فهرست مطالب

Nano Structures - Volume:12 Issue: 4, Autumn 2022

Journal of Nano Structures
Volume:12 Issue: 4, Autumn 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 30
  • Ahmed Kareem Obaid Aldulaim *, Noora M. Hameed, Thulfeqar Ahmed Hamza, Ahmed S. Abed Pages 774-781
    Opportunistic oral fungal infections have become more common despite advancements in treatment, particularly in people who wear dentures. The most logical explanation of this infectious disease’s beginning is a confluence of yeast cells becoming stuck in irregularities in denture-relining and denture-base materials, poor oral hygiene, and a number of systemic variables. The growth and colonization of microorganisms are potential downsides of prolonged usage of soft liners. Clinical issues and material damage may emerge from Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonizing soft lining materials. The purpose of this study was to determine how adding fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCNPs) to a denture soft liner affected that liner’s capacity to prevent bacteria growth. From a soft denture liner, 48 samples were collected and divided into a test group and a control group, each of which received 5% by weight of FCNPs. Antimicrobial tests were performed on C. albicans, S. aureus, and a combination of biofilms. Prior to and following six months of storage in distilled water, results on the cell density count and adhesion assay were gathered. The findings demonstrated that the modified group’s antibacterial activity was significantly higher than that of the control group. Additionally, both before and after the storage period, the addition of 5% nanofiller considerably decreased the growth of C. albicans, S. aureus, and the biofilm mixture (P<0.05). Adding 5% by weight of FCNPs to the denture soft liner for up to six months significantly prevented the growth of C. albicans and S. aureus.
    Keywords: Candida albicans, Microbial colonization, Nanoparticle, Soft liner
  • Reza Ahadzadeh, Azadeh Asefnejad * Pages 782-798
    Gastric wound is the most common type of gastric ulcer with lots of complication when the protective mucosa inside the stomach becomes ineffective. The stomach produces strong acids to support digest food. As the mucosa loses its normal function, stomach acid may damage the stomach tissue and lead to stomach ulcers. Therefore, the need to develop new therapies with controlled function is well required in which one of the new solutions is to use magnetic hydrogels. In this regard, cobalt nanoparticles (Co-NP) were synthesized using molds made by anodizing technique and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were loaded on gelatin hydrogel containing penaprazole. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to examine the morphology, functional group, and microstructure analysis of the samples. The EDS results indicate that the amount of Fe for both samples is in the range of 3-5 wt%. Also, investigation of magnetic properties of particles was performed using vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) test. The magnetization of sample A was 11.83 emu/g, which did not increase or decrease significantly compared to the value of sample B, 11.61 emu/g. Drug release occurred in about 70% within 48 hours and the effect of increasing gelatin on hydrogel on the rate of swelling was investigated. The obtained results indicated that with increasing the amount of gelatin, swelling significantly increased.
    Keywords: Cobalt-magnetic nanoparticles, Magnetic-Gelatin hydrogel, Pantoprazole
  • Zahraa A. Al-Ajeeli *, Marim Alwan, Yasir Salam Karim, Muataz Mohammed Al-Taee, Ahmed S. Abed, Bashar Rasim Karim, Haider Hussain Jlood Pages 799-806
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver cancer, accounts for approximately 90% of all liver cancer cases. Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where hepatitis B infection is common and many people are infected from birth, are the regions with the highest incidence of HCC cases and the lowest post-treatment survival rates. In order to treat rabbits with HCC, this study evaluated the anticancer activity of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) to that of cisplatin (CDDP). Measurement of antioxidant activity against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue was used to assess the effectiveness of PtNP therapy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were all measured. In addition to assessing the liver tissue’s cytochrome c, caspase-3, and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, liver function tests have been also performed. The relative quantification of the genes for tumor protein p53, matrix metallopeptidase 9, and B-cell lymphoma 2 had also been carried out using complete RNA extraction from biopsies of liver tissue. Since it improved the study’s variables to those of typical control animals, the results demonstrated that PtNPs are more effective than CDDP in treating rabbit HCC brought on by DEN. In histological investigations of the DEN group treated with PtNPs, such results were well acknowledged. This suggests, therefore, that PtNPs can act as a promising agent for the treatment of HCC and could therefore interest future investigations.
