فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/06/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Amir Soltanbeigi, Neda Dastyar, Fateme Khajoei Nejad, Samira Shokri* Pages 1-3

    In many countries, cancer is the second leading cause of fatality after cardiovascular disease. Cancer is a growing problem worldwide and is one of the most important reasons for fatality in human societies. The problems of chemotherapy and radiation therapy and the many side effects that result from their use for the patient, as well as the resistance of cancer cells to common treatments, have led researchers to new drugs with greater effectiveness and less toxicity. One of the best ways to reduce the risk of cancer is to use natural materials. The purpose of this study is the effect of medicinal herbs on cancer in Iran. This study aims to search the types of herbs that are beneficial for the health of body tissues concerning cancer, in order to be able to provide a suitable way to prevent the types of cancer that are more common in humans which has become a major problem in the medical world. In the treatment of cancers from medicinal plants such as Trachyspermum ammi, Crocus sativus, Silybum marianum, Nigella sativa, Cornus mas, Aloe vera, Zingiber officinale, Urtica dioica, Allium cepa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Peganum harmala, Plantago ovate, Thymus vulgaris, and Elkhorn fern. Some of the most important traditional natural anti-cancer substances include Catharanthus roseus, Podophyllum peltatum, Combreturn cafrum, Campetotheca acuminate, and Brucea antidysenterica. The use of herbal medicines with anti-cancer properties can be used as a substitute or supplement to chemical drugs in treating cancers. Many unique plant species need to be further studied to find anti-cancer compounds.

    Keywords: Medicinal plants, Natural compounds, Cancer
  • Sally A. El-Zahaby, Samira Shokri* Pages 4-9

    Each medicinal herb contains one or more effective materials that are defined for therapeutic use according to the active ingredient of the plant. Since chemical drugs have side effects   the value of medicinal plants is still preserved after several centuries. One of these spectroscopic methods for identifying functional groups in medicinal plants is (FTIR). This study aimed to identify the functional groups of Mentha longifolia medicinal plants native to Ilam by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method so that by recognizing the main and effective compounds of plants we can more easily step towards, recognizing and producing biomolecules and herbal medicines. According to the results of spectroscopy, it was found that this plant has 15 spectra, including groups O-H, C-H, C = C, N-O, C-O, S = O, C-Br, and C-I.

    Keywords: Medicinal herb, Mentha longifolia, Factor groups, FTIR, Iran
  • Bahman Fazeli-Nasab*, Laleh Shahraki-Mojahed, Narjes Dahmardeh Pages 9-17

    Diseases caused by various drug-resistant strains in plants are increasing in many countries of the world, so many efforts have been made to find new compounds as a suitable alternative to chemical drugs and pesticides. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and ethanolic extracts of 10 medicinal plants were investigated on Rathayibacter tritici and Xanthomonas translucens. Alcoholic extracts of medicinal plants were extracted using a rotary apparatus. Two standard bacteria R. tritici and X. translucens were prepared from Persian Type Culture Collection. The minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils and ethanolic extracts of plants used at a concentration of 50 mg/ ml were determined by dilution in liquid medium on pathogens. Based on the results, the lowest inhibitory concentration of thyme essential oil was 6.25 ppm, which was inhibited by R. tritici, and the lowest concentration of Hypericum perforatum essential oil against X. translucens was 6.25 ppm. The lowest concentrations of essential oils of yew and fennel were 6.25 ppm, which were inhibited by both bacteria. Rubia tinctorum leaf essential oil in a concentration of 6.25 only inhibited R. tritici bacteria. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils of the studied plants were higher than the extract. Essential oils of yew and oleander were the most effective against R. tritici and X. translucens, followed by thyme and rosemary against R. tritici and herring flower against X. translucens . Although the clinical use of ethanolic extracts and essential oils of the studied plants seems valuable due to side effects, but for the clinical use of essential oils and extracts, more research should be done on the mechanism of action of effective compounds of these plants on microbial agents.

