the other hand, have been neglected.
    Keywords: rural master plan, Effectiveness evaluation, meta-combined method
  • Naser Shafieisabet *, Faezeh Ebrahimipour Pages 31-46
    The present study examines the economic transformation challenges of rural settlements in the Esfandagheh district in Jiroft, emphasizing social capital based on the seven capital model using a qualitative and analytical method. Data were collected using a participatory assessment (PRA) approach. Analysis of research variables and status of capital using models like the analysis of the social structure, rural rotation, problems tree, needs matrix, and organization structure was drawn with the Van chart. Participants in the 30person, 30 experts, and experts in the 30 model villages were selected purposefully. The results of this study indicate that the economic sector has not yet entered the cycle of change. There is a need to take advantage of villagers' resources, potential, and participation. Simultaneously, drawing up the tree of problems showed that the most critical obstacles to the rural economy's development are villagers' low participation. Also, it was revealed by the "Magh" chart. Health, relief committee, police station, and tribal affairs, which were not directly responsible for participating villagers in economic development plans and projects, have achieved the highest performance level. However, organizations such as water and sewage, agricultural jihad, technical and professional, and natural resources directly responsible for participating villagers in the villages' economic transformation have been less profitable. According to the Economic Transformation Need Matrix in the Esfandagheh sector, it needs attention to significant functions such as improving and developing infrastructure in processing products with a higher priority for the locals and village activists. Also, rural education's weakness; the relationship between the seven capital and social capital has not been formed to affect the village economy.
    Keywords: Social Capital, Economic, developments, Seven capital model, Evaluation Approach, Collaborative (PRA), rural settlements, Esfandagheh district
  • Seyyedeh Fatemeh Emami, Alireza Darban Astane *, Mohammad Reza Rezvani, Mojtaba Ghadiri Pages 47-60

     Accordingly, it can be considered an important element with negative and positive effects. One form of tourism currently considered is community-based tourism, which significantly emphasizes the local community for tourism development. Th is study aims to investigate the factors affecting community-based rural tourism in Gilan province.


    This is applied research in terms of purpose, it is quantitative in terms of approach, and it has been conducted with a sample including 770 people from rural people in Gilan province. Data collection tools include library studies, and field surveys have been carried out through observation and questionnaires. The statistical population consists of the villagers of Gilan province. Three hundred eighty-four people were selected using the Morgan table to determine the number of samples. Samples were increased in order to improve the level of reliability and reduce errors in the data, and 770 questionnaires were completed. According to the estimation, the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.921.


    The path analysis model in SPSS software has also been used to analyze the indicators. The results suggest that economic benefits, organizational mechanism, product diversification, increasing investment, business motivation, environmental protection, reducing waste dissemination, innovative planning, evaluation and monitoring, social participation, social cohesion, social skills and knowledge, the sense of belonging to the place, tourist acceptance culture, poverty reduction, safety, government support, announcements, recreational tours, economic benefits, local market, local investment and profitability affect the development of community-based tourism in the case study area.

    Keywords: Rural tourism, community-based tourism, path analysis, Gilan Province
  • Vahid Riahi *, Hassan Momeni Pages 61-72
    This study aims to analyze the effective factors in the optimal utilization of agricultural water resources in rural areas of  area in central Iran. Therefore, the question is, first, what is the current status of agricultural water resources in Central Iran and what approaches affect the optimal use of these resources?
    The rural farmers of the Buin and Miandasht County, anconstituted the statistical population of the research, which is divided to five districts: Yeylagh, Gorji, North Kerchembo, South Kerchembo and Sardsir and were selected from several villages with pre-determined criteria.
    The main indicators of the study were provided from literature reviews and field studies and examined via a survey and interviews. The data were normalized in MATLAB software and analyzed by the COPRAS technique. Research maps were also drawn in ArcMap software. The findings showed that first, the county is at a good level in receiving precipitation compared to other areas of Isfahan Province. Second, Social dimension approaches are more effective in the optimal use of agricultural water resources. Third, the Sardsir district ranks first among other districts.
    Therefore, the capacity of agricultural water resources in the northwest of the region is higher and has better conditions. Furthermore, the number of available water resources does not meet the needs of farmers with the current method of cultivation. As a result, the percentage of imported resources exceeds the region's production That It causes expanding dependence, capital loss, jobs and supply of strategic materials.
    Keywords: rural economy, agro-water resources, Water Resources Limitation, Isfahan Province
  • Reihaneh Soltani Moqadas *, Fazlolllah Esmaeili Pages 73-81

    In recent years, economic hardships and the migration of rural youth have focused on sustainable employment. In this regard, sustainable employment can play an important role in stabilizing and sustaining the rural population because entrepreneurship and job creation of young people strengthen the sense of spatial belonging and rural sustainability. The present study investigates the role of sustainable employment in rural sustainability in the villages of Dibaj rural district of Dargaz city.