    Keywords: Diethylnitrosamine, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Liver function, Platinum nanoparticles
  • Nikta Alvandi, Zahra Asgari Asgari, Parisa Bazargannia Bazargannia, Yasmin Sadat Boushehri Sadat Boushehri, Neda Esfandiari * Pages 807-825
    In 2019, a new member of Coronavirus family, SARS-CoV-2, was appeared as a global pandemic and could infect 213 countries all over the world. Although some well-known companies have discovered SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, there is still not certain treatment in the world, especially for mutated species of this family. In addition of vaccine production, there are some antiviral or immunosuppression drugs that can reduce inflammation or interrupt one of the viral entrance steps to the cells. Now in this situation, nanoparticles because of their interesting features, such as the capability of being targeted to SARS-CoV-2 and the ultra-low detection limit  can be considered as a novel treatment method of SARS-CoV-2 or even as reduction factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. This review describes initially SARS-CoV-2 structure, internalization, and replication, along with its immunological responses and cell signaling that can be happened in the cells. Then, the role of nanotechnology in drug delivery toward SARS-CoV-2 and its detection are explained by gathering every research paper that studied SARS-CoV-2.
    Keywords: Detection, Nanoparticles, SARS-CoV-2, treatment, Vaccines
  • Muslim Idan Hamil *, Khamael Abdulwahid, Mundher AL-Shakban Pages 826-841
    In this research Ti6Al4V alloy will coated with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and nanohydroxyapatite composite. The coating will be achieved by electrophoretic deposition using solution a consist that of 1 gm PEEK and 6 gm nanohydroxyapatite in 50 ml of absolute ethanol and 0.2 gm iodine. The samples were deposited and immersed in SBF for5, 10, and15 minutes, then heat treated at 250 ºC for 1hr. under air atmosphere in the furnace. The samples that will tested by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and corrosion test will include open circuit potential (OCP), polarization curve (tafel) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples will be immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 2 weeks. The sample will test by XRD and SEM and corrosion test and will include open circuit potential (OCP), polarization curve (tafel) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) again to evaluate the results of the osseointegration and corrosion characteristics.
    Keywords: Corrosion Ti6Al4V alloy, Electrophoretic, nanohydroxyapatite, Polyetheretherketone
  • Nassar Al-Isawi *, Ruaa Mahmood, Rusul Ghazi, Amal Kazem Al Masoudi Pages 842-849
    Using green chemistry is an attractive proposed method for making nano photocatalysts for the photodegradation of organic pollutants. This work introduces the novel magnetic green nickel ferrite for the removal of dyes from wastewater. In this regard, green nickel ferrite nanostructures were prepared through a wet chemical route. The peppermint extract was utilized for the engineering of shape and size. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed the formation of pure nickel ferrite with a desirable crystalline structure. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) approved that the peppermint extract leads to the formation of regular and uniform nickel ferrite. The obtained hysteresis loop from the vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) showed the superparamagnetic behavior of prepared nickel ferrite. The optical property is a key factor for photocatalytic activity. So UV-Vis spectroscopy was applied for characterizing the optical properties of the sample. The optical band gap of prepared nickel ferrite was calculated 2.88 eV. Finally, the prepared green nickel ferrite was applied to remove rhodamine B and methylene blue from the water solution. The results showed that prepared nickel ferrite can be introduced as a promising candidate for the removal of organic pollutants. The prepared nano photocatalyst could photodegrade 71.6% and 84.2% of rhodamine B and methylene blue under visible light.
    Keywords: Green synthesis, Magnetic nanoparticles, Optical properties, Organic pollutant, photocatalyst
  • Ghader Hosseinzadeh * Pages 850-858
    In the current study, an innovative hydrothermal method was proposed for synthesis of the 0D/1D heterojunction nanocomposite of SrTiO3/ZnO from the combination of ZnO nanorod, SrTiO3 nanoparticle, for the first time. The prepared nanocomposite was fully characterized by XRD, FESEM, DRS, PL, and Mott-Schottky analysis and was applied for the first time for photocatalytic Hydrogen production under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results revealed that, the heterojunction sample had better photocatalytic performance than pure SrTiO3 and ZnO samples, and 25 mmol hydrogen molecule can be produced per gram of this heterojunction nanocomposite during 3 hours irradiation time. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of this heterojunction is attributed to the decreasing of the charge carrier’s recombination rate, and enhanced visible light harvesting. Moreover, based on the results from experiments and Mott-Schottky calculations a type II charge transfer mechanism revealed to be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance. In this mechanism, the photoinduced electrons on conduction band of SrTiO3 nanoparticle migrate to the conduction band of ZnO nanorod, and the photoinduced holes on the valence band of ZnO nanorod migrate to the valence band SrTiO3 nanoparticle, which results in the decreasing of the charge carrier’s recombination rate.
