فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 61 (بهار 1401)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/04/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • منیره گزیکی نزاد، علیرضا شیخی* صفحات 5-23

    موزه قرآن شیخ احمد جامی در شهرستان تربت جام، مجموعه ای کم نظیر از قرآن های خطی دارد. صفحات افتتاح این قرآن ها، با تزیینات و صفحه آرایی ظریف و سنجیده، قابل تامل و در خور اندیشه و مطالعه بوده که بر اعتبار و منزلت آنها تاکید نموده است. پژوهش حاضر، به بررسی اصول و قواعد بصری صفحات افتتاح مجموعه ای از قرآن های محفوظ در موزه شیخ احمد جامی از سده 8 تا 13 هجری پرداخته است. اهداف پژوهش حاضرعبارت است از: 1-بررسی ارزش های بصری صفحه آرایی و تزیینات صفحات افتتاح وانجام قرآن های محفوظ در مجموعه شیخ احمد جامی2-تطبیق صفحه آرایی و تزیینات این صفحات از قرن 8 تا 13 هجری. و سوالات این پژوهش عبارت است از:1. صفحه آرایی وتزیینات صفحات افتتاح در قرآن های محفوظ در موزه شیخ احمد جامی از قرن 8 تا13 هجری چه ویژگی هایی دارد؟2.وجوه افتراق و اشتراک در صفحه آرایی وتزیینات قرآن ها چگونه است؟این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و روش توصیفی و تحلیلی به انجام رسیده است. جامعه آماری قرآن های مجموعه شیخ احمد جامی و روش نمونه گیری، هدفمند با انتخاب موارد بارز و موارد مرزی و انتهایی انجام گرفته است. یافته ها نشان می دهد ابتکار مذهبان دوره سلجوقی، تحریر حروف و علامات و حرکات خوش نویسی شده با حروف دقیق و سنجیده و ابعاد کتیبه مرکزی در این دوران وسیع تر بوده است. در عصر ایلخانی سبک کتابت وصفحه آرایی مصحف های قرآن کامل ترشد. صفحات اول قرآن تذهیب و بر اساس الگوهای هندسی تقسیم بندی شده و این اشکال با گردش اسلیمی ها کامل گشته و کتیبه و شمسه در این دوران رونق یافته است. در قرآن های کتابت شده عصر تیموری طلا و لاجورد از عوامل اساسی کار بوده است هم چنین خط ثلث در کتابت قرآن رواج یافته وحاشیه بیرونی (مقابل عطف) سطح وسیعتری را نسبت به حواشی دیگر به خود اختصاص می دهد. در نقوش صفوی تمایل به ایجاد ظرافت و پیچیدگی های اعجاب انگیز در تزیینات به چشم می خورد. رنگ غالب طلایی و لاجوردی والبته شنگرف، سبز، زرد و نارنجی نیز بیشتر به کار رفت. کاتبان با توجه به تناسب و توازن، میان اندازه ی سطح نوشته و اندازه صفحه، نسبت های هندسی را به خوبی ارزیابی کرده و از ابزارهای عملی و نظری لازم برای فضاسازی اندازه ی نوشته استفاده نموده اند. نوع کادربندی های مختلف وتقسیمات صفحه به بخش های مجزا نیزاز ویژگی های این دوره است.

    کلیدواژگان: صفحه آرایی، صفحات افتتاح، قرآن، موزه شیخ احمد جامی
  • عطیه یوزباشی*، سید رضا حسینی، عبدالرضا چارئی صفحات 25-47

    دیوارنگاری مذهبی در معنای هنر شیعه و با مرکزیت ایمه اطهار به ویژه واقعه کربلا از مهمترین گونه های دیوارنگاری است که دوران شکوفایی خود را در عصر قاجار سپری نمود. به دلیل تحولات پس از مشروطه نقاشی مذهبی عمدتا محدود به نقاشی های عامیانه می شد که اکثرا در بقاع متبرکه توسط هنرمندان مردمی تهیه می شدند. هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی مولفه های اهمیت و عوامل ظهور مضامین مذهبی در آثار هنری یاد شده است. سوال های این مقاله عبارتند از: 1- عوامل ظهور مضامین مذهبی در دیوارنگاره های بناهای مذهبی عصر قاجار کدامند؟ 2- دیوارنگاره های مذهبی بناهای مذهبی عصر قاجار مشتمل بر کدام مضامین و محتوا هستند؟ و آیا این مضامین و محتوا در بقاع متبرکه گیلان مشاهده شده است؟ 3- هنرمندان دیوارنگاره های بناهای مذهبی عصر قاجار برای نشان دادن موضوع از چه مولفه هایی بهره گرفته اند؟ و آیا هنرمندان بقاع متبرکه گیلان از این مولفه ها بهره برده اند؟ روش تحقیق بر مبنای ماهیت توصیفی- تحلیل محتوا (متنی) و شیوه ی گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی بوده است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که ارتباط بناهای مذهبی و دیوارنگاره های آن با مفاهیم شیعی و آیین های جمعی مرتبط با مذهب شیعه موجب پر رنگ شدن نقش اجتماعی این اماکن میشده است. به همین دلیل از مهم ترین عواملی که سبب ظهور مضامین مذهبی شد، نیاز به فضای معنوی، باور به تبلیغ و اشاعه ی مذهب تشیع، تاکید بر هویت مذهبی و فرهنگی، توجه به برخی باورهای عامیانه مذهبی و شوکت نمایی سلطنت حاکمان می توان اشاره داشت. همچنین از دیگر نتایج پژوهش آن است که مهم ترین مولفه های اهمیت موضوع این دیوارنگاره های بناهای مذهبی شامل: ابعاد نگاره، میدان دید، فضای باز مقابل تابلو و ارزش معنوی است و موضوعات مذهبی در این پنج بخش گنجانده شده است: باورهای عامیانه، وقایع نگاری تاریخ ایمه، شمایل ها، داستان ها؛ و نقوش مذهبی و نمادین. کلیه ی مولفه های اهمیت موضوع و مضامین مذهبی در بقاع متبرکه گیلان رویت شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: قاجار، بناهای مذهبی، دیوارنگاره، نقاشی عامیانه، مضامین مذهبی
  • مینا صدری*، ملیحه کشیر صفحات 49-65
    بررسی روابط آشکار و پنهان ترکیب بندی در نگارگری می تواند ویژگی ها و کیفیت های بصری آثار نگارگری را تبیین کرده و پدیدارکننده ی تفاوت ها و شباهت های میان آثار باشد. این تحقیق به جهت مطالعه و مقایسه ی نظام ترکیب بندی در مکاتب نگارگری، سه نگاره از خمسه نظامی 1442م/846ق را برگزیده است که به مکتب هرات، تبریزصفوی و قزوین تعلق دارند. دست یابی به ویژگی های ترکیب بندی نگاره ها و بررسی سیر تحول آن ها، هدف این جستار بوده است. در پژوهش حاضر این پرسش ها پاسخ داده شده است: 1- نظام ترکیب بندی در نگاره های منتخب خمسه نظامی 1442م./846 ق چه روندی را طی نموده است؟ 2- نظام ترکیب بندی در سه نگاره ی منتخب، چه تشابه و تفاوت هایی با هم دارند؟ به منظور رسیدن به ویژگی های نظام ترکیب بندی، آثار منتخب این نسخه به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی بررسی شده و با دستیابی به نوع روابط در عناصر به کار رفته در نظام ترکیب بندی از قبیل کتیبه ی اشعار، مربع شاخص، مستطیل های پویا و طلایی، منحنی مارپیچ و خطوط رهنمونگر نگاره ها، به تطبیق آثار با ماهیت کیفی پرداخته شده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز تحلیل به شیوه کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده است. نتیجه آنکه با وجود کاربست هندسه ی پنهان در هر سه نگاره ، ترکیب بندی نگاره ی متعلق به مکتب هرات - اثر کمال الدین بهزاد - در ساختار هندسی و ایجاد نظام تناسبات، دارای یک ترکیب نظام یافته و هماهنگ تری نسبت به دو نگاره ی دیگر است. همچنین سیر تحول نظام ترکیب بندی در آن ها، به تناسب تحولات مکاتب نگارگری، با تغییرات تدریجی اما توام با پیوستگی و تاثیرپذیری از سنت ها و بدعت های بهزاد همراه بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ترکیب بندی، هندسه پنهان، نگارگری، کمال الدین بهزاد، مکتب هرات، تبریز صفوی و قزوین، خمسه نظامی 1442م، 846ق
