فهرست مطالب

Geoconservation Research - Volume:5 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2022
  • Volume:5 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Jake Crisp *, Joanna Ellison, Andrew Fischer Pages 1-28
    Geoconservation outcomes are hindered by highly subjective and conflicting criteria, varying assessment objectives, disparities in geoconservation strategy steps and the inadequate capturing and representation of geological data in dynamically changing inventories. Review shows that geoconservation outcomes are further hindered by the exclusion of quantitative geodiversity assessment from geoconservation strategies. A geoconservation toolkit is presented using the ArcGIS mobile apps QuickCapture, Survey123 and Explorer to consolidate the steps in achieving geoconservation outcomes. The toolkit closed the theoretical gap between geodiversity assessment and geoconservation strategies and attenuated the discrepancies in geoconservation strategy protocols. Preliminary research suggests the inclusion of geodiversity in geoconservation strategies will benefit geoconservation outcomes by providing scholars with a proxy to predict inventorying and geoheritage values, conservation exigencies and site complexity. The toolkit consolidated separate geoconservation strategies by unifying individual steps into one distinctive process leading to streamlined inventorying, geodiversity and geoheritage assessment. ArcGIS QuickCapture facilitated challenges in managing dynamically changing inventories by providing a fast and streamlined approach to the capturing of geodiversity information and locations. ArcGIS Survey123 facilitated the amalgamation of steps in geodiversity and geoheritage assessment and inventorying. ArcGIS Survey123 also facilitated the introduction of a suitability analysis tool to objectively manage and select existing geoheritage and inventorying criteria. Subsequent research would augment this study and its findings by determining whether statistical correlations exist between geodiversity and associated inventory and geoheritage values. Ensuing research would then seek expert advice on the standardisation of which strategies, criteria, methodologies, and processes to include in an all-encompassing third-party mobile GIS application to complement the toolkit concept in this study.
    Keywords: geodiversity, Geoheritage, Assessment, GIS, Geoconservation, consolidate
  • Matheus Silva *, Kátia Mansur, Marcos Nascimento Pages 29-46
    Over the course of the Earth’s history, the development of geodiversity has allowed the establishment of biotic diversity on our planet. Just as biodiversity is the subject of studies and protection actions, abiotic nature also needs to be conserved and used more sustainably. One of the ways to do this is to delimit areas where there are elements of high importance, either for the ecosystem, for science, or for human beings. These areas, with important geoheritage, can define geoparks. An example of a Brazilian project in such an area is the Seridó Aspiring UNESCO Geopark, the focus of this study, located in the interior of Rio Grande do Norte – Northeast Brazil. It encompasses six municipalities with a notable geodiversity, ranging from the Riacian to the Quaternary. As a way of highlighting the importance of the abiotic elements of this region, an evaluation of local geosites was carried out according to a approach concerning ecosystem services. It was observed that the 21 geosites that are part of the present proposal are associated with 20 goods and ecosystem services of an abiotic nature; this underlines the importance of protecting these places, both for the ecosystem and for human beings.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Services, geodiversity, Geopark, Geosites Assessment
  • Roberto González-De Zayas, Felipe Matos Pupo * Pages 47-58
    The designation of geological sites in Cuba is relatively new. During the early years of the 21st century some sites were proposed, but only in the province of Pinar del Rio have geosites been officially approved. Here we propose two further geosites, one at Cayo Sabinal (Camagüey Province) and the other at Cayo Coco (Ciego de Ávila Province). Recent studies show stromatolites at both sites, important in understanding microbialite formation and the role of microbes in geochemical signatures and mineral diversity. According to the approved Cuban scoring methodology, El Jato Lagoon obtained 79 points and Los Caimanes Lagoon 77 points. Both were regarded as Class B. Although located in tourist areas, they lack aesthetic values. However, both are on the coastal zone, where natural and anthropogenic impacts could affect their conservation.
    Keywords: Geosite, Geoconservation, Stromatolites, Lagoon, Cuba
  • Vladyslav Zakharovskyi, Karoly Nemeth *, Ilmars Gravis, Chris Twemlow Pages 59-88
    Life on Earth is influenced by abiotic nature, providing resources and shelter for living beings on the Earth. Hence, this part of nature should be well treated and protected. Study of geodiversity can facilitate education about abiotic nature and processes occurring around us. Geodiversity as a discipline is relatively young, but worthy of more attention and development. As well as a stand-alone scientific field, it may draw on other scientific disciplines in understanding the connection between natural materials and abiotic processes. Our research explores the paradigm of geodiversity and defines its meanings and elements. This will help us make the first steps in developing a methodology of assessment of geodiversity for any type of territory on our planet. This article provides a conceptual framework, which is based on detailed description of the methodology. Additionally, it will build a better understanding about the connections between abiotic and biotic factors in the environment, and human society within that environment. Here we provide a globally applicable method, using the Coromandel Peninsula as a case study. Coromandel Peninsula is in the north part of the North Island of New Zealand. This environmentally diverse and ecologically rich region is shaped by interactions between volcanic activities and terrestrial/shallow marine sedimentation, potentially providing a rich geodiversity. A systematic table defining the elements of geodiversity is the main product of our research, and we demonstrate how these elements can be assessed in a simple way to define values of facets of abiotic nature, ultimately resulting in a holistic, integrated, and complete view of our unliving environment. This study is an initial step in building a common system for assessment of geodiversity of any part of our world using the most available data and records as a foundational database.
    Keywords: geodiversity, Mapping assessment, Abiotic nature, Geology, geomorphology, Coromandel Peninsula
  • Angus Robinson * Pages 89-107