    Keywords: Heterojunction, Hydrogen, photocatalyst, SrTiO3, ZnO
  • Rusul Mohammed, Raheem Kadhim, Nassar Al-Isawi * Pages 859-869
    In this research, The effect of substrate temperature was studied at different temperatures 250, 350 and 450 ⁰C. Structural properties of the films were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The X-ray diffraction results showed that all the prepared films were polycrystalline, orthorhombic in structure, and a preferred orientation (301),(602) and (111) . The crystallinity of the thin film (SnS) increases with the increase in the temperature (substrate). The electrical properties showed all thin films p-type and D.C conductivity measurements showed that the conductivity increased with increasing temperatures and I-V characteristics were also studied under dark.
    Keywords: Chemical spray technique, Electrical properties, I-V characteristics, Structural properties, Tin Sulfide
  • Neda Aryan, Mohsen Behpour *, Ali Benvidi, Fereshteh Jookar Kashi, Mostafa Azimzadeh, HamidReza Zare Pages 870-881

    The main reasons for the failure of titanium implants are insignificant infection with cataracts and ossoeintegration. In this paper, the production of titanium dioxide nanotubes on a titanium substrate by electrochemical anodization method is a suitable substrate for nanocomposite coatings. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer coating on the surface of titanium dioxide nanotubes increases biocompatibility and controls long-term drug release kinetics. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer coating is a biodegradable polymer that controls drug release. Polymer coatings on the surface of titanium dioxide nanotubes also increase the corrosion resistance of titanium dioxide nanotubes. Using gentamicin (gen) as an antibiotic increased the antimicrobial susceptibility of the implant. Electrochemical results show that the simultaneous coating of two polymers of polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol increased the corrosion resistance of the implant, and its corrosion current (1.6843 × 10-6 A/cm2) decreased. Microbial results showed that the sample of titanium dioxide nanotube coated with gentamicin had the highest antimicrobial properties and the lowest optical density (0.5). Because when titanium dioxide nanotubes are co-layered with polymer in addition to gentamicin, it causes the drug to show less antimicrobial properties. The cytotoxicity results show that the sample of titanium dioxide nanotubes coated with polyethylene glycol and the drug has the highest cell viability percentage (99.5%) because gentamicin has high antimicrobial properties for the cell and polyethylene glycol polymer has low antimicrobial properties for cells.

    Keywords: corrosion, Local drug delivery, Titanium dioxide nanotubes, Titanium implants
  • Hajer T. Hashim, Mahdi M. Mutter *, Souad G. Khalil, Ghassan A. Naeem Pages 882-891
    In this paper, copper doped nickel oxide as the thin films have been synthesized by a sol-gel spin coating method for gas sensing application. The ratios of Cu –doped were (1, 2, and 3) %wt. The characterization of obtained films was investigated in detail of the structural, morphological surface, optical properties, and sensing properties of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gases. The crystallinity was confirmed by the x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The surface morphology is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The NiO: Cu films have a polycrystalline with a cubic structure phase. The results of AFM showed the roughness and grain size distribution decreased from (13.56-22.71) nm, and (2.56-5.21) nm, respectively. The optical property showed that the highest absorption of the obtained films was 0.739 to the 1%Cu sample and the bandgap decreased from (3.31 to 3.01) eV with increasing Cu doped. The results of sensing analysis showed the doping of NiO film with Cu was suitable for gas sensing applications where the electrical conductivity of NiO was an enhancement.
    Keywords: AFM, Copper-doped, NiO thin films, Optical properties, Sensing properties, Sol-gel technique, XRD
  • Ahed Kadhim *, Abdulazeez Al-Ogaili, Khalid Abass Pages 892-897
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag) are of interest because of the unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, electrical, and magnetic properties) which can be incorporated into antimicrobial applications, biosensor materials, composite fibers, cryogenic superconducting materials, cosmetic products, and electronic components. Silver nanoparticles are extensively used for biomedical applications due to the antibacterial and antiviral properties. Polymer blend films were prepared by mixing of polyacrylamide (PAAm) and polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000), with different contents of Ag nanoparticles by casting method. The diffusions of Ag nanoparticles within the mixture were examined using optical microscopy. The optical microscopic images showed that good` diffusions of nanoparticles with some agglomerations. Analysis of the structural properties is the focus of this research for polymer nanoparticles (PAAm-PEG-Ag) films and the study of the effect of the nanomaterial and its diffusion on the mixture. Analysis of the structural properties is the focus of this research for polymer nanoparticles (PAAm-PEG-Ag) films and the study of the effect of the nanomaterial and its diffusion on the mixture.