  • سودا ابوالحسن مقدمی*، بهمن نامور صفحات 67-77
    اسطوره شناسی یکی از راه های اسطوره شناسان برای ارتباط میان دو جهان متنی وغیرمتنی و همچنین تحلیل جهان نشانه ای بوده است.براساس نظریه نقداسطوره ای نورتروپ فرای،کتاب مقدس رمزکل است ورمزگشایی آن رمزگشایی از کل رمزهای هستی، تلقی می گردد.بنابراین قرآن نیز برای مسلمانان رمزکل است و برای رمزگشایی از مفاهیم روایت های عرفانی و دینی شخصیت های اسطوره ای در جهان اسلام و بازتاب آنها در نگاره ها می بایست از قرآن و تفاسیرآن بهره برد.باتوجه به تعاریف فرای از اسطوره، مولانا نیز اسطوره ای در جهان عرفانی اسلام است که برای بازگشایی از مفاهیم کرامات او می توان از داستان های قرآن بهره برد. هدف این مقاله اثبات این فرضیه است که موجودی که در داستان مولانا آمده و درنگاره ها نیز تصویر شده،نه دیو آب و نه خداوندگار آب بلکه از تبار جنیان است و این فرضیه با توجه به آیات قرآنی به اثبات می رسد. این مقاله ویژگی جنیان را در قرآن و تفاسیر بررسی کرده و مصداق تصویری آن را در نگاره ی مولانا و دیو آب در دو نسخه ی مصور ثواقب المناقب تحلیل کرده است.در همین راستا سوالات این پژوهش چنین است: 1. تا چه اندازه از ویژگی های داستان اسطوره ای از دیدگاه نقد اسطوره ای فرای، در حکایات مولانا ودیو آب در نسخه ی ثواقب المناقب، قابل تطبیق است؟  2. ویژگی های ذکرشده در رمزکل قرآن در باب جنیان تا چه میزان در نگاره های مولانا و دیوآب مصداق صوری پیدا کرده است؟روش تحقیق در این پژوهش روش توصیفی-تحلیلی است واطلاعات به روش کتابخانه ای جمع آوری شده و تصویر نسخه مصور توپ قاپی استانبول،توسط نگارنده از موزه مذکور خریداری شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد با توجه به آنچه که در آیات و تفاسیر قرآن در رابطه با ویژگی های جن و چگونگی ارتباط آنها با اولیای مقرب خداوندذکرشده،تصویری که در نگاره ها آمده، نه دیو آب بلکه یک جن است.همچنین ویژگی های رفتاری و ظاهری آن نیز این موضوع را تایید می کند بطوریکه این جن، مسخر مولانا شده،اسلام آورده و توبه کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ثواقب المناقب، نگاره مولانا، نقد اسطوره ای، نورتروپ فرای، جن
  • علی بوذری* صفحات 79-93
    منشی نول کشور روزنامه نگار، مترجم و ناشر هندی است که با نشر کتاب به زبان فارسی در ترویج زبان و ادب فارسی در خارج از مرزهای ایران تاثیر فراوانی داشته است . گرچه کتاب های چاپ سنگی فارسی این مطبعه به لحاظ متن متنوع و متعددند، ولی این کتاب ها به لحاظ ویژگی‎ های بصری، تزیینات و تصاویر از ویژگی خاصی برخوردار نیستند. آنچه در تزیینات این کتاب ها شاخص و منحصربه فرد است صفحات عنوان منشورات چاپخانه منشی نول کشور است که دارای تزیینات و ترکیب های بصری منحصر به فرد و ویژگی‎ های بصری ویژه ای است که آن ها در میان کتاب های چاپ سنگی ایران و هند شاخص و متفاوت می کند. این ساختار در سال های بعدی الگویی برای دیگر کتاب های هند و آسیای میانه می شود.این پژوهش با هدف تبیین ویژگی های بصری صفحات عنوان در منشورات این مطبعه انجام شده و در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که ویژگی های بصری طراحی صفحه عنوان در کتاب های چاپ سنگی فارسی این مطبعه، از منظر بهره گیری از نقش مایه ها و اطلاعات قیدشده در صفحه عنوان، چگونه بوده است؟ روش تحقیق توصیفی - تحلیلی است. جامعه ی پژوهش شامل نسخه های موجود در کتابخانه ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران قرار گرفته که، از آن میان، تا رسیدن به نقطه اشباع، 200 صفحه عنوان از کتاب های چاپ سنگی فارسی از منشورات منشی نول کشور (طبع شده بین سال های 1282-1326ق. / 1865-1909م.)، انتخاب و بررسی شده است.نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد که صفحه عنوان ها در منشورات این انتشارات دارای یک ویژگی‎ های بصری برای قرارگیری اطلاعاتی چون یاد خداوند، عنوان کتاب، نام پدیدآورنده، تاریخ طبع، محل نشر و ناشر در بخش های مختلف صفحه است. در طراحی صفحات عنوان از طیفی از تزیینات انتزاعی تا فیگوراتیو (گیاهی)، شامل انواع واگیره ها، استفاده شده است. همچنین در هر کدام از این بخش ها از عبارات شعرگونه و مقفا، منتهی به حروف مدور استفاده شده که در آنها با تکرار حروف، به ویژه حروف مدور، ریتم در نگارش را ایجاد کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: منشی نول کشور، چاپ سنگی، صفحه عنوان، تزیینات کتاب، کتاب چاپی فارسی در هند
  • سید نظام الدین امامی فر*، فرزانه رمضان نیای کینچاه صفحات 95-109

    هم زمان با خلق آثار نوگرای نقاشی خط در مکتب سقاخانه، که در آن خط به مثابه یک عنصر تزیینی، از بند بیان مفاهیم رهاشده، هنرمندانی به بازیابی هنری از دوران صفوی و قاجار با عنوان خطوط تفننی پرداختند. هنری که به کمک خط، به آفرینش فرم های معنادار پرداخته و امروزه با نام خط نقاشی شناخته می شود. در این گرایش، تصاویری از حیوانات مقدس در دین اسلام به وسیله ی خطوط تزیینی خلق شده است. از مهم ترین آن تصاویری موسوم به مرغ بسم الله است. در سال های اخیر به دلیل عدم وجود تعاریف بنیادین در این باب، زایش هنری منسجمی شکل نگرفته و تولیدات هنری به دلیل نبودن تسلط بر خوشنویسی تزیینی در دسته بندی هنر نقاشی خط قرار گرفته اند. پژوهش پیش رو با هدف کشف ویژگی های ماهیتی این هنر و بیان تعاریف ریشه ای برای دستیابی به ساختار علمی مستحکم (با تمرکز بر موضوع مرغ بسم الله، رسامی شده توسط استاد رضا مافی) صورت گرفته است. سوالات مطرح شده بدین شرح است: 1-مفهوم نوشتار و تصویر در مرغ بسم الله، از منظر نشانه شناسی تصویری چیست؟ 2-استفاده از کدام خط و تکنیک خوشنویسی در آثار موسوم به مرغ بسم الله، رایج تر است؟ 3-اشکال و نقوش در خط نقاشی مرغ بسم الله با رویکرد نشانه شناسی تصویری، در کدام دسته بندی قرار می گیرند؟ روش تحقیق مقاله، توصیفی- تحلیلی است. اطلاعات برمبنای اسناد علمی معتبر در تحقیقات کتابخانه ای، با استفاده از ابزاری چون فیش و جدول جمع آوری و دسته بندی شده است.  بعد از ارایه نمونه هایی از مرغ بسم الله، به مطالعه ی نمونه ی آماری، با رویکرد نشانه شناسی تصویر برمبنای دلالت های صریح و ضمنی پرداخته شده است. در نهایت این نتیجه حاصل شد که در تمامی اعصار مرغ بسم الله حاوی مضامین مذهبی با خط ثلث و یا نستعلیق به واسطه ی تکنیک خط مشکل به تحریر درآمده است. نشانه ها به شکل نمادین و شمایلی به کار گرفته شده اند و در آن برخلاف آثار نقاشی خط، حروف و کلمات به انتقال معنای قراردادی خود می پردازند.