    Geoparks in Australia have had a complex recent history. Following the demise of the former Kanawinka UNESCO Geopark in 2012, two potential UNESCO Global Geopark projects supported by local government agencies and embracing large areas were initiated in other Australian regions in 2016. These were for the Etheridge Geopark in Far North Queensland and the Warrumbungle Geopark in New South Wales, both featuring important volcanic phenomena. However, both proposals failed to proceed to the stage where they could be nominated by any Australian government as Aspiring UNESCO Global Geoparks. This paper focuses on the genesis of these issues and what steps have been undertaken, lessons learnt, and measures that are now being undertaken to obtain government support and broad community engagement for geopark projects. In essence, it has now been recommended that the proposal should avoid reference to the word ‘geopark’ and focus instead on communicating the concept of a ‘GeoRegion.’

    Keywords: National Geotourism Strategy, Australian Geoscience Council, Geoparks, GeoRegions
  • Jake Crisp *, Joanna Ellison, Andrew Fischer Pages 108-134
    The exclusivity of biodiversity and geodiversity assessment hinders conservation outcomes, evidenced by the prioritization of biodiversity in conservation literature, and lagging developmental state in geodiversity assessment approaches, geoconservation strategies and outcomes. This study develops a consolidated approach, “omnidiversity”, amalgamating geodiversity and biodiversity assessment with geoconservation strategies and complementary ecological conservation criteria using ArcGIS mobile applications. ArcGIS Survey123 was adapted to assess geodiversity, biodiversity, geoconservation criteria and values. ArcGIS FieldMaps facilitated capturing the spatial location of biodiversity and geodiversity features. Three coastal geoconservation sites – Don Heads, Penguin Megabreccia, and Mersey Bluff – on the north-west coast of Tasmania were used as case studies. Results showed highest geodiversity (43.7), species richness (141) and visible interactions between geodiversity and biodiversity (120) at Don Heads geoconservation site, followed by geodiversity (40.5), species richness (107) and interactions (76) at Penguin Megabreccia site, and lowest geodiversity (7.3), species richness (89) and interactions (28) at the Mersey Bluff site. Omnidiversity showed biodiversity at Don Heads as most sensitive to geodiversity degradation attributed to extensive visible interactions, high conservation value, and the presence of sensitive species like the Little Penguin; followed by Penguin Megabreccia and Mersey Bluff coastal geoconservation sites. Omnidiversity allowed time-effective and cost-effective methods to simultaneously assess geodiversity and biodiversity, determine the harboring capacity of geodiversity for biodiversity, and facilitate conservation through unification of disparate steps into one streamlined approach. Using traditional geoconservation strategies, biodiversity values are excluded, and geodiversity elements are conserved only for their geoheritage importance. Omnidiversity enabled effective assessment of vulnerable environments and has potential to benefit other holistic approaches such as the conserving nature’s stage approach and ecosystem-based management. Subsequent research could augment omnidiversity with other traditional biodiversity assessment approaches and conservation strategies, further trial in other ecosystems, and develop an optimized third-party digital application to provide greater availability for use.
    Keywords: Geodiversity assessment, Biodiversity assessment, ArcGIS, Natural values, Coastal vegetation, Invertebrates
  • Phillip Murphy * Pages 135-141
    The importance of the borehole core in aiding our understanding of the subsurface is generally underappreciated outside the geoscience world. The use of boreholes to access geological resources has a long history and the study of recovered core samples is still pivotal in modern geological and palaeoclimate studies. An example of the incorporation of a locally important borehole core into the in the infrastructure of a public recreation area in north of England is described. The need for more and better explained displays of such geoheritage to aid public understanding of the importance of boreholes and core samples is highlighted.
    Keywords: borehole, core, resources, Display, preservation
  • Ganesh Muduli *, Manisha Kumari, T Mahalakshmi Pages 142-164
    Investigation of new geoheritage sites, their conservation and promotion for tourism development have become a recent trend in the tourism sector. The Indian subcontinent exhibits a wide range of geological and geomorphological features, many with global significance. The Kachchh district of Gujarat is blessed with such geological and geomorphological elements, ranging in age from Mesozoic to Recent. This study describes some geologically rich sites and their potential to be ranked as geoheritage sites. To analyze the potential, we carried out four assessments: scientific value, educational value, touristic value, and the degradational risk. A total of 18 geodiversity sites have been considered for this assessment, all of them with unique significance. The authors appeal to the government of India for the conservation of these geodiversity sites through this paper, as we identify that all of them are at risk of degradation. We also provide some suggestions for the promotion of geotourism, some of which the government may adopt.
    Keywords: Geoheritage, Geotourism, Geoconservation, Kachchh, India
  • Gustavo Rossi *, Maria Garcia, Christine Bourotte Pages 165-194
    Faced with the increase of human activities that permanently alter nature, it is more and more necessary to educate people about the importance of protecting nature, including both the biotic and abiotic aspects. In this context, UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGp) are reference territories to educate people about geodiversity and geoconservation in different environments. On the other hand, protected areas have great potential to develop and adapt the educational materials created by Geoparks due to the pedagogical value of these materials and the lack of activities focusing on these aspects. In this sense, this work aimed to identify the educational materials displayed on the UGGps websites and published papers and discuss the potential for adaptation and use of these materials in protected areas. For this purpose, we focused on searching educational materials in the official UGGps websites, Scopus database and Google Scholar. We consider that not all materials can be found, but we tried to identify as many as we could. The analysis of the educational materials revealed that most of them are lesson plans, playful and craft activities for children and field guides for teachers and students. Therefore, such materials have excellent potential to be applied to the educational context of protected areas.
    Keywords: Geoconservation, Geoscience education, Educational materials
  • Mukhodeni Mudau *, Edmore Kori Pages 195-208
    The emerging broad science of geodiversity defined in terms of geomorphological diversity assesses geomorphological features of territory by comparing them in an extrinsic and intrinsic way. This paper uses SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data and GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques to assess the geomorphological diversity of Komati Gorge, in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Factors used to assess geomorphological diversity are relative height, insolation, hydrography, geology, soil erodibility, ruggedness, slope position, and land use/land cover. Each factor was normalized to five classes by applying natural breaks, and all were weighted before overlaying. The weighting reveals that hydrography, ruggedness, relative heights, and geology carry more weight, respectively. Slope position, insolation, land use/land cover, and soil carry the least weight in that order. The final geomorphodiversity map reveals that the south-western parts of Komati Gorge have medium to very high geomorphological diversity. The north-eastern parts have low to medium geomorphological diversity. This indicates that factor-specific research can add more information to geomorphodiversity research and education.
    Keywords: geodiversity, geomorphological diversity, GIS, Landform inventory, Geodatabase
  • Thomas Hose Pages 209-239

