فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 2, Jun 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/08/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Erica Demilio*, Denis V. Tumanov, Colin Lawton, Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen, Jesper Guldberg Hansen Pages 1-52

    Two new heterotardigrade (Tardigrada) species, Bryodelphax pucapetricolus sp. nov. and Bryodelphax wallacearthuri sp. nov., are described from moss associated with limestone pavement in the Republic of Ireland. The species description process for these two taxa initiated a more detailed exploration of several morphological characters of importance in Bryodelphax Thulin including cuticular sculpture elements and ventral plate morphology. Division of the third dorsal median plate in the context of the genera Bryochoerus Marcus and Bryodelphax is further discussed. We recommend minor emendations to the generic diagnoses of Bryochoerus and Bryodelphax. Also, we emend the species diagnoses of Bryodelphax aaseae Kristensen, Michalczyk and Kaczmarek and Bryodelphax parvuspolaris Kaczmarek, Zawierucha, Smykla and Michalczyk, record the genus Parechiniscus Cuénot from the Republic of Ireland for the first time, and make suggestions relevant to the taxonomy of limnoterrestrial heterotardigrades.

    Keywords: Biodiversity, the Burren, scanning electron microscopy, Heterotardigrada, Echiniscidae, new species
  • Spartaco Gippoliti, Dario Fraschetti, Osman Gedow Amir, Francesco M. Angelici* Pages 53-75

    There is an increased recognition of the threat status of the African lion (Panthera leo), once a widespread top predator of open African habitats. However, our knowledge about the biology of the species is often based on a few study sites in South and East Africa, and the present subspecific taxonomy developed by the IUCN reinforces an idea of homogeneity of the species in Africa. A synthesis of available knowledge regarding the lions of Southern Somalia, formerly proposed as a distinct subspecies, Panthera leo somaliensis is presented. Particular attention is paid to the issue of manelessness in males, a phenomenon that has been studied in Tsavo (N.E. Kenya) but it is highlighted for the first time for the Southern Somalia region. Although our data cannot lead to a definitive answer about the taxonomic status of Somali lions, there is enough evidence to call for further studies and conservation efforts, also in the light of the increased evidence of genetic discontinuity in lions associated with strong ecological barriers.

    Keywords: Conservation unit, distribution, mane development, morphometrical analysis, Panthera leo, taxonomy
  • Rajendra Singh*, Garima Singh Pages 76-90

    In this review, an updated checklist of spider diversity in Rajasthan, India is presented. A total of 173 spider species from 90 genera belonging to 25 families are listed with records/descriptions originating from only 20 out of 33 districts of Rajasthan. A total of 74 taxa recorded from various districts of Rajasthan were identified only up to generic level. The maximum number of spider species were recorded from Jodhpur district (72 species), followed by Ajmer (69 species), Bharatpur (66 species), Pali (63 species), Jaipur (58 species), Dholpur and Karauli (38 species each), Jhunjhunu and Sikar (31 species each), Sri Ganga Nagar (26 species), Hanumangarh (25 species), and Jaisalmer (26 species). A fewer number of species are known from other districts. Thus far, no faunal surveys of spiders have been conducted in 13 districts of Rajasthan. Most of the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, forest areas, agricultural fields, human dwellings, etc. within the state still await intensive and extensive surveys to record the spider fauna.

    Keywords: Diversity, faunal distribution, new record, species, spider
  • Milan Baral*, Anisha Neupane Pages 91-96

    The Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala Scopoli is a scarce winter visitor and passage migrant bird in Nepal being recorded mainly in the eastern part of the country. Similarly, the Blue-winged Laughingthrush Trochalopteron squamatum (Gould) is an uncommon resident of Nepal with rare observations reported from central-west to eastern Nepal. Also, the Tricolored Munia Lonchura malacca (Linnaeus) is considered as a local resident in Nepal especially in the Chitwan National Park, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Kathmandu Valley. None of these species have been photographed in the Pokhara Valley previously. This study presents the first photographic record of E. melanocephala and T. squamatum, and the first ever record of L. malacca from the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Emberiza melanocephala was observed during the winter season in bushes of Ipomoea carnea while T. squamatum and L. malacca were recorded during the autumn and monsoon season in evergreen Schima-Castanopsis forest, and clumps of the reed Phragmites karka respectively.