    کلیدواژگان: مرغ بسم الله، نشانه شناسی، خط نقاشی، رضا مافی، مکتب سقاخانه
  • الهه پنجه باشی* صفحات 111-137
    در زمان قاجار یکی از هنرمندان درخشان محمود خان ملک الشعراست که در نقاشی دورنماسازی از منظره های شهری از اساتید برجسته است. آثار او دارای زمینه های متفاوتی نسبت به زمانه خود است و محمودخان را می توان از پیشگامان هنر نقاشی مدرن در ایران دانست. دانش ریاضی بالا وکاربردی کردن آن درهنر نقاشی، سه بعدی یا چند بعدی دیدن یک موضوع مثلا"دیدن یک ساختمان از بالا، پایین و زوایای متعدد که در نقاشی های او دیده می شود. دانش رنگ گذاری،ذهن گرایی، نور پردازی، زاویه دید، پیوند هندسی میان سطوح از ویژگی های بارز نقاشی های او است. هدف از این پژوهش مطالعه ویژگی های بصری آثار مناظر شهری محمود خان ملک الشعرا با تاثیرپذیری از عکاسی بر است. منظره نگاری شهری و دورنماسازی در این آثار از این لحاظ حایز اهمیت است که او تهران و ساختمانهای جدید آن در دوره قاجار را به مخاطب نشان می دهد و آثارش نوعی مستند نگاری نقاشی گونه از ساختمان ها و چشم اندازهای تهران است. سوالات در این مقاله به شرح زیر است: 1-ویژگی های بصری منظره پردازی از مناظر شهری در آثار محمودخان ملک الشعرا کدام است؟ 2- آیا آثار محمودخان ملک الشعرا متاثر از عکاسی است؟ این تاثیرات در کدام بخش هاست؟ 3- تاثیر نقاشی غرب و ایران در کدامیک از بخش ها و عناصر بصری آثار محمودخان ملک الشعرا دیده می شود؟ روش تحقیق به شیوه توصیفی - تحلیلی  و جمع آوری اطلاع به صورت اسنادی (کتابخانه ای) است. نتایج یافته ها در این پژوهش نشان می دهد محمودخان یکی از هنرمندان پیشگام در عرصه نقاشی نوین درایران دوره قاجار است. او در نقاشی های خود از عکاسی و نگاه عکاسانه برای تکمیل آثار خود استفاده می کند ولی تلاش ندارد موضوع را عین عکس نشان دهد و تفاوت تفکر نقاشی و عکاسی را به درستی می داند. درآثار او ذهن گرایی، خلاقیت هنری، دیگاه جلوتر از زمانه و بسیار مدرن در تمامی آثار نقاشی آبرنگ و رنگ و روغن با موضوعات مختلف دیده می شود. او نوع متفاوتی از نقاشی منظره سازی در دوره قاجار با تاثیر پذیری از عکاسی را در آثار نقاشی خود نشان می دهدکه دارای روحیه و هویت ایرانی است.
    کلیدواژگان: قاجار، محمودخان ملک الشعرا، تهران، دورنماسازی، منظره پردازی، نقاشی، عکاسی
  • هادی قائم پناه*، مهتاب مبینی صفحات 139-161
    نقش برجسته بیستون، یادمان مصوری از پیروزی های داریوش اول هخامنشی است که بهمراه کتیبه پیرامونی اش به لحاظ تاریخی و هنری از اهمیت فراوانی برخوردار است. برخی از نقوش و ویژگی های هنر هخامنشی، برای بار نخست در این یادمان به نمایش درآمدند و در آثار بعدی آنان تکرار و بازنمایی شدند. بسیاری از نقشمایه ها و ویژگی های بصری این نقش برجسته، برگرفته از نقوش و هنر تمدنها و اقوام پیشین بوده که در قابی جدید و متفاوت بازنمایی شده اند. هدف این پژوهش، شناخت و ریشه یابی نقوش و ویژگی های بصری و نمادین نقش برجسته بیستون و چگونگی بازنمایی آنها است. سوالات این پژوهش نیز چنین است: 1. نقشمایه ها و ویژگی های بصری و نمادین نقش برجسته بیستون، بیشتر بازنمایی از نقوش و هنر کدامیک از تمدنها و اقوام پیشین بوده و کدام ویژگی بصری نقش برجسته بیستون، موجب متمایز و متفاوت شدن آن از نمونه های قبلی شده است؟  2. تصویر پیکره قرص بالدار در نقش برجسته بیستون، نشانگر کدام یک از فرضیات مطرح شده است؟ روش تحقیق این مقاله توصیفی_ تحلیلی با رویکرد تطبیقی است و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای است. تمرکز پژوهش حاضر بر جنبه بصری_ هنری نقش برجسته بیستون است (نه جنبه تاریخی). نتایج بررسی های انجام شده نشانگر آن است که نقشمایه ها و ویژگی های بصری و نمادین نقش برجسته بیستون، بازنمایی از نقش برجسته آنوبانینی، نقوش و هنر آشور نو و نقوش و هنر مصر بوده اند. مهمترین ویژگی بصری متمایزکننده این یادمان از نمونه های پیشین، تاکید بر نمایش پیروزی یک پادشاه ایرانی (پارسی) و عدم نمایش خشونت و تحقیر در تصویر دشمنان مغلوب است. همچنین، ویژگی های بصری و نمادین لحاظ شده در تصویر پیکره قرص بالدار، نشاندهنده خدا (اهورامزدا) بودن آن است.