    According to the studies and research literature and considerin environmental conditions of the study area, the indicators of the effects of sustainable employment in social, economic and spatial dimensions have been studied, and Entropy and MABAK methods have been used to analyze the research data.


    The study of analytical models shows that entrepreneurship and    economic diversification are the most prominent effects of creating sustainable employment in this rural area.


    Sustainable employment is considered a tool to reinforce rural sustainability. So, encouragement of rural investments inevitably affects the rural economy and population stability.

    Keywords: sustainable employment, Population Stability, Rural Investments, Entrepreneurship, Rural Sustainability, Dibaj Rural District
  • Seyyed Ramin Ghafari *, Hajar Nasehi Pages 83-96

    Today, the tourism industry, as one of the largest industries in the world, has undeniable effects on the economic and social well-being of the host society. These conditions in areas such as Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province that have good potential in relation to tourism; Especially in rural and nomadic areas, it is very significant and important. Therefore, it is necessary to plan and purposeful management in order to promote tourism complexes (rural-nomadic).


    The present article has been compiled with the aim of providing an optimal model of tourism complexes in rural and nomadic areas in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. 

    Research Methodology

    This research is applied in terms of the purpose of the research and in terms of the nature of the methodology is based on descriptive-analytical research and based on library studies and field studies. The selected indicators have been collected in two stages by studying the records (research projects, statistics, books) and using the opinions of experts (using the Delphi technique and extracting the opinions of academic theorists and managers of related organizations). Geographical territory of the research: The geographical territory of the research includes all tourist areas in the areas of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province.

     Findings and Discussion

    Findings from the study and presentation of an optimal model of tourism complexes in rural and nomadic areas showed that using the spatial model of the research process while identifying and briefly introducing tribes and nomads and nomadic ecosystems in the province Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, to explain and determine the structural elements and functional features in the proposed model, explain and analyze the role of tourist-nomadic complexes in creating employment and income in the research area. Conclusion The results show that the pattern of establishment and construction of tourist-nomadic complexes in this province depends on the natural and tourist attractions, especially the location of the tribes and nomads, as well as the migration of these tribes, so that the most suitable situation in the area Studies in this province were associated with the ethnic distribution of tribes and nomads at the level of urbanites. The results showed that this pattern of establishment has provided the most feedback in the study level of Koohrang and Borujen counties.

    Keywords: Rural-Nomadic Tourism Complexes, Economic Feedback, Chaharmahal, Bakhtiari Province
  • Elham Shahi, Bahram Imani *, Abbas Norouzi, Abolmohammad Bondori Pages 97-107

    This study aimed to conduct a path analysis of the relationship between environmental awareness, -seeking behavior, and the attitude undertaken by the survey method. The target population consisted of M.Sc. and PhD students of two colleges at Tehran university, including the agriculture and natural resources college and environmental science college in 2017-2018 (N=1342). Using the Cochran formula, the sample size was determined as 150 people, and stratified proportional methods were applied as a sampling method. The research instrument was a questionnaire whose content validity was confirmed by a panel of experts, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient approved its reliability. The results showed that students had moderate attitudes toward the environment. It was also found that the perspectives of participants were not significantly different regarding gender, place of living, and educational level, but in terms of the college of education, the students of environment college significantly had a more favorable attitude toward the environment. The result of the correlation analysis indicated that attitude toward the environment had a significant relationship with information-seeking behavior and students' environmental awareness. The finding of path analysis showed that two variables of information-seeking behavior and ecological awareness explained 82 percent of attitudes toward the environment. So, increasing people's knowledge and awareness is essential for changing their behavior and participation in environmental protection. Besides, students' most important information resource about the environment was the Internet.

    Keywords: Environmental awareness, environmental attitude, Information seeking behaviour, Students
  • Masoumeh Laal Sazgar, Asadollah Mehrara *, MohammadReza Bagherzadeh, Sayed Mehdi Alvani Pages 109-119

    This study aims to design a model for developing Iran's tourism industry with a sustainable development approach. The statistical population in qualitative research includes experts and specialists in the tourism organization and quantitative analysis, the staff of tourism organizations in Tehran and Mazandaran province. The sampling method is targeted in the qualitative study section and stratified in the quantitative random section. The data collection method in this research is based on library studies, review of texts, relevant and field literature and data collection tools through interviews and questionnaires. Purposeful non-probabilistic sampling was used to select the interviewees, during which the experts tried to have practical experience in addition to theoretical knowledge. The validity of the measurement scale is based on "content-dependent" and "structure-dependent" and its reliability is evaluated based on Cronbach's alpha. In this study, the Dalal test has been used to explain the structural relationships between the development factors of Iran's tourism industry and the sustainable development approach using the Dematel technique. The results show that according to the Dalala technique, the most important component is the competitiveness index from the experts' point of view. Also, based on the structural equation technique, it was found that all identified factors have a significant impact on the development of the tourism industry.

