فهرست مطالب

Nursing and Midwifery Studies
Volume:11 Issue: 2, Apr-Jun 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/05/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Sajad Abasi, Hossein Akbari, Mahdieh Sabery Pages 79-84
    Background

    Sleep disorders and compassion fatigues are two main physical and psychological problems among nurses, particularly during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acupressure on sleep quality and compassion fatigue among emergency and critical care nurses during the COVID‑19 pandemic.

    Methods

    This randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2020. Participants were eighty nurses recruited from two hospitals in Iran and randomly allocated to control and intervention groups. Acupressure on the Shenmen point was self‑administered by participants twice daily for 30 days. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Nurses’ Compassion Fatigue Inventory were used for data collection before and after the intervention. Data analysis was done using the paired‑sample t, independent‑sample t, Chi‑square, and Mann–Whitney U tests as well as the analysis of covariance.

    Results

    The mean score of the subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, and sleeping medication dimensions of sleep quality significantly decreased in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Moreover, despite no significant between‑group difference respecting the pretest mean scores of sleep quality and its dimensions (P > 0.05), the posttest mean scores of sleep quality and its subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep disturbances, and sleeping medication dimensions in the intervention group were significantly less than the control group (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    As a noninvasive technique, acupressure can be used to significantly improve sleep quality among nurses during the COVID‑19 pandemic.

    Keywords: Acupressure, Compassion fatigue, Coronavirus disease 2019, Nurses, Sleep disorders
  • Iin Patimah, Ernawati Koesendang, Sopiah Nurmawan, Aisyah Minaf Pages 85-89
    Background

    Hypothermia appears predominant among low birth weight (LBW) newborns. This condition tends to instigate severe medical complications, including acidosis, cerebral hemorrhage, hypoglycemia, and hyaline membrane disease.

    Objective

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of swaddling technique in hypothermia prevention among LBW neonates.

    Methods

    This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 40 recent babies (20 controls and 20 interventions), using a pre‑ and post‑test design. In the intervention group, a polyethylene swaddling was used, and in the control group, a cloth swaddling was used. Digital axillary thermometer was used to detect the body temperature. Mann–Whitney U‑test and Wilcoxon test were employed to examine the temperature difference between the two groups.

    Results

    This observation showed a trend toward improvement in average temperature in the intervention group (pre 34.8°C, post 36.4°C) compared to the control group (pre 33.3°C, post 34.9°C). There were significant within‑group changes in both groups (P < 0.05) although no significant difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.267).

    Conclusions

    Both polyethylene and cloth swaddling methods showed improvement in neonate temperature. These methods are therefore highly recommended as alternatives in hypothermia prevention among LBW infants.

    Keywords: Body temperature, Hypothermia, Low birth weight, Neonates, Plasticswaddling, Polyethylene
  • Fatemeh Ranjbar Noei, Vajihe Atashi, Elaheh Ashouri Pages 90-95
    Background

    Family caregivers of patients with cancer deal with high levels of psychological distress.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of online mindfulness self‑compassion (MSC) training programs on psychological distress in family caregivers of patients with cancer.

    Methods

    This quasi‑experimental study was conducted in 2020 on 92 family caregivers of patients with cancer. The participants were conveniently recruited from the family caregivers of patients referred to Seyed Al‑Shohada Oncology Hospital, in Isfahan, Iran, and randomly allocated to two groups to receive either 1.5 months of online MSC training program or be treated as usual. All participants completed the Kessler psychological distress scale before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U, Chi‑square, repeated measures analysis of variance, t, and least significant difference post hoc tests.

    Results

    The mean baseline psychological distress scores were 36.39 ± 4.71 and 35.97 ± 4.06 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P > 0.05). Immediately after the intervention and 1 month after, the mean scores of psychological distress decreased significantly in the intervention group to reach 26.30 ± 3.91 and 27.73 ± 3.49 (P < 0.001), but no significant changes were found in the mean distress scores of the control group in the second and third measurements.

    Conclusion

    The implementation of an online MSC training program reduced the psychological distress of family caregivers of patients with cancer. Therefore, the same program can be implemented to support such caregivers.