    کلیدواژگان: ویژگی بصری، نقوش، نقش برجسته بیستون، هنر هخامنشی
  • رضوان احمدی پیام*، ابوالقاسم دادور صفحات 163-177
    نقوش سکه ها با فرهنگ و هنر زمانه خود ارتباط تنگاتنگی دارند؛ می توان به مدد آن ها وضعیت اقتصادی، مذهبی و فرهنگی ایالت و محل ضرب سکه را دریافت و محققان را در فهم علل تداوم سنت ها و آداب حاکم بر یک جامعه یاری رساند. اروین پانوفسکی در هر تصویر سه لایه مختلف معنایی قایل است که می توانند با عرصه های فرهنگی، اعتقادی و ملی مسلط بر اندیشه تولیدکنندگان آن در ارتباط باشند. هدف اصلی این پژوهش استخراج زمینه های فرهنگی موجود در مسکوکات آل بویه متکی بر نظریه شمایل شناسانه پانوفسکی است. این پژوهش به دو پرسش اساسی پاسخ می دهد: سکه های تصویری آل بویه چگونه با سه لایه معنایی؛ پیشاشمایل نگارانه، شمایل نگارانه و شمایل شناسانه پانوفسکی انطباق می یابند؟ و در بررسی لایه های معنایی یادشده، الگوهای فرهنگی ایرانی و علل کاربست آن ها شامل چه مواردی است؟ روش تحقیق تحلیلی - توصیفی و گردآوری اطلاعات به شیوه کتابخانه ای است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که سکه های تصویری آل بویه در سه مرحله مجزا قابل بررسی هستند؛ در لایه نخست(پیشاشمایل نگارانه) مولفه های بصری در سکه ها (نقوش و ترکیب بندی آن ها)، در لایه دوم(توصیف شمایل نگارانه) محتوای مفهومی نقشمایه ها و ترکیب آن ها با هم و در لایه سوم معنایی(تفسیر شمایل شناسانه)، تحولات فرهنگی و تاریخی موثر در تولید و شکل گیری نقوش موجود بر آن ها تحلیل شد. داده های به دست آمده از بررسی لایه های دوم و سوم این احتمال را قوت بخشید که عمدتا نقوش و شیوه ترکیب بندی آن ها بر سکه ها از ایران قبل از اسلام وام گیری شده اند. براساس مستندات این اقتباسات از عوامل مختلفی همچون تمایل ایرانیان به اصول مملکت داری پیشین، علاقمندی بویهیان به احیای سنت های پیش از اسلام، اصالت ایرانی امرای آل بویه و کسب مشروعیت حاکمان از سوی مردم و خلفای عباسی تبعیت می کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: سکه های تصویری، نقوش، آل بویه، شمایل شناسی
  • منا منتظری هدشی، بیتا سودایی*، حسین علیزاده، حسن درخشی صفحات 179-195
    مسکوکات از جمله مدارک ارزشمند جهت مطالعه ساختار فرهنگی و باورهای مذهبی دوره های تاریخی و یکی از دانش های مکمل مطالعات تاریخ و تاریخ هنر است که کاربرد آن مورد تایید پژوهشگران باستان شناس و تاریخ هنر قرار گرفته است. نمادهای مندرج بر سکه ها مهم ترین راهنمای پژوهشگران در بازشناسی باورهای دینی و آشنایی با آراء و عقاید مذهبی در دوره های مختلف تاریخی به شمار می آید. اساطیر از دیرباز در فرهنگ و هنر هر قوم و ملت نقش محوری داشته و در بطن آیین ها، باورها و هنر آن ها به صورت داستان های روایی یا نمادهای تصویری نمود یافته اند. هدف این تحقیق شناسایی نمادهای گیاهی بر روی مسکوکات اشکانی است. سوالات پژوهش عبارت است از مهم ترین نگاره های گیاهی بکار رفته در مسکوکات اشکانی کدام اند؟ آیا می توان از نمادهای گیاهی بکار رفته به  باورها و اندیشه های مذهبی این دوره پی برد؟ این تحقیق به روش میدانی، توصیفی-تحلیلی و شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی است که به شناسایی، بازخوانی و تفسیر نگاره های گیاهی به منظور شناسایی جایگاه آن ها در باورهای مذهبی و اساطیری دوره اشکانیان پرداخته است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد  نقوش گیاهی مورد استفاده در  مسکوکات این دوره شامل" نخل، زیتون، رزت، انگور، گندم، انار، زنبق و بلوط" است. تصویر "نخل، زیتون، رزت و زنبق" در مسکوکات چهاردرهمی، یک درهمی و سکه های برنزی شاهان اشکانی و نقوش"انگور، گندم، انار و بلوط" در مسکوکات برنزی مشاهده می شوند که با توجه به نماد شناسی می توان بیان کرد که این آرایه ها مرتبط با ادیان زرتشتی، مهرپرستی و آناهیتا است. بنا بر منابع مکتوب آیین زرتشتی در این دوره آمیخته با عقاید دیگر است و بیشتر به صورت تثلیث ایزدان (مهر- آناهیتا- اورمزد) مشاهده می شود و با بررسی مسکوکات آن ها این موضوع تایید می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: نمادشناسی، مسکوکات، اشکانی، آرایه های گیاهی
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  • Monireh Gazikinezhad, Alireza Sheikhi * Pages 5-23

    In addition to being an architectural museum from the Islamic era, the Sheikh Ahmad Jami collection in Torbat Jam city has a rare and unique collection of Qur, ans that have not yet been studied. The opening pages of these Qur, ans, with delicate decorations and page layout, are thought-provoking and worthy of study. In order to investigate the principles of page layout and structural analysis of the opening pages and the endings of the Qur, ans, the matching of size and dimensions, margins and text, distances and proportions and color were studied, as well as the artistic aspects and structural system of the pages. The Qur, ans of the 8th to the 13th centuries AH had unique features in terms of page layout and decorations, and in the discussed Seljuk, Ilkhanid, Timurid, Safavid and Qajar periods, the page layout and decorations of the Qur, ans have undergone changes. The objectives of the present research are: 1- Investigating the visual values of page layout and decorations of the opening and ending pages of the preserved Qur, ans in Sheikh Ahmad Jami, s collection 2- Adapting the page layout and decorations of these pages from the 8th to the 13th century AH. The questions of this research are: 1. What are the characteristics of page arrangement and decorations of the opening pages in Qur, ans preserved in this Museum from the 8th to the 13th century AH? 2. What are the differences and commonalities in page arrangement and decorations of these Qur, ans? This research has been done with a qualitative approach and a descriptive and analytical method. The statistical population of the Qur, ans in Sheikh Ahmad Jami, s collection and the sampling method have been chosen purposefully by selecting prominent cases and borderline and terminal cases. The findings show that in the opening and completion of 10 examples of the studied Qur, ans, the Naskh and the Thuluth scripts are the most frequently used scripts. The gilding and decoration in the early Qur, ans were primitive and simple; depicting the use of geometrical principles. Over time, the gilding and decoration became advanced, complicated and mixed with scripts. So, since the fifth century, the decorative Kufic script became popular in inscriptions, the decorative elements of which are knotted representations and arabesque decorations. In the Seljuk period, simple arabesque and limited colors, especially gold, were used in the decoration of pages. In the 7th and 8th centuries AH, with the advent of the Mongols and the Ilkhans, the style of writing and page layout of the Qur, anic manuscripts became more complete. The dimensions of the central inscription are wider in the 5th and the 6th century Qur, ans, and in the following centuries, the inner or outer margins occupy the most space of the page; which can be seen in most of the Qur, ans of the collection. The outer margin in most of the studied Qur, ans, occupies a wider area comparatively. In more than 88% of the cases the Naskh script has been used, while the rest represent the Muhaqqaq script. 38% of the Qur, anic manuscripts are written by translators; mostly in Nastaliq. It was also found out that about 44% of the manuscripts have a seal of recognition.

