فهرست مطالب

Journal of Rangeland Science
Volume:12 Issue: 3, Summer 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • MohammadHassan Jouri * Page 0

    This book, with a Foreword by eminent geographer and sand dune specialist, Professor Martin A.J. Williams, provides a synthesis of what is known about the diverse and fascinating topic of sand dune landscapes. Sand dunes occur in a wide range of places, from the high latitude (north Asia) and high altitude (Tibetan plateau) permafrost zones and to hot inland deserts, coastal foreshores and even source-bordering dunes around lakes and endorheic rivers. Wherever they occur they support a wealth of biodiversity, unique geological and geomorphological formations, diverse landscapes and a rich heritage of indigenous and non-indigenous culture and tradition. Sand dune-rich desert and coastal regions have provided livelihood to large number of people throughout history and continue to do so. Today dune landscapes support the mining industry, livestock production, biodiversity conservation sites and developing enterprises such as eco- and cultural tourism. The pressures brought about by these activities as well as inappropriate policies have raised concerns relating to overall management and sustainability of resources in these vulnerable regions.The 39 chapters, contributed to by 117 authors from 14 countries are organized into 2 volumes: Volume 1: Sand Dunes in the Northern Hemisphere: Distribution, Formation, Migration and Management and Volume 2: Characteristics, Dynamics and Provenance of Sand Dunes in the Northern HemisphereThe research on sand dunes that is reported here, much of it for the very first time, will provide fellow researchers, land managers, policy makers and decision-makers with vital data and interpretations that will lead to better outcomes. Sand encroachment and mobility is an age-old problem that has led to loss of vital infrastructure, abandonment of settlements and misery for local inhabitants.

    Keywords: Sand, Distribution, formation, Management
  • Reza Siahmansour *, Ataollah Ebrahimi, Reza Chamanpira, Ehsan Zandiesfahan, Parvin Ramak Pages 214-227

    Picris strigosa is a valuable forage species in mountainous rangelands of Lorestan province, Iran, which produces suitable forage for sheep grazing. The aim of this study was to determine the allowable use and grazing tolerance of this species. For this purpose, 50 individuals of P. strigosa were selected in its typical habitat and marked for monitoring after applying four levels of harvesting intensities including control (0%), 25, 50, and 75% of the annual production during 2007–2011. Treatments were investigated by clipping and weighing method every month from May to July in vegetation period. The results showed a significant difference in terms of forage production between treatments (P≤0.01). The highest and lowest forage production with average values of 42.45g and 15.23 g per plant were obtained in 0% harvesting rate (control) and 75% intensity rate, respectively. In other words, harvesting higher than 50% coupled with early grazing (April and May, in accordance with the local pattern and research method of this article) weakens the individuals. Continuation of this process also increases the mortality of the individuals (death of 30% of the stands at a harvest intensity rate of 75%). Due to the sensitivity of the species to early grazing, it was recommended that for such a dominant species, livestock should enter the pasture in early June. Maximum forage production in control and the fast reduction in forage production of 75% treatment emphasize that overgrazing of this species would completely eliminate it from the field. It was concluded that P. strigosa is sensitive to grazing and its sensitivity should be considered in rangeland management plans.

    Keywords: Picris strigosa, Harvest rate, Grazing intensity, Growth stage, Forage
  • Fatima Mohammed, Mohammed Abdelsalam *, Gammereldein Ibrahim Pages 228-236

    This study was conducted at Butana locality, Gadarif State-Sudan in October 2018. The study aimed to assess the impacts of gold mining on natural rangeland. Two range sites were selected in the study area (Site A) that affected by gold mining activities and the other one (Site B) was not affected in the same zone. Each site was divided into four plots. The plot location randomly selected to represent the area of gold mining activities. Four line transects were established at each range site. At each transects, two transects of length 100m distributed systematically, and four quadrates of size 1×1 m placed with an interval of 25m. Data were analyzed for vegetation attributes; organized, tabulated and analyzed using standard range measurements equations. All data statistically analyzed (ANOVA) and mean comparisons were made using the Duncan procedure, SAS statistical program. The study found that there were significant differences between percentages of ground cover in terms of bare soil, rocks, litter, and plant cover in the location close to the mining activities, there was an increase in the proportion of bare soil (56.37%) compared to the plant cover (2.25%). While there were no significant differences between the components of ground cover in the range site which was far from the mining area. Also, there were no significant differences in average biomass productivity for two areas (A & B), the range site near mining activity (A) produced about (13.16 g/m²) compared to the other range site which was located far-off from the mining activity (B) produced about (11.41 g/m²). The carrying capacity in the affected site (A) reaches about 0.026 Au/ha/year, compare to another site (B) 0.022 Au/ha/year. It was concluded that there are negative effects of traditional mining on the Al-Sobag rangeland, through increased bare soil, decreased ground coverage, and productivity.