    Keywords: Family caregiver, Mindfulness, Neoplasm, Psychological distress, Self‑compassion
  • Zahra Shafiee, Nasrin Hanifi, Vahideh Rashtchi Pages 96-102
    Background

    Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience changes in their level of consciousness (LOC). Royal Jelly is used in the treatment of neurological diseases.

    Objective

    This study aimed to examine the effect of royal jelly on the LOC of patients with TBI.

    Methods

    This double‑blind randomized trial was performed in 2020 on 61 patients with TBI admitted to the intensive care unit. The patients were recruited consecutively and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 33) and a control (n = 28) group. Patients in the intervention group received 3000 mg of royal jelly orally each day for 14 days, while those in the control group received routine care. The LOC was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score from day 1 to day 14. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures analysis and analysis of covariance.

    Results

    The mean baseline GCS scores of the intervention and the control group were 4.39 ± 0.61and 4.82 ± 0.77, respectively, and changed to 11.93 ± 2.41 and 7.60 ± 2.51 at the end of the 14th day (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean baseline FOUR scores of the intervention and the control groups were 6.06±0.93 and 6.42 ± 1.16, respectively, and changed to 13.88 ± 2.57 and 9.71 ± 2.40 at the end of the study (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Using royal jelly for 2 weeks could improve the LOC of patients with TBI. However, further studies are recommended to determine the dose and duration of the usage.

    Keywords: Critical care unit, Level of consciousness, Royal jelly, Traumaticbrain injury
  • Roghayeh Azami, Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili, Mahdi Mahdipour, Farhood Ghazi Firozsalar, Mahnaz Shahnazi Pages 103-111
    Background

    The declining levels of estrogen during menopause are linked with numerous somatic and psychological complications.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to examine the effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) oil on early menopausal symptoms and serum levels of some oxidative markers in postmenopausal women.

    Methods

    This randomized placebo trial was conducted on 72 menopausal women aged 45– 60 years. Participants were randomly allocated to placebo and intervention groups with an equal allocation ratio (1:1). Patients in the intervention group received one N. sativa oil capsule (1000 mg), whereas the placebo group received a placebo capsule at night for 8 weeks. Data were collected through the demographics questionnaire, the Greene’s Climacteric Scale, and a form for recording the number of daily hot flashes. Furthermore, the serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured before and 8 weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the independent‑samples t, Chi‑square, Mann‑Whitney U, and Friedman tests as well as the repeated‑measures analysis of variance.

    Results

    The participants were matched in baseline values. The mean baseline score of the Greene’s scale was 22.5 ± 9.5 in the intervention group and 20.0 ± 8.0 in the placebo group (P = 0.397). Mean scores had significantly reduced in both groups at the end of weeks 4 and 8. However, the intervention group experienced a more remarkable decrease in Greene’s score (adjusted MDLog10 = −0.16 (−0.29 to −0.05); P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the subscales of Greene’s scale (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the groups in serum levels of TAC (P = 0.250) and MDA (P = 0.444).

    Conclusion

    N. sativa reduced the total score of menopausal symptoms and hot flashes in menopausal women; however, it had no significant effect on the serum levels of oxidative stress markers.

    Keywords: Hot flash, Menopause, Nigella sativa, Oxidative markers, Symptom
  • Fateme Borzoee, Mostafa Rad, Arezoo Davarinia Motlagh Quchan, Zohreh Mohamadzadeh Tabrizi, Narjes Heshmatifar, Sedighe Rastaghi, Mohammad Sahebkar Pages 112-117
    Background

    Patients receiving hemodialysis experience high levels of anxiety and stress.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to examine the effect of humor on anxiety in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    Methods

    This open-label, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in 2018, on 63 patients receiving hemodialysis in Sabzevar, Iran. The participants were randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group using a permuted block randomization method. The intervention group participated in humor therapy sessions twice a week for 3 weeks. The control group received no intervention. Data were collected using Spielberger’s StateTrait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and 3 weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the independent samples and the paired t tests.