    Keywords: Iran Tourism Industry Development, sustainable development, Ecological indicators, environmental Index, Environmental Competitiveness Index
  • Ghadir Firoznia, Mohsen Salman *, Behruz Gharani Arani Pages 121-133

    This study aims to investigate the impact of rural production cooperatives on improving the land use system and its environmental, social and economic consequences on sustainable local development in Kashan, Iran.


    This is an applied, descriptive-analytical study. The field and survey methods and the questionnaire were used for data collection. The statistical population consisted of 2761 farmers and exploiters who were members of rural production cooperatives in 10 villages and three cities in Kashan, of whom, 340 people were randomly selected as the sample size by Cochran's formula.


    Results showed a significant relationship between the formation of the rural production cooperatives in Kashan and the sustainability of agricultural land use, increase in agricultural production and increase in income of exploiters of rural production cooperatives (Sig = 0.05).


    The article revealed that rural production cooperatives should be regarded as an efficient exploitation system affecting sustainable rural development.

    Keywords: Rural Production Cooperative, Agricultural Exploitation System, Involvement, Sustainable Rural Development, Kashan
  • Alireza Moeini, Hamdola Sojasi, Hamid Shayan * Pages 135-151

    During the past two decades, metropolitan areas of Iran, including Mashhad, have experienced significant growth in urban development. However, the decrease of job opportunities in the rural areas and, in some cases, the depletion of the rural income sources have led to the "floating population" phenomenon in Iran. Rural workers are short-term migrants to cities to gain job opportunities and raise their incomes, sometimes becoming long-term residents. Due to the lack of internal studies on the floating population, this study, based on the censuses of 2006 (1385) and 2011 (1390), sought to identify and analyze the factors affecting the floating population in Khorasan Razavi. The data were collected in 27 cities of the region and analyzed utilizing correlation, regression, and U Mann-Whitney Tests. According to the study, indicators such as the percentage of agricultural employees, industry employees, and literacy index showed a significant difference in favor of cities with a high floating employment rate. In addition, the percentage of agricultural, industrial, and service workers, and the literacy percentage index, both in the correlation test and in the regression test, showed a meaningful relationship with the dependent variable, the rate of floating employed population.

    Keywords: floating population, Rural Workers, employment, Population flows, Khorasan Razavi
  • Mostafa Taleshi *, Raziya Arbabi Pages 153-169

    Urbanism in the national space and reducing environmental-ecological capacities and economic-social capabilities of rural settlements near urban areas have caused the spread of sprawl and annexation of rural settlements to cities, especially in the east of Iran. Zabol is one of the oldest and most ancient cities in the east. In recent decades, the instability of rural settlements around the city and the increasing rate of migration from other villages to Zabol, stirred up the annexation of villages such as Seh Ghaleh and Mohammad Abad to Zabol City. These annexed informal settlements to Zabol have reduced the quality of rural-urban life with minimum facilities, infrastructure and services. Recent studies indicate that there are 3,467 hectares of weary texture in Zabol. Seven hundred sixty-six hectares of this amount are rural and informal annexed textures. This study used a descriptive-analytical method to recognize and analyze the process of annexation and formation of informal settlements. Furthermore, applying a community empowerment approach, we designed guidelines for the informal texture in Seh Ghaleh and Mohammad Abad neighbourhoods of Zabol City. The statistical population of this study is the residents of Seh Ghaleh and Mohammad Abad neighbourhoods. Three hundred seventy-six households were selected by the Cochran method. The selection of sample and spatial distribution was done using the cluster method at the neighbourhood level. The reliability of the questionnaire based on Cronbach's alpha method is 0.891. The results showed that the most important factor affecting the annexation and expansion of informal settlements in Seh Ghaleh and Mohammad Abad neighbourhoods is the socio-economic factor. Also, the most critical factor as the solution to the problem of informal settlement is the promotion of citizens' participation through social-educational activities. To this end, the findings show that empowering local communities by providing education, skills and creating local institutions are the foremost solutions to put an end to or modify informal settlements.

    Keywords: Empowerment, rural settlements, annexation, Seh Galeh, Mohammad Abad neighbourhoods, Zabol