    Keywords: Transect, Bare soil, Vegetation cover, biomass, Carrying Capacity
  • Morteza Khodagholi *, Razieh Saboohi Pages 237-251

    Identification and assessment of the relationship between medicinal plant species and climatic factors are important lines of research, which provides insights into reasonable exploitation and sustainable development of these species. In addition, multivariate statistical methods have been proved successful in revealing the relationship between climatic factors and the distribution of plant species. Hence, this study aims to investigate bioclimatic characteristics of Daphne mucronata by determining climatic factors in its distribution range in Fars Province, Iran, where this species has a wide spatial distribution (27% of the total area). Towards this aim, 50 climatic variables related to January, April and July were used. To reduce the number of variables and determine the most important factors, Factor Analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used. The results showed that four principal components namely the temperature, precipitation, cloudiness, and wind components account for 38.56, 32.85, 11.03, and 9.09 % (91.54% in total) of data variance, respectively. The results also indicated that temperature and precipitation had the greatest impact on the species distribution. Moreover, the mean temperature within the species distribution range was about 15°C with minimum precipitation of 379 mm. This research identifies the characteristics of vegetative climate to determine the possibility of expansion and development of this plant in natural areas and provides better management.

    Keywords: Daphne mucronata Royle, Climatic variables, Fars province habitats
  • Mekhloufi Moullal Brahim *, Khelifi Boubakeur, Abdelali Otmane Pages 252-265

    Geographic techniques and soil analyses are widely used to identify the state of evolution of plant cover. In this article, we use cartography to identify the evolution of the vegetation and soil analyses in the commune of Rogasse; in the areas of El Mouwahdine, Sekine; and in unprotected sector. These areas are strongly affected by the degradation of soil and plant cover by sand advancement. In order to assess the reliability of our results, we used a map of the evolution of plant cover between 2006 and 2018. The results reveal changes in the composition of the successive colors of the surface of the study area, and the analysis of the soil demonstrated that this earth is completely sandy loam in nature, which is due to the desertification in the region. We maintain that between 2006 and 2018, the advancement of sand had a negative influence on the evolution of the plant cover in protected and unprotected areas. The phenomenon of desertification negatively influences in a rapid way on these protected and even unprotected areas is that it is necessary to introduce other species has greater faculty to face this climate change in this region and the adoption of '' a long-term strategy for the protection of perennial plants.

    Keywords: Climatic hazards, Protected Areas, Cartography, Vegetal cover, Soil analysis
  • Nafiseh Rezapour Andabili *, Mahsa Safaripour Pages 266-276

    Ecological capability assessment of a land as one of the most important steps in line with sustainable development was conducted based on identifying and pre-designed criteria, following assessment of the land’s assets and its latent power. In the present study, which was conducted in 2019, in order to reveal the changes in the region during ten years, evaluateing the ecological potential of the regionwas done for rangeland use using the main criteria: soil science, lithology, topography, climate, vegetation, water level, road fault, flood zones and land use using AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method and digitization of information in GIS environment. Then, in order to reveal the changes in the region, and the study of multi-time remote sensing images in 3.5 Envi software were done. Findings indicate that the highest potential of the region is for rangeland use (33.6%)The study of land use changes shows an increase of two uses of rangeland (+6.8%) and vegetation of trees and shrubs (+13.9%). Kappa coefficient and total accuracy of the classified images for 2009 are 0.98 and 98.66 and for 2019, they are 0.86 and 88.88. Therefore, considering the importance and priority of rangeland use in this region in order to achieve sustainable development, special attention should be paid to economicization of rangelands so that in addition to conserving water, soil and vegetation, we can see more grazing management.

    Keywords: land use, Range management, remote sensing, analytical hierarchy process
  • Yadollah Bostan, Ahmad Fatahiardakani *, Majid Sadeghinia, Masoud Fehresti Sani Pages 277-292

    Pollinators that feed on insect-pollinated plants have an important role in the food chain. Because pollinator insects have the potential to raise the value of agricultural crops and are very helpful in the nitrogen stabilization and the prevention of pest invasions. The present study mainly investigated the contribution of three services of insect pollination in rangeland along with the valuation of the services. In the study, to calculate the share of each service, cutting and weighing methods (for forage production) and engineering economics methods (replacement cost and Transfer of Benefits) were used to calculate the economic value in 2017. These services include increased yield of agricultural supply, upgraded nitrogen fixation by nitrogen fixing plants in rangelands, and reduction of plant pests and diseases by pollinator insects. Each service value was anticipated to be 15.31%, 48.9% and 35.78% of the overall of insect pollination, respectively. Besides, the extent of pollinator insects services value per hectare and the whole rangeland ecosystem was 62.37$ and 649096.5$, respectively. Consequently, following the outcome of the present study, preservation of insect pollination services is considerable to sustain and keep food security, sustainable agricultural development, sustainable employment, and protection of natural, environmental ecosystems and the environment, especially rangelands. Thus, insect pollinator services were regarded significant by policy makers and managers.