    Around the 1900s, the Geologists’ Association offered a few excursions, although most were for pedestrians, for cyclists. At that time the London-based Geologists’ Association was well placed to employ the railway network to transport its members to and from excursion areas; locations immediately north of London (especially in the counties of Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire) were particularly favored due to their regular trains. Its excursions were advertised in its Monthly Circular and usually later reported in its Proceedings; both now provide sufficient information to recreate and contextualize the cycling and other excursions as modern cyclists’ geotrails. The original excursions were offered at a time when leisure cycling was booming, the ‘Edwardian period’ which is noteworthy as one of major political, social and technological changes. The impact of these changes is evident today, and linking modern geotrails to the Edwardian background can make them attractive to non-specialist users and encourage their engagement with geology, particularly economic geology. Five new cyclists’ geotrails, based upon ‘Edwardian period’ excursions and their socio-political and technological background, have been published and these are contextualized, analyzed and examined as models for similar future provision.

    Keywords: Cycling, Edwardian, England, Geologists’ Association, Geotrails, Interpretive Provision
  • Farzad Bolouk Heidari, Ramin Arfania Pages 240-260

    Quantifying fire hazards in natural areas and their spatial patterns are essential for developing appropriate fire management strategies, especially in countries with limited historical data on past fires. In this study, a fire hazard map for the Andika region of Iran was constructed by examining the correlation of past fires with the criteria of topography, meteorology, land cover, and human factors. The locations of eight-year fire points from 2013 to 2020 of Nova satellite sensor VIIRS were received and the fire map of each was constructed using the NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio). The wildfire events distribution maps were randomly divided into 70 and 30 percent ratios for training (modeling) and testing (validation) data, respectively. Using the frequency ratio, a fire hazard map of the region was created. Four fire hazard areas ranging from very high to low were identified. The results of past fires and the frequency ratio model showed that in the study area, land cover (2.982), elevation (2.778), and annual precipitation (2.419) have the greatest prediction rate and influence on fire occurrence. The results also showed that a large proportion of past fires (71.37%) were located in high and very high-risk areas. The evaluation results of the area under the curve method showed an accuracy of 71.1% using evaluation data and 74.4% using training data, which can be considered desirable. The small differences between the validation results using test and training data indicate an unbiased fire hazard map.

    Keywords: Remote sensing, GIS, NBR index, Frequency ratio, Wildfire, Fire hazard