    Keywords: Page layout, Opening pages, Qur'an, Sheikh Ahmad Jami Museum
  • Atieh Youzbashi *, Seyed Reza Hoseini, Abdolreza Chareie Pages 25-47

    Due to the post-constitutional developments, religious painting was mainly limited to folk paintings, which were mostly produced in sacred shrines by non-court painters and aimed at folk artists. The Qajar dynasty covered a wide variety of subjects, with opportunities for governmental, religious, literary, archeological, scientific, fictional, and everyday propaganda. Due to the economic, political and cultural weakness of this era, art also went to extinction and people turned to the art of fantasy to talk about their pains, desires and beliefs. It was in this art that religion was combined with national beliefs, and it showed the ruling spirit of the society and depicted religious paintings with an approach to the Ashura event. These folk religious paintings of sacred relics are considered a national and spiritual heritage that preserves many values ​​and is tied to the beliefs of the people. In addition to covering the walls or showing a religious theme, these murals were also a social obligation that expressed national and religious identity, and was formed in line with the faiths and beliefs of the people. The observance of the aesthetic principles governing them occurred in close connection and directly with hearts (of artists and people) full of their love for the province and the family of the Prophet of Islam.The purpose of this study is to identify the components of importance and factors of the emergence of religious themes in works of art. The questions of this article are: 1- What are the factors of the emergence of religious themes in the murals of religious monuments of the Qajar era? 2- What themes and content do the religious murals of the religious monuments of the Qajar era contain? And have these themes and content been observed in the holy shrines of Guilan? 3- What components did the mural artists of the religious monuments of the Qajar era use to show the subject? And have the artists of Guilan's holy shrines benefited from these components? Attempts are made to present the components of importance regarding the subject by emphasizing the spiritual value of human motifs and paying attention to the religious subject and the division and causes of the emergence of these themes in religious monuments. In this research, the murals of religious monuments, especially regarding the Imams and holy shrines, with emphasis on folk religious paintings are examined.The research method is based on descriptive-analytical nature. The method of collecting information was library-based and fieldwork, and the method of qualitative analysis. The number of statistical population is 31 murals from 12 historical and religious monuments of Qajar Iran that have been selected from the holy shrines of Guilan province. The method of qualitative information analysis is content (textual) analysis. The mural of "Mukhtar Saghafi Revenge House" in the city of Langrud, Guilan, has been selected and studied as an example to examine the factors of the emergence of themes and components of importance with regard to a religious theme.The results of the research show that folk murals are religious monuments, a national and spiritual heritage that have preserved many values, ​​and are tied to people's beliefs. For this reason, the most important factors that led to the emergence of religious themes are the need for a spiritual atmosphere, the belief in the propagation of Shiism, the emphasis on religious and cultural identity, attention to some popular religious beliefs and the shock of the ruling monarchy. What components did the mural artists of the religious monuments of the Qajar era use to show the subject? In choosing the subjects of these murals, there are components that are more important and include: the dimensions of the mural (size of the event), the field of view, the open space in front of the painting and the spiritual value (frequency). The relationship between the dimensions of the painting, the field of view and the open space in front of the painting has a spiritual value. Thus, the higher the spiritual importance and value of the subject of the painting, the image is designed in larger dimensions and has a wider field of view as well as a more open space for the audience (the pilgrims) to watch.Findings indicate that the most significant components of the importance regarding the subject of these murals of religious monuments include: dimensions of the painting, field of view, open space in front of the painting and spiritual value, and religious issues are included in these five sections: folk beliefs, chronicles of Imams, icons, stories, and religious and symbolic motifs. All the components of the importance with regard to the subject and religious themes have been seen in the holy shrines of Guilan.

    Keywords: Qajar, religious monuments, murals, folk paintings, religious themes
  • Mina Sadri *, MALIHE KASHIR Pages 49-65
    Composition is the art of arranging the elements in such a way that they form a purposive structure. Composition in Persian Painting is closely connected to the relationship of the arts with mathematics and geometry. Persian miniature specifically acquires its merits in composition from the field of geometry; to such an extent that a lot of the visual qualities present in the works of Persian painting such as unity, harmony, compatibility between the elements, equilibrium and balance come from their geometrical substructure. The most important geometrical shapes in the composition of Iranian paintings are variations of the spiral, circle, square and rectangle, and the most notable mathematical proportions that are used include the golden and radical ratios. However, the systematic networks that implement the harmonious exterior partitions pertain to the repetition of poetic inscriptions in length and width and the bulging networks arising from the directory lines of the depiction’s framework. Consequently, the corresponding networks are comprised of diagonals and their intersections, linings, golden marks on the frame and bisections. The coming together of geometrical shapes and proportions with their systematic networks amounts to a concealed geometry that the final unified composition of the works of Persian painting is founded upon. Therefore, their visual merits come from this systematic composition which is the result of concealed geometry and the carefully considered structure of the elements. Hence, evaluating the apparent and concealed composition of the depictions bring about further understanding of the specific features and visual qualities of the works of Persian miniature, it also sheds light on their similarities and differences. In order to study and compare compositions among schools of Persian Painting, this study has chosen three depictions from the Khamsa of Nizami (1442 AD/846 AH) belonging to the schools of Herat, Tabriz of the Safavid era and Qazvin. The aim of this article is to arrive at the specific compositional features of depictions and study their transformations. Based on the assumption that the compositions of Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād use more carefully considered geometrical and symmetrical systems, this research provides answers to these questions: 1. What are the transformational processes in the composition of the selected works of Khamsa of Nizami (1442 AD/846 AH)? 2. What are the differences and similarities among the compositional systems in the three chosen depictions? The current research is qualitative and fundamental in terms of orientation and goal. The manner of collecting data is library-based, and the interpretational method is descriptive-analytical and comparative. The choosing of the selected depictions was non-random and the criteria for selecting cases include similarities in subject matter and differences among schools. The cases are: depictions of The Battle of Iskandar and Dara by Behzād, The Death of Dara and The Battle of Iskandar with the Russians, that provide the theme of battle from three different schools. After the introductory evaluation of the depictions, their visual structure is studied and analyzed in order to shed light on the concealed geometry in the substructure of the composition, and then a comparative interpretation is presented. Therefore, the elements that constitute the geometrical structure, the size of the frame and the composition of visual elements in the depictions are studied which in detail include: the criterion epigraph, the index square, golden and dynamic rectangles, spiral curves and directory lines. Then, based on drawings and comparisons performed in the visual analysis of the works, by identifying various distinguishing relations, shapes, and geometric proportions in the compositional system, the selected works have been compared. Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that application of latent geometry played a significant role in the formation of the compositional systems of the three selected miniatures. However, the miniature belonging to the Herat School, created by Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād, has a more systematic and cohesive composition by using geometric structures and creating a system of proportions, compared to the other two miniatures. In fact, despite the sheer abundance of structures and relations utilized in its underlying composition, the work is dominated by coordination and integration. Moreover, the evolution of the compositions in the selected miniatures was accompanied by gradual changes based on the transformations of miniature schools, while also being associated with and influenced by the traditions and innovations of Behzād.
    Keywords: composition, latent geometry, Miniature, Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād, Khamsa of Nizami (1442 AD), Herat, Safavid Tabriz, Qazvin School
  • Sevda Abolhasan Moghaddami *, Bahman Namvarmotlagh Pages 67-77
    According to Northrop Frye’s “The Great Code” theory, Qur’an is also the great code for Muslims. Rumi is considered a myth in the mystical world of Islam; therefore, one must use the stories of the Qur’an in order to reopen the meanings of his virtues in the miniatures. The subject of this study is Sawaqub al-Manaqib, which illustrates Rumi's miracles. It was written by Abdulvehhab İbn-i Celaleddin Muhammed Hemedâni in 1541. This copy of the book has two illustrated versions, one of which was illustrated in 1590 with 29 illustrations and is now kept in the Morgan Museum of New York under number M.466 and the latter illustrated copy, which was made in 1599 with 22 illustrations, and is now kept in the Istanbul Topkapi Palace Museum under number TSMK REVAN 1479. For this study, miniatures related to Rumi and the water demon have been selected. The hypothesis of the study is that the creature mentioned in Rumi's story in the miniatures is neither the “water demon” nor the “water god”, but the jinn. For this purpose, this article has examined the characteristics of jinn in Qur’an and has analyzed its pictorial examples in two miniatures. The main questions of this research are as follows: 1. To what extent are the features of a mythical story from the point of view of Frye's critique of myths applicable to the anecdotes of Rumi and Water God in the version of Sawaqub al-Manaqib? 2. To what extent the features mentioned in the Great Code of Qur'an about the jinn have found visual representation in the paintings of Rumi and Water God? The method in the study is descriptive-analytical, and information was collected through the library method while the pictures of the illustrated copy of Topkapi Istanbul were bought by the author from the mentioned museum. Research results show that according to what is mentioned in the verses and interpretations of the Qur'an regarding the characteristics of the jinn and how they relate to the saints close to God, the image in the pictures depicts jinn rather than Water God. According to the Qur'an and commentaries, jinn are creatures created from fire and hidden from view. With regard to their creation, based on Qur'an, the jinn are made from a variety of different flames. When fire ignites the flames may sometimes appear red, yellow or even turn bluish. Thus, the selection of the latter color, blue, for depicting jinn in one illustration may refer to this interpretation, since Muslim painters would never have set aside their religious beliefs when illustrating religious manuscripts. The jinn are divided into two groups of the righteous and the infidel jinn. Unbelievers can be a source of torment for God's servants, but according to God's will and according to the philosophy of the creation of the jinn, based on the worship of God, they can communicate with the prophets and saints of God, and under their guidance convert to Islam and repent. Jinn behavioral and physical characteristics also confirm this matter.  In terms of physical characteristics, jinn can have half-human and half-animal faces or appear in the form of animals. Jinn can also appear in the form of snakes, dragons, dogs and other animals; all of which are depicted in the paintings in the lake where they live. This refers to the fact that the painter tried to depict a tribe of jinn with different abilities of their emergence. Just as the jinn were subjugated by Solomon and dived for him and brought him rolling pearls from the bottom of the sea, in these paintings the jinn have such abilities. In this painting, after repenting and expressing remorse, the jinn bring pearls from the bottom of the lake to Rumi's wife. Furthermore, verses of Qur'an and their valid interpretations are used in this regard. According to the Qur’an, the saints close to God and the prophets can subdue the jinn, talk to them and make jinn believe in Islam. Indicated concepts can be seen in Sawaqub al-Manaqib miniatures. Thus, both research questions have been answered in accordance to the results of the research.