    Keywords: Biological control, Nitrogen fixation, Range Economics, Replacement Cost, Wild Bee
  • Neda Ebrahimi Mohamad Abadi, Seyed Hassan Kaboli *, Neda Ebrahimi Mohamad Abadi, Farhad Rejali, Ali Asghar Zolfaghari Pages 293-307

    Native palatable species are the most important plants for the restoration of arid areas. Zygophyllum atriplicoides is one of the useful species in restoring arid regions, but poor germination and seedling growth are the main problems in the establishment of this species. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biological, chemical, and mechanical priming treatments on seedling germination. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications in a laboratory (germinator) and tray culture mid-summer of 2018. Experimental treatments consisted of two chemical treatments including salicylic acid and gibberellic acid at three levels, five biological treatments consist of Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens and mechanical treatments including 24 kHz ultrasonic wave during 5 min. Seed germination and seedling growth traits were measured in different treatments. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between treatments for all traits in both experiments (p<0.01 and p<0.01). The result of the laboratory experiment showed the higher mean values of germination percent (38.33), germination rate (14.69), germination percent day (2.73) and germination index (0.54) in Bacillus treatments than other treatments. Also, Azospirillum increased seed vigor index (56.0), root length (1.33cm), seedling length (2.26cm), fresh weight Root (8.40g), root dry weight (1.20g) and shoot dry weight (1.90g) as compared to control. The maximum shoot length and root to shoot length ratio were obtained by salicylic acid and gibberellic acid 3000 ppm, respectively. Bacillus caused the highest root length (4.73cm), root to shoot ratio (2.20), root (6.50g) and shoot fresh weight (2.63g) and leaf area (11.37). Maximum seedling length and leaf fresh and dry weight were obtained by Pseudomonas fluorescens. According to the results of this study, the use of bacteria, especially Azospirillum, Bacillus and Pseudomonas were effective in better germination of seed.

    Keywords: Bio priming, Salicylic acid, Gibberellic acid, Ultrasonic, germination
  • Victor Squires *, Mahesh Kumar Gaur, Ali Ariapour Pages 308-321

    It is very easy to view land degradation and desertification as purely biophysical phenomena for which there are neat technological solutions. Yet millions of real people live in the affected lands, and they both cause land degradation and are impacted by it, so scientists and land managers need to find a good balance between reductionist rigor and societal applicability. The concept of Land Degradation Neutral World (LDN) offered great promise to meet the commitments made in the various National Action Plans as a road map for achieving goals for the affected country reports to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The operationalization of LDN is more challenging. We must recognize the consequences of past inaction on land degradation, climate change and biodiversity loss. Land degradation plays a key role in this ‘vicious triangle’ of threats to our sustainability. The LDN agenda provides a framework, and commitment to it by all nations affected by land degradation, is the key to successful outcomes by 2030. Adoption of the idea and implementation of measures could lead to reaching LDN, one of the UN’s sustainable development goals that was agreed in 2015, but it won’t be easy and there is an obligation for the richer nations to provide financial and technical support to affected party countries.

    Keywords: Climate Change, Desertification, Biodiversity, Carrying Capacity, Sustainability
  • Dana Kelly * Pages 322-325

    When I visited your beautiful country of Iran in 2018, one highlight for me was meeting two of your scholars who were both involved in CENESTA – the late Ghanimat Azhdari and her mentor, the late Taghi Farvar. Taghi had a remarkable & powerful presence. He influenced many around the world, including many of you who are here today. Ghanimat proudly described herself as the daughter of a pastoralist from southern Iran, something we shared as I too am the daughter of a pastoralist. They approached the world with a holistic lens, cognisant of the importance of socio-economic issues. They were both strong advocates for the collective rights of mobile Indigenous peoples. Their passion for Indigenous people’s knowledge and wisdom inspired the theme I wish to highlight today. The value of Indigenous or Traditional knowledge and Traditional Governance systems is starting to be recognised around the world. Today I will highlight a few projects in Australia, that indicate that how this is occurring in my country. The widespread and catastrophic fires of 2000-2019 in Australia, heightened our awareness of the value of the cultural burning practices of Aboriginal peoples. The 2000-2019 fires burnt over 77,000 square miles, which is about the area of Syria; 33 people died and approximately 1 billion animals. The need for different responses to fire was widely discussed.

    Keywords: Traditional knowledge, value, Indigenous peoples