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Molecular and Clinical Microbiology - Volume:12 Issue: 2, Summer and Autumn 2022

International Journal of Molecular and Clinical Microbiology
Volume:12 Issue: 2, Summer and Autumn 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/07/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • Gokben Ozbey *, Alfizah Hanafiah, Yashvanth Lakshmanappa, Santosh Dhakal, Gourapura Renukaradhya Pages 1684-1691

    The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a huge global public health threat which affected millions of people and have been causing high mortalities. Coronaviruses have the largest genomes for RNA viruses, enveloped and single-stranded. They mainly cause respiratory disease with incidences of enteric problems and affecting the liver and neurological system in animals and humans. The rapid diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is required for better control of spread of evolving mutant viruses. This review article aims to gather insights on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, apart from the COVID-19 disease epidemiology, a better understanding of the available effective, rapid and sensitive tests for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and the novel drugs for treatment both prophylactically and therapeutically are necessary to mitigate any future risks of infection.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Diagnosis, Epidemiology, SARS-CoV-2, Treatment
  • Hedieh Abolghasemi, Mohaddeseh Larypoor *, Farzaneh Hosseini Pages 1692-1703
    The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic yeasts isolated from both aquatic environment and dairy products by sanger sequencing method and drawing phylogenetic tree for the identified probiotic yeasts. Sampling of dairy and non-dairy products was done randomly. Characterization of yeasts was constructed by molecular strategies based on the amplification and sequencing of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. MEGA7 software was also applied for alignment (Muscle algorithm) and to create an agreement neighbour-joining analysis to determine the phylogenetic relationship of isolated species. For an in vitro selection of the probiotic candidates, survival of isolates at different temperatures, pH and bile salts was assessed. Based on biochemical assays and gene sequencing, the isolates were detected as Candida albicans (Wb), Clavispora lusitaniae (WC), Metschnikowia (KC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vc) strains. We indicated that Wb and KC isolates could significantly grow at 37°C after 3 hours. Wb, KC and Vc species also were proliferated at pH~1.5. We concluded that Wb and KC strains isolated from the marine environment and dairy products have great potential for use as probiotics in the food industry based on their resistance in human body at temperature equal to 37°C and gastric PH equal to 1.5.
    Keywords: Yeasts, Candida, Saccharomyces, Clavispora, MEGA7
  • Fereshteh Hozoorbakhsh, Mozhgan Ghiasian *, Fereshte Ghandehari, Zarrindokht Emami-Karvani, Maryam Khademi Dehkordi Pages 1704-1712
    L-asparaginase is one of the most important treatments for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The aim of this study was isolation and molecularly identification for L-asparaginase producer bacteria. In this study, samples were taken from the effluent and soil of a slaughterhouse in Isfahan. M9 culture medium was used to screen the L-asparaginase producer bacteria. After screening, qualitative measurement of L-asparaginase was performed based on the color change in the media. The L-asparaginase producer bacteria were identified by biochemical and molecular methods. 114 colonies were isolated from the samples. 5 colonies were able to produce L-asparaginase. The halo diameter of L-asparaginase production in bacteria numbers SS18, SS19, SE64, SE112 and SE114 were 21, 22, 30, 33 and 55 mm, respectively. 16SrRNA sequences showed that strain SS18 was 99% likely to belong to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, strain SS19 was 99% likely to belong to Chryseobacterium indologenes, strain SE64 was 99% likely to belong to the genus Chryseobacterium, strain SE112 was 99% likely to belongs to Bacillus safensis species and strain number SE114 probably 100% belongs to Bacillus velezensis species.  Since, L-asparaginase from different bacteria has shown different anti-cancer effects, finding the L-asparaginase producer microorganisms is one of the ways that lead us to have an enzyme with ideal medical aspects. One of the best environments for finding these bacteria is slaughterhouse soil and effluent, which are high in protein and can therefore be a potential source of bacteria that produce L-asparaginase.
    Keywords: L-asparaginase, Screening, slaughterhouse, phylogenetic tree, PCR
  • Naser Sadeghpour Orang, Mehdi Ghiami Rad *, Hadi Soltani, Mehdi Ahmadi Sabegh Pages 1713-1721
    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria have become a major challenge for human health, necessitating the need to synthesize new compounds against these bacteria. Chromens are among the compounds that are candidates for the production of antimicrobials due to their therapeutic properties. Ten novel 4-H pyran derivatives (4a-j) were synthesized via One-Pot, the three-components reaction of various arylglyoxal monohydrates, 2-naphthole, and quinoline-2, 4 dione in H2O:EtOH (2:1), as a green solvent, in the presence of p-Toluene sulfunic acid, as a mild catalyst, under reflux conditions with considerable yields. The structure of new compounds was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, FT-IR, mass spectral data and HRMS. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for them in-vitro antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria, using the agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the microplate method. Compounds g, h, i and j show more efficiency than Ampicillin (as a reference antibiotic) while a, b, c, d, e, and f show slight activity against tested bacteria. Increasing concentration leads to more antimicrobial activity. The studied compounds had a higher antibacterial effect against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) than gram-negative bacteria. Some of the synthesized compounds in this study showed good antibacterial potential against the studied microorganisms, which can be used against these bacteria if confirmed in In-vivo experiments.
    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antibacterial activity
  • Hajar Ziaei Hezar Jaribi, Mohammad Sediq Ghasemi Mahale Kalaei, Hamid Mohammadi, Yahya Ehteshaminia, Baman Rahimi Esboei, Seifali Mahdavi * Pages 1722-1728
    Head lice infection is the most common type of infection with external parasites among children. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of pediculosis from 2012 to 2020 in Mazandaran province. In this descriptive study, available data in the health system of Mazandaran province was used. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 22. The total number of subjects was 247678. Out of 247678 people, 246077 (99.3%) had at least one type of head, body or pubic lice. Of the total number of people with head lice, 244,957 (99.5%) had head lice. People aged 6-13 years with a frequency of 116330 (47.2%) had the highest frequency, which was significantly higher than other groups (P-value <0.001). The prevalence in the city of Sari was significantly more than other cities (P-value <0.001). Frequency ratio in males in the two age groups including less than 6 years of age and aged 6–13 years was higher than female while in other two groups it was not. Therefore, in the 13-year-olds, the prevalence of patients was higher in males, but in older prevalence in females is significantly higher (P-value <0.01). In addition, most females and villagers had head-lice. Personal hygiene, access to health care services and periodic examinations will be effective in preventing this disease.
    Keywords: Lice, Pediculus, pediculosis, Prevalence, Mazandaran
  • Faezeh Abedi, Nafiseh Naghavi *, Monireh Ranjbar Pages 1729-1739
    Chicory is a rich plant source for the prebiotic inulin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of purified inulinase enzyme from fungal strains on the inulin extracted from chicory. Inulin was extracted by soaking in water and precipitating in ethanol. Fungi were isolated from the soil around chicory root and screened for inulinase production along with fungal strains, Kluyveromyces marxianus PTCC 5006 and Aspergillus flavus PTCC 5304. The high inulinase-producing fungal isolate was identified based on the sequencing of 18S rRNA gene. The enzyme was purified using ammonium sulfate-polyacrylamide and dialysis. The molecular weight of the protein was detected using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). One fungal isolate that showed high enzymatic activity (2233 U/ml) was obtained. This isolate was identified as the species Talaromyces moniliformis. Among the collection strains, Kluyveromyces marxianus had the highest inulinase production; while its inulinase activity was lower than that of Talaromyces moniliformis. The results from enzyme purification from Talaromyces moniliformis showed that the most specific enzyme activity (546.6 U/mg) and the highest purification yield (62.17%) were obtained by the precipitation in 55% ammonium sulfate. Dialysis of the protein resulted in the extraction of a protein with a reduced specific enzyme activity (188.6 U/mg). The molecular weight of the purified protein was estimated at15 kDa.The fungal inulinase which purified from native resources in the present study can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its high enzymatic activity.
    Keywords: Inulin, chicory, Inulinase, Fungal strains, Enzyme purification
  • Sanaz Vahabi, Atousa Ferdousi, MohammadHassan Shahhosseini Pages 1740-1747