    Keywords: Sawaqub al-Manaqib, Miniature of Rumi, myth criticism, Northrop Frye, jinn, the great code
  • Ali Boozari * Pages 79-93
    Munshi Nawal Kishore (1836-1895) was an Indian journalist, translator, scholar and publisher who, by publishing original and translated books in Persian, had an indisputable role in the promotion of Persian language and literature beyond the borders of Iran, especially in the Indian subcontinent. Many Persian books for the first time, and last time, have been published in India, in Nawal Kishore Publishing house. For about forty years Munshi Nawal Kishore was among the modernist and progressive publishers in India. The books of his publishing house had high literary value and helped to the expansion and excellence of knowledge and insight among the inhabitants of the Indian peninsula. Moreover, publishing hundreds of Persian books – some of which never republished in other Persian-speaking countries like Iran – and exporting them to these countries, helped to the expansion of Persian language and literature in Persian-speaking countries.Moreover, Nawal Kishore publishing house was a leading publisher in terms of book design and introduced a new style for the title pages of its books. Here, the cooperation between gilders and scribes (then “designers”) lead to eye-catching introduction pages for readers. The interesting point about these books is the unique embellishments and spectacular aesthetic structure of their title pages, which distinct them from other lithographed books. From its early days, this publishing house designed a special structure for the title pages of its books to present the book information, including the title, writer, publisher, publication date and place of publishing. This structure becomes a standard for the later Indian books.The purpose of the present study is focusing on the design of title pages in Persian books of Munshi Nawal Kishore Press, to investigate the contribution of these publications in book design in India. The statistical population of this research is 200 titles of Persian books, published between the years 1282-1326 AH. / 1865-1909 and now exist in the collection of National Library of Iran. These books are subject-free and their only feature is that they are visually examined and researched.This research seeks to answer the question that: what were the visual features of the title page that exists in the Persian lithographed books of Munshi Nawal Kishore Press? and this publication is in such a way that it has been obtained to build other systems of medical science books on the page. In this research, it is organized in three parts; after mentioning the background and research method, it is published in Munshi Nawal Kishore and then its feature is introduced visually and described in various sections. To clarify the issue, in some cases, examples of lithography in Iran have been provided. Moreover, to organize this study which is qualitative in terms of its data, and practical in terms of its goal, various sources like books, articles, archives, databases, and various tools such as observation and imaging and studying documents and library research have been used.The results of the study are presented in three sections: visual structure (praising God, book title, writer, publication date, place of publication, publisher), the way the book information is presented, and the embellishments. The innovations of these publications can be classified as follows:Dividing the title pages and assigning each section to one of the information in the book, including the remembrance of God, the title of the book, the name of the author, the date of publication, the place of publication and the publisher.Use of a range of abstract to figurative (plant) ornaments in the design of title pages.Use of poetic and humorous expressions that often contain words leading to circular letters. In this case, not only the audience enjoys reading the poetic phrases, but also visually sees the rhythm and order created by the scribe by repeating the circular letters.Other publishers of the subcontinent embodied the design of title pages because of the public acceptance of this visual and linguistic initiative, and this design method, founded by Newcastle Publications, became a model for designing title pages in Indian books. It should be noted that this special method was invented by Munshi Newelshour Publications and later by Indian publishers of Persian publications.This research reveals that Nawal Kishore publishing house has used various visual elements in the form of recursive embellishments around the pages.
    Keywords: Munshi Nawal Kishore, lithography, Title page, Book embellishments, Persian books published in India
  • Seyed Nezamoddin Emamifar *, Farzane Ramezanniay Kinchah Pages 95-109

    The application of script in the Islamic art, as in architecture, cloth designing and other applied arts, shows that Farsi script, apart from conveyance of concept, is being used as a decorative and symbolic element, as it has harmonic complexities and opportune visual ups and downs. In the 40s S.H. and creation of Saqakhane school, the artists who were concerned with guarding and further developing the national art, were seduced by a novel style called drawing - calligraphy; the so-called style is based on illustration of form-based aesthetics of the script and also, it became a sole decorative element, using other elements of drawing. The latter led to eventual salvation of the script apart from conveyance of concept. There were also artists who tried to revive and revitalize an old Islamic art, which was named “script drawing”, that had been underlined during the Safavid and the Qajar periods; an art form in which recreation of conceptual forms is being made by using the script. In this regard, images of holy animals are created using decorative scripts. One of the most important pieces is a bird-formed Bismillah (In the name of god) script. In the Islamic culture, birds have a special place. The birds are used to found and mean visual terrestrial elements again, proportional to religious definitions; regarding both the form and concept.Furthermore, writing the Islamic name for God, the Prophet’s name, verses of Qoran like La -ela-ha-ella-Allah (which means there is no god but Allah) has frequently been done by different artists. The writing of Bismillah (which is Arabic for “In the name of God, the most merciful and the most compassionate”) is one of the most frequently used phrases between Muslim artists due to its high religious value and credit as well as its meaning. By arrival of Islam and its prohibition of drawing, artists always tried to implement symbolic and virtual forms in their works. This thought led to arts based on environmental and natural forms, such as Esllimi (arabesque) forms used in architecture, and Toranj and Lachak in carpets as well as other related simplifications. In recent years, regarding the lack of basic definitions in this regard, no distinguished artistic creation has happened; this is also because of the lack of dominance in terms of skills of decorative script’s different branches. Research around this subject will lead to historical recreations of evolutional path of work creation, which eventually leads to creation of creative works based on knowledge around traditions. The current survey is aimed at knowing script drawing and its distinction with drawing – calligraphy. Accumulation of so-called structured knowledge is considered to ease the creation of deliberate arts between young artists. The current survey is undertaken due to the urgency of disclosing differences between basic definitions of script drawing and drawing-calligraphy and their fundamental differences, focusing on bird of Bismillah drawn by Reza Mafi. Reza Mafi is a leading Saqakhane school artist who implemented script in drawing images, and has created most works among contemporary artists around bird of Bismillah. Questions of the survey are: 1- What are the concepts of the script and image in bird of Bismillah regarding visual symbolism? 2- What are the mostly used techniques and scripts in works named as bird of Bismillah? 3- How are forms, which are implemented in the latter works, categorized regarding visual symbolism? The survey method is library-based; based on available documentations that are gathered using fiche method and categorizing tables. The statistical population consists of artists of the 30s and the 40s S.H. of Saqakhane school followers. The samples include 4 works by Mafi, and 4 other birds of Bismillah from other Safavid and Qajar-era art pieces. The sampling is not random and is based on previous authorized samples that confirm the identity of the artist. Among these 8 art pieces, Mafi’s works are regarded with considering visual symbolism based on explicit and implicit indicating signs. It is found out that birds of Bismillah are among religious artistic works. Both in the Safavid and the Qajar eras, artists of Saqakhane School had enhanced their religious credit by drawing bird of Bismillah and subsequent praise and worship of the unity Allah. These forms are generally drawn using the problematic script of Thuluth (and sometimes Nastaliq). According to the investigated works (symbolic images of bird, drawing of Bismillah to create images) the form of lines and images are drawn alike symbols and meaningful forms, in spite of script drawing in which words are made void of their meanings, and as the form and color elements are superior and words and letters play only aesthetic roles, words in script drawing are used controversially, and the element of script has the main visual role.