    Keywords: Ag Nanoparticle, OM, PAAm, PEG, SEM
  • Saber Ghasemi Karaj-Abad, Elham Eslamian, Mojtaba Abbasian, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh *, Esmail Vessally, Solmaz Esmaeily Shoja Bonab Pages 898-913
    In this research, a novel strategy for preparation of a flame retardant cotton fabric with a covalently attached diethyl (acryloyloxy) ethylthiophosphoramidate (DEAETPN) through surface initiated ATRP was investigated. Initially, new phosphorus containing flame retardant monomer (nitrogen and sulfur (DEAETPN) was prepared by reacting (2-hydroxy-ethyl)-thiophosphoramidic acid O, O’-diethyl ester with α-chlorophenyl acetyl chloride as an initiator. The initiator for ATRP using our novel method was covalently linked onto the cotton surface fibers. For this purpose, the surface of cotton fibers based-cellulose was modified with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane - a silane coupling agent. This functionalized cotton was then reacted with α-chlorophenyl acetyl chloride to prepare the Cotton-APTES-Cl macroinitiator. The metal-catalyzed radical polymerization of DEAETPN with macroinitiator was carried out in the presence of CuBr / 2, 2/-bipyridine (BPy) catalyst system in THF solvent at 70˚C to obtain poly (DEAETPN) segments grafted chlorinated cotton. Finally, the resulting nanocomposite obtained from Cotton-g-P (DEAETPN) graft polymer with montmorillonite modified in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was prepared by a solution intercalation method. The chemical structure of all prepared compounds was confirmed by different techniques such as spectroscopy: FT-IR, 1HNMR, TEM, and SEM. The compound thermal behavior was also evaluated by DSC and TGA.
    Keywords: Atom transfer living radical polymerization, Clay, cotton fabric, Flame retardant, Nanocomposite, Poly diethyl (acryloyloxy) ethylthiophosphoramidate
  • Iman A. Mohammed Ali, Khamael Ibrahim Abdulwahid, Mohammed K. Khalaf * Pages 914-920
    Nanocrystalline Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) films were deposited on glass substrates by Radio frequency sputtering technique with different power of argon plasma. The influence of acquired thickness of sputtered films on optical characteristics was investigated. The influence of preparation conditions on thin film thickness was identified, is highly influenced by the argon discharge plasma's sputtering power. UV-Visible transmittance spectra indicated the optical characteristics, and the bandgap energy was calculated. The films were discovered to have a direct allowed transition after optical absorption investigations. The direct bandgap energy was found to decrease as sputtering power increases along with film thickness. The slight decrease has been attributed to the increasing diffusion impurities which occupy interstitial sites between selenium atoms. The dielectric constants, extinction coefficient, and refractive index generally increased with increase in films thickness due to increased density of the deposited films as a result of sputtering power increasing. The results showed good optical properties of the films deposited at 100ᴼC using the RF sputtering technique which is suitable to use as an active layer in thin-film-based photoelectric cells.
    Keywords: Cadmium Selenide, Optical properties, RF Sputtering, Thin films
  • Muaamar Idan *, Raheem Hassainn, Mohammed Mohammed Pages 921-931
    The compound cadmium, magnesium and cobalt sulfide was prepared in liquid form at the concentration of each of them respectively (0.1, 0.5 and 0.5) M. Where all the films were prepared CdS, CdS:Mg , CdS:CO , CdS:Mg:CO using spray pyrolysis thermochemical technique. Solutions were deposited on glass bases at a fixed settling temperature of 450 °C and at a fixed spray rate of 15 sprays within 15 minutes. The thickness of the films that were prepared was 150 nm. Results showed that they are polycrystalline, and their grain size decreases when cobalt and magnesium are added to the cadmium sulfide compound, while the width of the curve increases with atomic FHWM because it is an inverse relationship between the grain size and full width at half maximum (FHWM). Also, the results showed that all the prepared films have high surface homogeneity and are free of cracks and needle holes that induce films during their preparation. In addition, results scanning electron microscope showed that the particle size decreases when cobalt and magnesium are added to the cadmium sulfide compound, and this result is identical to the results of X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of all the prepared films were studied, where the absorbance was measured as a function of wavelength and the absorption coefficient was calculated from the absorbance spectrum, as well as the energy gap values were calculated. The results showed that the absorbance spectrum behaves visually similar to all the prepared films and that the absorbance values decrease when cobalt and magnesium are added to the cadmium sulfide compound. While the results of the absorption coefficient showed that it behaves similar to the absorption spectrum due to the direct relationship between them, in addition to that, the values of the absorption coefficient showed that it is greater than (10000/cm), and this means that direct electronic transitions occur. By knowing the absorption coefficient, the values of the direct energy gap were calculated, and it was shown that its values increase when cobalt and magnesium are added to the cadmium sulfide compound.