    Results

    The mean age of the participants was 61.85±7.93 and 54.61±5.89 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P = 0.217). The mean baseline and posttest trait anxiety (TA) scores were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.152 and 0.170, respectively). Also, the mean baseline scores of state anxiety (SA) in the intervention and the control groups were 48.45±14.21 and 47.28±15.12, respectively (P = 0.133). However, after the intervention, the mean score of SA decreased to 27.45±16.65 in the intervention group (P < 0.001), but this score increased to 49.43±15.42 in the control group (P = 0.227).

    Conclusion

    Humor therapy was effective in reducing SA. Hence, nurses working in hemodialysis departments are advised to use humor therapy as an easy, low-cost, and effective complementary therapy to reduce patients’ anxiety during a hemodialysis session.

    Keywords: Anxiety, Hemodialysis, Humor therapy
  • Niloofar Hajati, Saeid Amini Rarani, Ahmad Ghadami Pages 118-122
    Background

    Postoperative shoulder pain is one of the complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Medications used to treat shoulder pain have side effects.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of lavender oil aromatherapy on shoulder pain after LC.

    Methods

    In this single‑blind randomized controlled trial, 64 patients who underwent LC were randomly allocated into two groups to receive lavender oil aromatherapy or routine treatment. The intervention began in the recovery room after the patient responded to stimuli. First, the patient’s pain was assessed. Then, aromatherapy was started for the intervention group, and afterward, pain measurement was repeated at 5, 25, and 60 min after the intervention. The pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. Patients in the control group received no intervention other than routine care and treatment, but their pain intensity was measured at the same time as patients in the intervention group. Data analysis was performed using the Chi‑square, independent‑samples and paired t‑tests, and repeated‑measures analysis.

    Results

    The mean baseline pain severity of the control and aromatherapy groups was 6.26 ± 1.44 and 7.20 ± 1.44, respectively, and changed to 9.06 ± 0.65 and 3.73 ± 0.86 at the end of the study. Repeated‑measures analysis showed that over time, the mean pain intensity was decreasing in the intervention group (P < 0.05), while it had an increasing trend in the control group.

    Conclusion

    Lavender oil aromatherapy was effective in reducing the postsurgical shoulder pain after LC.

    Keywords: Aromatherapy, Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic, Lavender, Shoulderpain
  • Leila Valizadeh, Azam Romouzi, Parvaneh Aghajari, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi Pages 123-129
    Background

    Hospitalization induces anxiety and causes sleep disorders in children.

    Objective

    This study aimed to examine the effects of listening and reading a tale on anxiety and sleeping onset time (SOT) among hospitalized children with fracture.

    Methods

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 102 children with extremity fracture in Shohada Hospital of Tabriz in 2018–2019. Subjects were recruited consecutively and randomly allocated into three groups: control, storytelling, and simultaneous listening to and reading a tale. The data were collected using a demographic information questionnaire: questions on SOT, heart rate, and the Reynolds and Richmond Children’s Anxiety Questionnaire. One‑way analysis of variance, paired t‑test, Chi‑square and Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data.

    Results

    Mean SOT, mean anxiety, and mean pulse rate did not significantly differ between the three groups at baseline. After the intervention, the mean SOT and mean pulse rate decreased significantly in all three groups (P < 0.001); however, the between‑group differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.50). The mean manifest anxiety did not change significantly in any of the groups (P > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Storytelling had no effect on anxiety, heart rate, and SOT of children with fractures. Further studies can help determine the best method of storytelling for children with fractures.

    Keywords: Anxiety, Fracture, Hospitalized children, Sleep disorders, Storytelling
  • Roghayeh Lalezari, Roghayeh Mehdipour-Rabori, Tania Dehesh, Esmat Nouhi Pages 130-136
    Background

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common chronic disease and the leading cause of death in the world. Stress and anxiety are among the most important risk factors of cardiovascular disease.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ceiling display and natural sounds on stress and anxiety among cardiac patients.