    Keywords: Bird of Bismillah, symbolism, Script Drawing, Reza Mafi, Saqakhane School
  • Elaheh Panjehbashi * Pages 111-137
    During the Qajar period, one of the brilliant artists was Mahmoud Khan, the king of poets, who was one of the prominent masters in painting urban landscapes. His works have different backgrounds considering his time and he is known as one of the pioneers of modern painting in Iran. Mindfulness, lighting, viewing angle, geometric connection between levels are the prominent features of his paintings. The purpose of this article is conducting an analytical study of the effect of photography on the landscapes by Mahmoud Khan Malek al-Sho'ra. The general questions in this article are as follows: 1- What are the visual features of landscapes in the works of Mahmoud Khan Malek al-Sho'ra? 2- Were the works of Mahmoud Khan Malek al-Sho'ra influenced by photography? In which sections are these influences evident? 3- The influence of Western and Iranian painting can be seen in which parts and visual elements of Mahmoud Khan Malek al-Sho'ra's works? The content of the present study is qualitative and the method of collecting information is library-based, and analyzing the landscape works of Mahmoud Khan. This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method. The importance of urban landscapes in the works of Mahmoud Khan during the Qajar period is due to the fact that he shows the new Tehran and new buildings in Tehran during the Qajar period, and his works document the buildings and landscapes of Tehran in this period. The results of this study show that Mahmoud Khan is one of the leading artists in the field of modern painting in Qajar era Iran. He shows a different type of landscape painting in the Qajar period with the influence of photography in his paintings. The important point in Mahmoud Khan's architectural paintings is the absence of human beings, kings and courtiers, and only dealing with buildings and landscapes. These paintings show the location of buildings and structures, their composition and the combination of Iranian and European art. In the backgrounds of Mahmoud Khan's works, the paintings and drawings of the earlier Qajar period can be seen in fine and segregated geometric surfaces. Mahmoud Khan's paintings of buildings show his scientific and mathematical mind as well as his knowledge of geometry and perspective. In the second half of the Qajar period, he is the point of balance between Iranian and European art. His inquisitive mind is reflected in his precise naturalization, which is evident in the provided pictures, as well as in his European view in paintings and perspective, seen from above, and punctuation. In his paintings, high skill in perspective, in-depth and accurate representation and high quality, soft and bright light, clear and correct perspective can be seen by the audience. He paints the Qajar era Tehran, which is moving towards modernization. Mahmoud Khan was aware of the principles and rules of landscape painting, form and use, one-point and two-point perspective, and he used them masterfully in his works. His knowledge of mathematics, model making of buildings, has certainly played an important role in the artist's precise artistic vision and its reflection in painting. His paintings have a photographic style and a different vision, creative mind, diversity and modernity in painting, and poetic naturalization which show his eye-catching and poetic choice of bright colors. His landscape paintings have the power of innovation, elegance, skill, and boldness in painting, that consciously use the style of realism and the combination of Iranian and European art as well as the evolution of aesthetics. He makes a difference in Qajar painting, which shows his artistic genius and philosophical vision. Iranian spirit, perspective and the effects of Westernism, and the influence of Iranian painting can be seen in his paintings and works of other painters in this period of gardens and the palaces that depicted royalty like the work of Yahya Ghaffari, son of Sani al-Mulk and Abu Turab Ghaffari, but none of them had the power and skill of Mahmud Khan, and none of them worked with watercolor technique so brilliantly and beautifully with such a great process. Most of their works were designed and produced in lithography, so the colorful nature of Mahmud Khan's watercolor works and his knowledge of color set him apart from the others. It distinguishes him from his generation. The most important part of his artistic activity is magical lighting, subtle and rich processes and spots, and original and brilliant painting. At a time when artists were mostly courtiers and worked in sculpture and portraiture, he turned to inanimate nature, landscape painting and design of the interior and exterior of buildings, and chose a theme as the main subject of his painting. While other artists had been the fringes of their craft, he achieved a personal and different style in the art of watercolor painting that is not seen in the paintings of other artists. His works, while being influenced by Iranian art, have a different feature, and that is generalization versus partiality in Iranian art.
    Keywords: Qajar, Mahmoud Khan Malek al-Sho'ra, Tehran, Perspective, Landscape, Painting, Photography
  • Hadi Ghaempanah *, Mahtab Mobini Pages 139-161
    Bistoon relief is the only Achaemenid art-historical work that symbolically depicts the victory of the Achaemenid kings. This relief, along with its trilingual inscription, commemorates the victories of Darius I over his opponents and enemies, which are engraved on the wall of Mount Bistoon in the beginning of his reign (around 520 BC). Bistoon illustrated memorial is the first outstanding work of art of Darius's time in which some motifs and visual-symbolic features of Achaemenid art were displayed for the first time and were repeated and represented in their next works. Therefore, except for the early Achaemenid art that was created in Susa during the time of Cyrus, and now there is a little remnants of it, Bistoon relief can be considered as the foundation of Achaemenid formal art (except for statues). Many of Bistoon's motifs and visual features are taken from the motifs and art of previous civilizations and nations, which are shown in a new and different frame. The purpose of this study is to identify and track the visual and symbolic features of the Bistoon relief and how they are displayed. The questions of this research are as follows: The motifs and the visual and symbolic features of the Bistoon relief are more representations of the motifs and art of which of the earlier civilizations and nations, and which visual feature of the Bistoon’s carving distinguishes it from previous examples? According to the visual features included in the image of the winged circle’s body, which possible hypothesis does this symbol indicate? The research method of this article is descriptive-analytical with a comparative approach and the method of collecting information is library-based. The focus of this research is on the visual artistic aspect of Bistoon's relief (not the historical aspect (.This article is not written in opposition to previous research and opinions, but seeks to systematically examine some of the features that have received less attention in previous research and to examine new concerns from a particular angle. The method of analysis of this research is qualitative.Bistoon relief is a symbolic depiction of the victories of Darius I over his enemies, whose plan and narrative are influenced by Anubanini's relief plan. Despite this, several motifs and visual features can be seen in Bistoon's relief map, which have been taken from the motifs and art of other civilizations. The use of these different and numerous visual and symbolic elements together creates a distinct framework of the victory of the kings, which has unique features. This difference is in line with the characteristics of Achaemenid art and Darius's government-propaganda ideology.Figurative motif of stepping on the body of the enemy is a representation of this motif in Anubanini relief, but some visual features of Neo-Assyrian art are also included in it. The role of the winged circle with the body and the type of its relationship with Darius are a representation of the Neo-Assyrian art and motifs that is uniquely portrayed. The image of armed guards standing behind Darius has been a representation of the motifs of Neo-Assyrian art. The Captive Line is a combination of several different features assembled into a unique frame, which initially was focused on Anubanini's plan. Nevertheless, this frame is mostly influenced by the motifs and features of Egyptian art. The image of Darius, as a powerful emperor, who brought order to the rebellious leaders of various nations is influenced by Egyptian art.The results of the studies (in an overview) show that the motifs and the visual and symbolic features of the Bistoon relief were representations of the Anubanini reliefs, the motifs and art of Neo-Assyrian as well as the motifs and art of Egypt. In the meantime, there are two important visual features in Bistoon relief which distinguish it from previous examples. The first feature shows the victory of an Iranian king in the form of a powerful ruler of other lands. The Iranian character of this scene is created through the display of a Persian robe on the body of Darius, two armed soldiers and his great god. The second feature is not showing violence and humiliation in the image of defeated enemies. In Bistoon relief (unlike previous monuments) attention is not paid to showing a harsh image of the king and kingdom against enemies, and the captives are not shown humiliated and nude.Also, the visual and symbolic features that are included in the illustration of the body of the winged circle show that he is a God. Because Darius mentions Ahura Mazda as the supreme deity, protector and supporter of his kingdom in the inscription, the winged circle’s body belongs to Ahura Mazda.