    Keywords: Cadmium Sulfide, Cobalt, Magnesium, Optical properties
  • Navabeh Nami Chemazi *, Omekolsoom Shabani, Rahimeh Hajinasiri, Masoumeh Hosseinzadeh Pages 932-947
    (MWCNTs)-COOH/Fe3O4-CaO magnetic nanostructure was employed for the high-yield synthesis of hexahydroacridine-1,8-dione derivatives via three-component reaction of dimedone, unprotected sugars, and aniline or 4-bromoaniline in ethanol under reflux conditions.  (MWCNTs)-COOH/Fe3O4-CaO was prepared by COOH functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-COOH with Fe3O4-CaO nanoparticles in the presence of FeSO4 and eggshell. This heterogeneous hybrid nanostructure, (MWCNTs)-COOH/Fe3O4-CaO, was determined by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDX, FT-IR, and TGA. The potential application of this covalently linked basic catalyst was also investigated as an efficient, recyclable, and heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of hexahydroacridine-1,8-dione. The condensation of dimedone with unprotected sugars and aniline or 4-bromoaniline in the presence of a catalytic amount of (MWCNTs)-COOH/Fe3O4-CaO magnetic nanostructure gave hexahydroacridine-1,8-dione derivatives in good yields. The products were identified by FT-IR, NMR spectra, and elemental analysis. The catalyst was separated by an external magnet from the reaction mixture, washed, and dried at 100 °C for 2 h. The recovered catalyst was then re-entered into a fresh reaction mixture and recycled 5 times without considerable loss of activity.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous catalyst, Hexahydroacridine-1, 8-dione, (MWCNTs)-COOH, Fe3O4-CaO, Magnetic nanomaterial
  • Mohammed Al Hashimi *, Buraq Mosawi, Burak Kadem, Yaqub Rahaq Pages 948-958
    The study shows how the solution processed bulk-heterojunction solar cells can exhibit better performance on the basis of a low-bandgap polymer combined with a fullerene derivative. Co-solution is used to blend the dopant single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with poly (3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at 0% to 1% concentrations. We use Carrier mobility measures to show that an increase in doping concentration causes an increase in hole conductivity and mobility. This was shown in the XRD studies and established through the absorbance spectra that shows the specific 600 nm shoulder. The study demonstrates that it is possible to improve the open circuit voltage and short circuit current of the relevant solar cells by doping at a concentration of 0.5%, which leads to increased power conversion efficiencies. The improvement in performance is explained with respect to trap filling because of the higher carrier density and lower recombination that is associated with better mobility.
    Keywords: P3HT, PCPM, SEM, Solar Cell, SWCNTs, XRD
  • Hussein Ali Mohammed, Abdulkarim Ziedan Khalf, Malak Jaafar Ali *, Waled Mohammed Desoky Pages 959-967
    Semiconductor 2DEG with scanning hall probe microscopy Probe devices technique have been employed in the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconductor to explore for new phases of vortex matter in single crystals. Josephson vortices (JVs) and pancake vortices (PVs) are two orthogonal forms of flux structures that are created in the crossing lattices regime of these highly anisotropic superconductors when the magnetic fields are slanted (JVs and PVs). Studying the interaction of JV-PV material with extremely high in-plane fields has been done using SHPM technology. As a result of both in plane and out of plane fields, the spacing of JV chains has been measured. A surprising discovery is that the JV chain spacing is not simply dependent on the in plane field, as determined reliably, and that the functional anisotropic, , γ_eff, is highly dependent on the out of plane field strength. Furthermore, the Josephson vortices stack spacing displays noticeable sawtooth-like oscillations as a function of the out of plane field while the in plane field is fixed. In extremely anisotropy cuprate superconductors with large Josephson vortex stack densities, these observations are revealing previously unknown features of crossing vortex lattics.