    Keywords: Passage migrant, Pokhara Lake-Cluster, rare birds, uncommon birds, winter visitor
  • Krishnendu Mondal, Pooja Chourasia*, Shilpi Gupta, Kalyanasundaram Sankar, Qamar Qureshi Pages 97-109

    In order to understand the generalist nature of leopards and whether they have any degree of specialization, a study on resource selection of the Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) was carried out in a tropical dry deciduous forest in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Western India from January 2007 to May 2011 with the use of camera trapping under the mark-recapture framework. Camera trapping was done in an intensive study area (230 km2) encompassing 200 camera locations on 85–130 occasions each year. In total, 40 Indian leopards were identified in the study area, of which seven individual leopards were selected for resource selection analysis. Resource selection by Indian leopards was investigated at two scales. First, habitat selection was studied using compositional analysis comparing habitat availability in the geographic range of all seven Indian leopards and utilization by the individual animals within it. The results showed that habitat selection was non-random (P< 0.001). The leopard’s preference of habitat selection was in the following order: Boswellia forest> Anogeissus forest> Acacia forest> Butea forest> Zizyphus forest> Barren land> Scrubland. Second, resource selection was studied through a generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM) comparing the resource availability and utilization in each leopard’s range. The results showed that leopards preferred Anogeissus dominated forest followed by Zizyphus mixed forest and scrubland. In addition, leopards preferred habitat with a higher encounter rate of sambar (Rusa unicolor) and chital (Axis axis) and to a lesser degree of use, habitat with a higher livestock encounter rate. The results revealed that Indian leopards showed a significant degree of preference for moderate to thick vegetation cover and wild prey species rather than areas with open forest types and domestic prey species.

    Keywords: Compositional analysis, generalized linear mixed effect model, mark-recapture, utilization distribution
  • Ahmad Mahmoudi*, Atilla Arslan, Masoumeh Khoshyar, Boris Kryštufek Pages 110-114

    Although recent molecular data has advocated the distinct position of Arvicola persicus De Filippi from Iran, karyotypic and differential chromosome staining data, informative tools to describe biological diversity, are lacking. Here we present the first description of the chromosome complement of A. persicus from its type locality in Sultaniyeh, southern Alborz Mountains, Iran. Though the diploid chromosome number (2n= 36) and the fundamental number of autosomal arms (FNa= 60) did not deviate from that reported for Arvicola amphibius sensu lato in Eurasia (2n= 36, FNa= 60–68), there appear to be significant differences between A. persicus and A. amphibius s.l. in terms of C-bands and NOR-bearing autosomes. Banded karyology, therefore, provides further evidence for delimiting A. persicus as a species, which is distinct from A. amphibius.

    Keywords: Alborz Mountains, Arvicola, chromosome number, karyology, rodent species
  • Lam Norbu*, Phuntsho Thinley, Ugyen Dechen, Bal Krishna Koirala, Tshering Dorji, Dawa Tshering, Pasang Dorji, Sonam Tobgay Pages 115-120

    A rarely recorded small carnivore, the Spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor), is among Asia’s least studied members of the family Prionodontidae. We report the first photographic evidence of its presence from the Tashigang Forest Division of eastern Bhutan. A non-invasive camera trap survey during the nationwide tiger survey in 2014–2015 and an opportunistic wildlife monitoring exercise in 2020 photo trapped the species on two independent occasions. On the first occasion the individual was recorded at the altitude of 2,308 m a.s.l. and the later at 2,952 m a.s.l. The main threats to the species in the region are not currently well known, highlighting the importance of additional studies to ascertain its distribution and status in the Tashigang Forest Division.

    Keywords: Camera trapping, small carnivore, threatened species
  • Subhajit Roy, Aniruddha Singhamahapatra, Amar Kumar Nayak* Pages 121-152

    The diversity and heterogeneity of Odonata was studied at 10 sites located across almost all parts of the Bankura district (except northwestern and northeastern boundary regions), in the state of West Bengal, India from July 2015 to June 2022. Analysis of variance and rarefaction was performed to study the β-diversity and compare the taxa abundance at the sites to understand the heterogeneity of Odonata observations. The seasonality of the species and their site-wise distribution were also studied. A total of 74 odonate species belonging to eight families, represented by 46 genera were recorded. The study adds 17 species to the known Odonata fauna of Bankura district, including the addition of Microgomphus torquatus (Selys) to the fauna of West Bengal. It also confirms the addition of Ictinogomphus kishori to the known Odonata fauna of West Bengal, which has been confused with and misidentified as Ictinogomphus distinctus for long, the latter being described from the state of West Bengal and is also found in the region adjacent to the study area. Most recorded odonates belonged to the family Libellulidae (29 species), followed by Coenagrionidae (19 species), Gomphidae (nine species), Platycnenididae (six species), Aeshnidae (five species), Macromiidae (three species), Lestidae (two species), and Chlorocyphidae (one species). Species diversity and abundance assessments are essential for conserving the habitats of the restricted and endemic (to peninsular India) species.

    Keywords: Diversity, damselfly, dragonfly, Ictinogomphus, Microgomphus, new record, Peninsular India