    Keywords: Visual Features, Motifs, Bistoon relief, Achaemenid art
  • Rezvan Ahmadi Payam *, Abolghasem Dadvar Pages 163-177
    Arts and crafts are a good context for displaying cultural, historical and social structures in different eras. Coins were produced by order of the rulers of each period and the various visual components contained in them played an effective conceptual role. The motifs engraved on the coins are closely related to the culture and art of their time; they can be used to find out the economic, religious and cultural status of the state and the place where the coins were minted and helped researchers to understand the reasons for the continuity of traditions and customs that govern a society. The Iranian-Islamic rule of Al-Buyid ruled over parts of Iran for more than a century and coins affected by their nationality have changes that emphasize the need for the present study. They claimed to be descendants of the Sassanids and they made many efforts to revive the ancient methods and the deep connection of Iranian art in these centuries. Given the importance of the Al-Buyid government of Iranian origin in the first centuries of the advent of Islam, it is necessary to explain the semantic systems governing their pictorial coins with a multi-conceptual approach. One of the approaches to the study of image is iconography; presented by Erwin Panofsky. Panofsky's theory encompasses the three levels of Pre-iconography, iconography analysis, and iconological interpretation. Erwin Panofski gives three different layers of meaning in each image that can be related to the cultural, religious and national spheres that dominate the thought of its producers. The main purpose of this study is to extract the cultural contexts of the coins of the Al-Buyid dynasty as an Iranian-Islamic rule in the early centuries of the advent of Islam based on Panofsky's iconological theory. This article seeks to answer the following questions:1- How do Al-Buyid coinages conform to the Panofsky’s Pre-iconography, Iconography and Iconological three layers?2- In examining the mentioned semantic layers, what are the Iranian cultural patterns and the reasons for their use?In the leading article, the research method is iconic; in the first step, how to match the motifs on the pictorial coins with three semantic layers, Pre-iconography, Iconography and Iconological, are examined. Then, based on Panofsky's triple semantic study, the reasons for adaptation of the patterns of Iranian culture on the pictorial coins are analyzed. The research data obtained from the study of library resources have been analyzed in a descriptive-analytical manner. The statistical population consists of coins from the Al-Buyid period, the images of which are mainly collected from information sources and books. The number of samples in question is 6 pictorial coins related to the Al-Buyid period, which have been selected non-randomly. The analysis in this research has been done qualitatively.The results indicate that Erwin Panofsky's iconological theory offers a new and effective way in presenting and understanding the content due to the noticeable time interval with the image coins of the Al-Buyid period. Panofsky relates the three different layers of meaning in each image to the cultural, doctrinal and national realms that dominate the thought of its producers. In the adaptation of Al-Buyid pictorial coins with three layers of semantics, Panofsky’s Pre-iconography, Iconography and Iconological, pictorial samples were studied; visual components in coins (patterns and their composition) in the first layer (Pre-iconography), hidden concepts in each motif and their placement relative to each other in the second layer (iconography description), and cultural and historical factors affecting production and the formation of patterns on coins in the third semantic layer (iconological interpretation) were analyzed.The data obtained from the study of the second and the third layers reinforced the possibility that mainly the patterns and the way they were combined on coins were borrowed from Pre-Islamic Iran. These adaptations also follow various factors such as the tendency of the Iranians to the principles of former governance, the revival of pre-Islamic traditions, the Iranian origin of the Al-Buyid rulers and the acquisition of legitimacy in a limited time by the people and the Abbasid caliphs. With the arrival of Islam in Iran and the tendency of the Iranians towards it, the teachings of the new religion caused significant and effective changes in its culture and artistic manifestations. Some of the pre-Islamic Iranian cultural concepts that have valuable cultural bases maintained their vitality alongside new religious teachings. The role of the governments in power in preserving the cultural components of pre-Islamic times has been very prominent; just as the Al-Buyid rulers in their administration of the territory were led to put the Iranian-Islamic method at the forefront.
    Keywords: Pictorial Coins, Motifs, Al-Buyid, Iconology
  • Mona Montazeri Hedeshi, Bita Sodaei *, Hussein Alizadeh, Hassan Derakhshi Pages 179-195
    Coins represent important objects of our cultural heritage and are usually of high artistic and cultural value. The archaeological issue concerns questions in relation to the iconography, dating, provenance, and technology of production or authenticity. So, the symbols on the coins are the most important guide for researchers in recognizing religious beliefs with religious opinions and beliefs in different historical periods. Myths have played a major role in the culture and art of every nation for a long time and they have had various usages in different eras and have been manifested in the narrative stories or visual symbols from the heart of the religions, beliefs, and art of any nation. Plant motifs have a special place in Iranian thought from the past, which have been sanctified as symbols and myths in Eastern cultures and have been associated with ancient rituals. Numismatics is an auxiliary source for recognizing political and economic issues and for explaining historical periods from which there is limited information about them in written sources. In fact, in some cases, the design on coins is the only source that provides significant information for researchers, about the political, cultural, social, and religious structures of a historical period. Therefore, it is an important source in historical studies and art history. While other sources, especially written sources, do not have the information on these coins. Despite the importance of coins as first-rate sources, the knowledge of numismatics from the Parthian period is very incomplete, compared to other periods in the history of Iran, and studies on coins from this period are more about the identification of kings and political history, and less about the subject of religion. The symbols on the coins are the most important guide for researchers to recognize religious beliefs and opinions in different historical periods. In the culture of ancient Iran, plants and trees have been respected for a long time. According to the many designs found on seals, beddings, pottery, etc., it can be seen that some plants had a sacred and mythical place and a particular plant had high importance and status based on religious and ritual beliefs in different historical periods. The main purposes of this field research is to identify plant symbols by emphasizing the patterns engraved on Parthian coins, and to try to study, re-read and interpret plant images in order to identify their place in the religious and mythological beliefs of this period. The main issue in this study is the lack of resources and so far, no independent source has studied them. The questions of this research are:What are the most important plant drawings used on Parthian coins?Is it possible to understand the religious beliefs of this period from the plant symbols?In terms of the research method, this research has described and analyzed the drawings and symbols by using the fieldwork and library-based method. At first, two hundred and fifty coins in the repository of the Reza Abbasi Museum were examined and studied. These coins were purchased from individuals and collectors in the years before the 1979 Revolution and among them, one hundred and thirty coins had plant drawings. The research also referred to the coins of museums of Sepah Bank and Money Museum with two samples of coins of Arsaces I and II belonging to the Money Museum, and bronze coins with plant images belonging to the Sepah Bank Museum. Due to the limitations of museums regarding photography and providing photographs to the authors, eighty coins were selected for study; sixty- five of which were Tetradrachms and Drachmas while fifteen coins were Bronze, which had been designed in Photoshop and Corel softwares. In order to conduct library studies and to identify the Parthian kings, the Sellwood catalog of Parthian coins has been used. Thus, at first, the plant motifs, which were used in Parthian coins, were identified. Then, by collecting information through library research, and relying on the symbolic approach, plant drawings were studied and checked in order to provide a comprehensive interpretation about plant symbols which were used on Parthian coins, as well as their function and place in the myths, beliefs, and rituals of this period.The results of this study show that the plant motifs which were used in the Parthian period, include palms, olives, rosettes, grapes, wheat, pomegranates, lilies and oaks.  The motifs of palm, olive, rosette and lilies can be seen in the Tetradrachm and Drachma coins of the Parthian kings, while the motifs of grapes, wheat, pomegranate and oak can be seen in the Bronze coins, and according to symbolic issues, it can be said that these arrays are related to Zoroastrian, Mithraic and Anahita’s religions. In the Parthian period, Zoroastrianism is mixed with other beliefs, which is seen as the trinity of the gods of Mehr, Anahita and Ormazd, which ultimately indicates the religious tolerance in this period.
    Keywords: symbolism, Coins, Parthian, Plants Ornaments