    Recently, some common viruses, like Herpes Simplex Virus ‎‎(HSV), have been ‎‎‎proposed as a risk factor to develop type 2 diabetes. However, still there is not ‎‎‎enough literature to ‎determine its importance as a triggering or risk factor. This ‎‎‎case-control study is designed to ‎evaluate the Attendance rate of the HSV genome ‎in ‎‎serum samples of diabetic ‎patients.‎ The study and control groups included ‎‏50‏‎ ‎serum samples of diabetic type 2 and 50 non-diabetic respectively. The detecting ‎PCR test for HSV genome types 1 and 2 with common DNA polymerase gene ‎region, as the target gene, was optimized. Demographic parameters like ‎Sex, age, ‎and A1C were ‎recorded too. Amplicon size was 454 bp. The specificity and ‎sensitivity ‎of the PCR reaction were100% and 50 ‎Copy/reaction respectively. The ‎analysis results showed that neither ‎the genome of HSV-1 nor 2 was found in those ‎‎100 serum samples. ‎ ‎In ‎addition, there was no relation between sex or A1C level ‎and HSV genome ‎‎presence. But it seems the relatively young age of this group is ‎effective for obtaining ‎‎these negative results. The small size of this population with ‎negative PCR ‎‎results, clearly shows that HSV infection cannot be a first-order ‎risk ‎factor, but due to time-consuming ‎mechanisms ‎of probable effects, this may affect ‎elderly populations, as obtained results of some studies. ‎Therefore to prevent or ‎manage type 2 diabetes, still should be more ‎focused on the ‎conventional risk ‎factors such as obesity and malnutrition.‎