    Methods

    This randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2018–2019 in the coronary care units (CCUs) of two teaching hospitals affiliated to Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Participants were 220 cardiac patients randomly allocated through block randomization to four 55‑person groups, namely ceiling display group, natural sounds group, combined ceiling display and natural sounds (display sound) group, and control group. The Spielberger State‑Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale were used for data collection at the beginning of the study and at the time of discharge from CCU. Data were analyzed by the Chi‑square and paired‑sample t‑tests and the analysis of variance.

    Results

    The mean scores of state and trait anxiety and stress significantly decreased in all intervention groups (P < 0.05) and did not significantly change in the control group (P > 0.05). There were significant differences among the groups respecting the posttest mean scores of state and trait anxiety and stress (P < 0.05). The posttest mean scores of state and trait anxiety in the combined display‑sound group and the posttest mean scores of stress in the natural sounds group were significantly less than other groups.

    Conclusion

    Ceiling display and natural sounds are effective in significantly reducing state and trait anxiety and stress among cardiac patients in CCU and their combination produces more significant effects.

    Keywords: Anxiety, Ceiling display, Heart disease, Sounds of nature, Stress
  • Mostafa Gholami, Zahra Tagharrobi, Khadijeh Sharifi, Zahra Sooki Pages 137-145
    Background

    Over-the-counter use of herbal products puts patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) at risk for drug interactions. Belief and attitude have significant effects on behavior.

    Objectives

    This study was conducted to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Belief and Attitude about Herbal Medicine Inventory (BAHMI).

    Methods

    In this methodological study, the BAHMI draft was developed based on the approach of Waltz and colleagues and using the existing instruments and the three main theory of planned behavior subscales. After face and content validity assessment, BAHMI construct and concurrent validity were assessed. Accordingly, 200 patients with CVD were consecutively recruited from a heart clinic in Kashan, Iran, 2018. BAHMI reliability was also assessed through the internal consistency and the test–retest methods.

    Results

    The BAHMI draft included 40 items. Seven items were excluded during psychometric evaluation phases. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a five-factor structure for BAHMI which explained 42.636% of the variance of its total score. The correlation coefficient between the scores of BAHMI and Hashem-Dabaghian and colleagues’ questionnaire was –0.7 (P < 0.0001). BAHMI mean score was significantly different among patients with different levels of agreement on herbal product use (F = 19.16, P < 0.0001). Cronbach’s alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and smallest detectable change of BAHMI were 0.864, 0.888, ±13.46, and 10.2, respectively. No participant obtained the minimum and maximum possible BAHMI scores.

    Conclusion

    The 33-item BAHMI is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of belief and attitude about herbal medicine among patients with CVD. The findings of this study can be used for health policy-making and planning.

    Keywords: Attitude, belief, cardiovascular disease, herbal medicine, psychometricevaluation, theory of planned behavior
  • Azade Safa, Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, Mahboubeh Rezaei Pages 146-152
    Background

    One strategy that parents use to achieve peace and recovery following the death of a child is to continue bonding with their dead children. Older adults with the death of a child are a vulnerable group, but no study has been conducted on them in Iran.

    Objectives

    The current study aimed to explore the relationship between older adults and their dead children.

    Methods

    This qualitative study utilized the grounded theory method. The data were gathered through purposive sampling during 2020–2021. Semi‑structured interviews were conducted with 13 older adults who had experienced a child death. The method of Corbin and Strauss (2015) was used to analyze the data. The Guba and Lincoln criteria were used to ensure the data trustworthiness. The data were managed using MAXQDA12.

    Results

    The participants’ mean age was 68.30 ± 7.39 years, and 76.9% of them were female. The findings were categorized into three major categories and nine subcategories. The three major categories of “staying connected with the dead child,” “attempting to seek peace for the dead child,” and “keeping the child’s memories alive” emerged from the participants’ experiences, along with the theme of “unbreakable bond with the child.”

    Conclusion

    As a protective strategy, the continuing bond between the older parents and their dead children aided in their adjustment. It is suggested that health‑care providers facilitate the acceptance of child death in these older adults through providing group counseling and reminiscence sessions.