    Keywords: Taxus baccata L, Carla, Lavender, Anethum graveolens, Nerium Oleander
  • Sumia Urainab*, Arifa Mehreen, Sidra Zahid Pages 18-24

    Medical treatments and preventions have made use of essential oils since the middle ages. Bactericidal, fungicidal, and antioxidant characteristics are among the various uses for essential oils in the fields of sanitation, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture, and food. The volatile components of these plants are phenol-derived aromatics, aliphatic compounds, and terpenes and terpenoids. Essential oils have been demonstrated in vitro to have antibacterial properties against pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Our paper discusses some of the biochemical properties of essential oils, including their antimicrobial properties, which can be used instead of dangerous synthetic fungicidal and bactericidal products. In recent years, increasing interest has been shown in the possibility of using essential oils as antimicrobials and preservatives in various industries.

    Keywords: Essential oils, Bioactivity, Medicinal plants
  • Bahman Fazeli-Nasab*, Fatemeh Bidarnamani Pages 25-36

    The global burden of cancer is increasing due to aging, population growth, poor nutrition, inadequate exercise, as well as high-risk behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. According to the World Health Organization, in 2008, the ASR (Age Standardized Rate) of cancers of both sexes (according to the global reference population) in Iran is 107.7 per 100,000 population, and its five most common cancers are stomach, breast, colorectum, Bladder, and leukemia. According to global ASR statistics, the most common cancers in both sexes are 181.6 and five cancers are lung, breast, colorectal, stomach, and prostate. With the increase in life expectancy and the increase in the aging index in the population of Iran, it is expected that the incidence of various cancers will increase in the coming years and a lot of humans and financial capitals will be wasted. On the other hand, with the advancement of technology in bioinformatics and molecular techniques, a lot of information has been obtained that will help in the early detection of cancer. Meanwhile, despite much research on cancer and its treatment, this disease is still one of the biggest health problems in human societies. This research has been prepared in the form of a library, also articles reported in authoritative sources such as Springer, Elsevier, PubMed, Nature, etc. in 2021. Alfalfa extract and Aloe vera L. have been used to treat breast cancer and prevent dermatitis. Nigella sativa and boron have been used in the treatment of prostate, breast, cervical and lung cancers. Wild pistachio has been shown to affect colon cancer cell line. Artichokes improve the liver, bile, lower cholesterol and blood lipids. The leaves of the Hedera plant (Hedera pasuchovii G.Woronow) have been shown to affect breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and uterus (Hela) as well as blood lymphocytes. Bakhtiari savory has been effective on Hela cancer cell line. Considering that chemical drugs used in the treatment of cancer, in addition to creating drug resistance the study of medicinal plants and factors of natural origins, such as compounds derived from medicinal plants used in the treatment of cancer is one of the most important objectives of the present study.

    Keywords: Savory, Breast cancer, Pistachio, Eugene, Thymoquinone
  • Ngwatshipane Madonna Mashabela, Wilfred Otang-Mbeng* Pages 37-49

    The current study assessed the effect of different levels of poultry manure fertilizer (10, 30, 60 and 90 kg F/ha) and nitrogen fertilizer (30, 45, 60 and 90 kg N/ha) on the growth, yield, mineral composition, bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites in the legume crop Vigna unguiculata (L.). At the end of 15 weeks, 90 kg F/ha and 45 kg N/ha enhanced the growth, yield, mineral composition, production of ascorbic acid, total phenolic and FRAP assay, this informed our decision for the selection of this treatments (45kgN/ha, 90kgF/ha and 0kg/ha control) for further analyses of secondary metabolites. Poultry manure and nitrogen fertilizer improved the mineral compositions of cowpea leaves, and different accumulation trends were noted depending on different application levels, with poultry manure responding well. Thus, the application of organic poultry manure at 90 kg F/ha for cowpea cultivation should potentially be recommended in the Mpumalanga Province.