    Keywords: Herpes Simplex Viruses, diabetes, PCR, infectious diseases, metabolic disorder‎s
  • sahar Honarmand Jahromy, Masoumeh Mahdavi-Ourtakand, Ensieh Kafi Pages 1748-1758

    The use of various nanoparticles and plant-based antibacterial substances can be a suitable alternative to conventional mouthwashes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles in combination with Zataria multiflora essential oil against Streptococcus mutans. ZnO-NPs were synthesized by zinc acetate and potassium hydroxide and their characteristics are evaluated by FE-SEM and XRD. Z. multiflora essential oil is extracted and its chemical compounds are analyzed by GC–MS. Antibacterial activity of essential oil and nanoparticles was studied by broth microdilution method against standard and clinical strains of S. mutans and was determined minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial interactions of these materials are tested by checkerboard titration. The results showed that ZnO-NPs were spherical and were synthesized with an average diameter of 23.77nm. MIC of ZnO-NPs against S. mutans strains was reported in the range of 12.5-50 μg/ml, and the MIC of Z. multiflora essential oil was in the range of 0.031-0.25 μl/ml. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles with essential oil of Z. multiflora have synergistic effects against S. mutans and can be a suitable alternative to mouthwashes such as chlorhexidine.

    Keywords: Streptococcus mutans, nanoparticles, Zataria multiflora, essential oil, Antimicrobial effect
  • Nayereh Ghods, Shahla Roudbarmohammadi, Peyman Aslani Pages 1759-1764

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects at least one of two Females during their life and RVVC is characterized by 3 or more episode of VVC per year. The main causative agent of VVC is Candida albicans with reminder caused by C.glabrata, C.krusei, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis. The purpose of this study was to isolate Candida from VVC patients, characterize it and test its susceptibility to two antifungal medications using the broth microdilution method. Swab samples of patients were obtained and VVC was confirmed by observation of budding yeast by providing direct smear by KOH 3% and also positive culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. We identified species by phenotyping methods and molecular methods (21 plex PCR) and also assessed the rate of drug resistance by microdilution method against miconazole and amphotericin B(AMB). Among 75 VVC and 43 RVVC patients, The most common species were C.albicans (73.7%), C.glabrata (16.9%), C.krusei (5.1%), C.parapsilosis (3.4%), C.tropicalis (0.8%). AMB was active against every isolate from VVC patients except for 18.6% resistance in RVVC patients. In total, only 10.7% of VVC patients were resistant to miconazole whereas 51% of RVVC patients were resistant to miconazole. Therefore, the identification of the causal agent, doing an antifungal susceptibility test (AFST), and genotypic identification will play a crucial role in the optimal selection of antifungal medication for the therapy in RVVC patients, especially those who lake any risk factors.

    Keywords: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis(RVVC), Drug resistance, Miconazole, Amphotericin B, Microdilution method
  • hamid azadegan, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Mansour Bayat, Iraj Sohrabi Haghdost Pages 1765-1769

    Superficial fungal diseases are one of the most common endemic diseases in Iran, especially in rural areas and areas that are in poor health and are mostly related to domestic animals.. Animals such as cow, sheep, dog and cat are assumed as the main origin of these infections. Infection in animals is often a chronic incidence but in humans is along with severe inflammatory reactions. Upward tr end of superficial cutaneous fungal infections is one of the hygienic problems of developed and eveloping societies and zoophilic factors have a major effect on incidence of such infections. To apply this study, the patient suspected to fungal lesions referring to different clinics in Arak were sampled, within June 2011 to June 2012. Then, direct test and culture were made. In order to determine the fungal types, slide culture and complementary tests were used, if required. Out of 435 referred pa tients, superficial cutaneous fungal infections were diagnosed in 215 patients (49.4%), of which 138 patients (31.7%) were infected with Dermatophytosis, 61 patients (14%) with Tinea Versicolor, 8 patients (1.8%) with Erythrism and 2 patients with Otomycosis. The highest age of involvement was observed between the ages of 20 and 29 years, which accounted for 34.1% of cases.

    Keywords: superficial mycosis, cutaneus mycosis, arak, dermatophytosis, prevalence