    Keywords: Child, continuing bonds, grief, older adults, qualitative study
  • Rahim Baghaei, Mohammad Yousefi Asl, Rozita Cheraghi, Hamidreza Khalkhali, Roya Naderi Pages 153-159
    Background

    Medication errors (MEs) threaten patient safety and can lead to patient death. Some studies have shown the relationship between spirituality and professional commitment, but no study has been conducted on the relationship between nurses’ professional commitment, spiritual well‑being, and MEs.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between nurses’ professional commitment, spiritual well‑being, and MEs.

    Methods

    This cross‑sectional study was conducted in 2018 on 326 nurses working in educational hospitals of Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Data were collected using four questionnaires, including a demographic data form, a researcher‑made self‑report questionnaire about nurses’ MEs, the Palutzian and Ellison Spiritual Well‑being Questionnaire, and the Nurses’ Professional Commitment Scale. The Pearson correlation coefficient, independent samples t‑test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis were used to analyze the data.

    Results

    The mean ME in the past 3 months was 1.1 ± 1.64. The mean professional commitment and spiritual well‑being were also 30.67 ± 7.6 and 56.99 ± 13.8, respectively. Significant correlations were found between spiritual well‑being and MEs (r = −0.32, P < 0.001), but no significant correlation was found between professional commitment and MEs (r = 0.035, P = 0.52). However, a significant correlation was observed between professional commitment and spiritual well‑being (r = 0.3, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Higher professional commitment among nurses would enhance their spiritual well‑being and reduce MEs. Professional commitment may promote spiritual well‑being, resulting in fewer MEs as an indirect effect.

    Keywords: Ethical commitment, Hospital, Medical errors, Patient, Promotinghealth, Spirituality well‑being
  • Sina Valiee, Syede Mona Nemati, Midia Hossaini, Hajar Kashefi, Hiwa Mohammadi Pages 160-165
    Background

    Pressure ulcer (PU) is a common problem in intensive care unit (ICU). Risk assessment is the first step to PU prevention. Nonetheless, there is no consensus over the best PU risk assessment scale.

    Objectives

    The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy of the Braden and the Waterlow scales in predicting the risk of PU in ICU.

    Methods

    This cross‑sectional study was conducted in 2019 on 186 patients hospitalized in ICUs of Tohid and Kowsar teaching hospitals, Sanandaj, Iran. The Braden and the Waterlow scales were simultaneously used by two trained nurses for daily PU risk assessment for 15 consecutive days. The predictive validity of the scales was assessed in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values.

    Results

    The mean of participants’ age was 55.6 ± 20.3 years. In total, 102 participants (54.8%) developed PU during the study. The sensitivity and the specificity of the Braden scale at the cutoff score of 18 were 97% and 34.5% and the sensitivity and the specificity of the Waterlow scale at the cutoff score of 10 were 95% and 28.5%, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Compared with the Waterlow scale, the Braden scale has a slightly better predictive validity for PU risk assessment.

    Keywords: Braden, Pressure ulcer, Scale, Waterlow
  • Farzin Mollazadeh, Yaser Moradi, Hossein Habibzadeh, Madineh Jasemi, Parivash Karimi Pages 166-168
    Background

    Nurses’ caring behaviors (CBs) are affected by several factors, including their moral intelligence (MI). However, nurses’ MI and its association with their CBs have not been well studied, and the published studies have also found conflicting results.

    Objective

    This study aimed to determine the association between nurses’ MI and their CBs.

    Methods

    A descriptive, correlational study was conducted on nurses and patients in Urmia, Iran, in 2020. Using random sampling, 100 nurses and 300 patients were recruited for the study. Demographic characteristic form, the Lennick and Kiel Moral Competency Index, and the CB Inventory were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics and the Pearson’s correlation test were used to analyze the data.

    Results

    A direct correlation was found between the total scores of MI and CB (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the subscales of MI were correlated with the most subscales of CB, including ensuring human respect, respect for others, and attentiveness to the other’s experience (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Authorities should establish in‑service training programs to strengthen the nurses’ MI and CBs.

    Keywords: Caring behavior, Moral intelligence, Nursing