    Keywords: Cowpea, organic fertilizer, FRAP, Mpumalanga Province
  • Insha Ur Rehman*, Lubna Malik, Saima Zaheer, Muhammad Abdullah Pages 50-55

    The physical and chemical data of the pure substance can be analysed to determine the structure. In the current era of structural elucidation, NMR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy, especially the various types of 2D NMR, are used extensively, while infrared (IR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) are main tool to recognize the functional groups in the structure. The correlation of key chemicals in chromatograph peaks with individual mass spectra is commonly accomplished using HPLC mass spectrometry (LCMS). For most chemicals studied, LCMS ionisation procedures are chemically mild, and strong molecular ion peaks are detected. MS (mass spectrometry) is a technique for determining a substance's molecular mass, formula, and fragmentation pattern. The most widely deployed techniques in mass spectrometry are electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, chemical ionization mass spectrometry, chemical ionisation mass spectrometry, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Our paper discusses in brief how mass spectrometry can be used to study and analyze natural products in a scientific manner. Mass spectrometry, which has been used to study complex biological systems for more than a century, is currently at a critical crossroads. We'll be looking at how the mass spectrometry business is expected to change over the next decade, emphasising the natural products industry's increasing techniques and technology. This research aims to provide a fast summary of how mass spectrometry is used in many disciplines. This review study relies on three search engines, Pub Med, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and printed material from the library, to do the best literature research possible. We highlight growing mass spectrometric methodologies and technologies employed by the natural product field in this viewpoint piece and provide a glimpse into the future directions in which the mass spectrometry field will migrate over the next decade.

    Keywords: Mass spectrometry, Natural product, Structure Determination
  • Shiva Ghareghani, Parisa Sadighara, Sayedeh Mahsa Khodaei, Mohadeseh Pirhadi* Pages 56-62

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is an additive which is substantially applied in commercially processed foods in order to increase the flavor and sapidity and make a unique flavor which cannot be provided by any other ingredient. Since the discovery of endogenous amino acid glutamate (as a neurotransmitter) in human body, the possible toxicity of exogenous glutamic acid has attracted the attention of numerous scholars. Accordingly, various animal studies have been documented on toxic impacts of MSG on different parts of the body including central nervous system, liver, adipose tissue, reproductive organs, and other systems. Thus, since that time, the safety of MSG has repeatedly been checked and reaffirmed within the scientific communities due to the contradict results. This literature review article specifically aimed to discuss the probable safety of dietary MSG for central nervous system and also provide an integrated information from several studies documented on possible neurotoxic effects of monosodium glutamate on glutamate receptors of Central Nervous System in order to elevate the public awareness about it. Collecting the results of all studied articles seems to supports the hypothesis of safety. In fact, it seems that MSG as a food additive within the limited amounts as well as natural levels of glutamic acid which is present in food supplies provides no serious hazard to the human CNS.

    Keywords: CNS, Food additives, Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Monosodium glutamate, Neurotoxicity
  • Bhagwan Mahale*, Sagar Palwe, Asahish Gajbhiye, Vinayak Bagul, Vinayak Kadam Pages 63-70

    Acmella paniculata (Wall. Ex DC.) R. K. Jansen, also known as Akkalkadha or toothache plant is an important medicinal herb of the Asteraceae family that grows in the tropics and subtropics of the world. The present phytochemical investigation aimed at evaluating the impact of different solvents on extraction yields, ash analysis, fluorescence analysis and phytochemical compounds from flower drug of A. paniculata plant. The results indicate that solvents have a significant impact in the yield of extraction. Resulting in the higher extraction yield in solvent distilled water and ethanol. Flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and terpenoids are found in the crude flower drug of the plant. The present study is useful in drug standardization, identifying the adulteration in the Ayurvedic medicines from this plant.

    Keywords: Acmella paniculata, ash analysis, extraction yields, flower drug, fluorescence analysis, phytochemical investigation
  • Robert Ikechukwu Uroko*, Paul Chukwuemaka Nweje-Anyalowu, Chinomso Friday Aaron, Charles Nnanna Chukwu Pages 78-88

    The combined extract of Spermacoce radiata and Hypselodelphys poggeana leaves has been shown to be a potent therapeutic agent against benign prostatic hyperplasia which is used extensively for BPH and other diseases by local traditional medicine practitioners without any evaluation of its toxicity effects on liver and other vital organs in the body.  The study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of a combined extract of S. radiata and H. poggeana (CEESH) on rats with prostate enlargement (BPH). We had five groups of rats (n = 6), with groups 1 and 2 being the normal and BPH controls, respectively. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were the BPH rats administered Finasteride, 300 and 600 mg/kg CEESH, respectively. Prostate enlargement was induced in the rat by the subcutaneous administration of testosterone injection (5 mg/kg/day for 28 days), while Finasteride and CEESH were respectively administered to the rats orally as therapeutic agents. Prostate enlargement in the rats elevated AST, ALT, and ALP activities in BPH control coupled with a significant rise in the serum bilirubin levels compared to the normal control. The total protein and its constituents (including albumin and globulin) declined significantly in the BPH control compared to the normal control. Administration of CEESH to the prostate enlarged rats lowered AST, ALT, and ALP activities in groups 4–5 rats significantly (P<0.05) compared to BPH control. Besides, the CEESH treated had elevated total protein (including albumin and globulin) levels compared to the BPH control. The high bilirubin levels in the BPH control were significantly diminished in the rats treated with CEESH. No alterations in the liver micrographs of the BPH control and CEESH administered rats were observed. These findings showed that CEESH confers hepatoprotection in BPH induced rats and could be used to manage BPH and other hepatic disorders.

    Keywords: Spermacoce radiata, Hypselodelphys poggeana, benign prostatic hyperplasia, hepatic disorder, hepatic enzymes, liver histomorphology
  • Masoumehalsadat Rahmati, Samira Shokri, Mehdi Ahmadi, Narges Marvi Moghadam, Saeide Seyfi, Melika Goodarzi, Reza Hazrati-Raziabad Pages 89-96

    According to the importance of Anopheles mosquitoes, in the transmission of malaria and control of disease transmitter is one of the important strategies for the prevention of diseases. This study aimed to produce plant insecticides using blue extracts of oleander plants, tobacco, ferula, and Achilles Mille folium essential oils and copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by pomegranate peel extract on the Anopheles Stephens mosquitoes to solve the problems by chemical insecticides. In this laboratory research, the effect of blue extracts with concentrations (0.66, 1.3, and 2.6) microliters in a milliliter of leaves and stems of oleander, tobacco, ferula, and Achilles Mille folium essential oil on the Anopheles mosquito (Anopheles. Stephens: Bandar Abbas strain) was studied. To optimize these extracts, antibacterial properties of thyme were used to prevent mold growth. In addition, the insecticidal effect of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized from pomegranate peel extract was considered. To identify nanoparticles synthesized by spectroscopic analysis Vis-UV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy diffraction (EDX) was used. The results showed that copper oxide nanoparticles of pomegranate extract with antibacterial properties were obtained with LC50 = 0.70. It had a good insecticidal effect on Anopheles Stephens mosquito specimens. But oleander plants with LC50 less than copper Nan oxide showed more lethality.

    Keywords: Copper Oxide Nanoparticles, Anopheles Stephens mosquito, SEM, Oleander, Tobacco, Pomegranate
  • Mohammad Ali Naderi, Hamed Afkhami, Fatemeh Ghaffarian, Marzieh Rahimi, Fatemeh Sameni, Neda Khorshidi, Atefeh Akbari* Pages 97-102

    Today Antibiotic resistance is one of the global concerns in medicine. Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the problems with their treatment, the use of alternative methods to increase effectiveness and reduce drug resistance is important. In traditional medicine, the use of ferula plant due to its various active chemical compounds with antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity, has attracted the attention of researchers. Because, many studies have been performed on other species of Ferula, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Ferula macrocolea extract on 4 standard strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The present study was performed on 4 standard bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. First, Ferula essential oil was extracted. Microbial suspension with specific and standard concentrations was prepared in Müller-Hinton Broth medium. Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil on the desired bacteria were performed using two methods of disk diffusion and microbroth dilution according to the CLSI standards. The results of this study showed that Ferula extract has different antimicrobial effect on all strains. The highest and lowest antimicrobial and inhibitory effects of this extract were reported on B. subtilis and S. epidermidis, respectively. Examination of the antibacterial effect of essential oil from F. macrocolea showed that this extract has different lethal and inhibitory effects on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    Keywords: Ferula macrocolea, Antibiotic resistance, Antibacterial effect, Medicinal plant