    Keywords: BSCCO single crystal, Crossing vortex lattices Josephson vortices, Pancake vortices, Scanning hall probe microscopy
  • Maryam Malmir * Pages 968-974
    Metallic nanostructures have attracted much attention from scientists due to their numerous applications in many areas of physical sciences, chemical sciences, and life sciences. This study showed that by controlling the shape and dimensions of the nanostructures, surface chemistry and their biocidal and antibacterial activities can be managed.In this study sculptured thin films with L- and helical pentagon-shaped were produced by the glancing angle deposition method. in this method by using an angle between the boat of the sample and substrate and simultaneously rotating the substrate about the azimuthal (or normal) axis, the sculptured nanorods were made, this is the creative physical way to produce nanorods with desired shape and porosity. The morphology and structure properties of these thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial properties of the films against microorganisms such as Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, and Candida albicans PTCC 5027 were studied using the so-called diffusion assay method. Sculptured thin film with HP-shaped showed higher antibacterial activity against all of the studied microorganisms than L-shape one. This may be because of increasing the surface-to-volume ratio and higher surface roughness as well as the high intensity of the Ag(111) orientation. Both of the structures have the most antibacterial effect on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 bacteria, the ZOI is 3.90 cm for L-shaped and 5.87 cm for HP-shaped sculptured thin film, respectively.
    Keywords: Antibacterial property, Glancing angle deposition, Sculptured thin films, Silver nanostructure
  • Sabah Auda Abdulameer *, Russul Thabit, Mohammed S. Hadi, Israa Taha Ibrahim, Shakir Mahmood Saeed, Athmar Ali Kadhim, Ahmed Abbas Sahib Pages 975-982
    Due to their suitable thermal, electrical, and chemical properties, epoxy composites are constantly employed in the multi-structure, construction, electronics, adhesive, and coating industries. The distribution and dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix are essential and influential factors in epoxy nanocomposites' mechanical properties. Utilizing baking kinetic equations to evaluate and optimize the manufacturing process. The widespread adoption of destruction kinetics modeling by engineers has decreased product costs and improved product quality. The curing reaction mechanism is unaffected by adding nanodiamonds modified with carboxyl groups to pure epoxy resin. Nanodiamond surface modification increases the curing reaction speed of epoxy nanomultistructure. The results of this study demonstrated that the presence of modified nanodiamond could increase the thermal stability of an epoxy nanocomposite hybrid sample. According to the findings, the activation energy of nano-multi structures modified with 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% nanodiamond by weight decreased by 11.58, 18.95, and 22.96%, respectively. In nano-multi structures modified with 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% nanodiamond by weight, the wear rate decreased by 83.14, 93.10, and 94.14%, respectively; the friction coefficient decreased by 46.03, 52.08, and 54.34%, respectively. The current study examined the influence of nanodiamond addition on morphology, mechanical and rheological properties, and modeling of baking kinetics, degradation kinetics, and tribological properties.
    Keywords: Epoxy nanocomposites, Kinetics of degradation, Modified nanodiamonds
  • Reza Mesgarian, Amir Heidarinasab *, Alimorad Rashidi, Yahya Zamani Pages 983-998
    In this study, the possible usage of MIL-101 as an attracting adsorbent for natural gas dehumidification is investigated via static and dynamic water vapor adsorption. On this principle, MIL-101 nano-adsorbent with different types of additives were synthesized by solvothermal method. The framework and morphology of the adsorbents were characterized by SEM, PXRD and BET techniques. For these novel desiccants, higher regenerability and drying efficiency were acquired compared to those of the commercial silica gel and zeolite 3A. The results showed that the MIL-101 is an effective sorbent for drying the natural gas for which the water capacity at P/P0 = 0.9 was 1.41 wt.%(300-400% more than counterparts). The experiments confirmed that the nanoadsorbents for both type of powder and shaped forms are water stable, and no remarkable loss in adsorption capacity was observed even after tenth adsorption/desorption cycles. Thus, it could be simply regenerated at low temperatures.
    Keywords: Adsorption, MIL-101 Nanoadsorbents, Natural gas dehydration, Regeneration
  • Husam A. Khamees *, Muslim Abid Pages 999-1012
    A simple chemical technique and the sol-gel method were used to manufacture iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Conocarpus extract converts iron salts into IONPs. The process changes iron oxide NPs from FeCl2+FeCl3 to β-Fe2O3.β-Fe2O3 NPs remove methylene blue from water. SEM, UV-Vis, PL, and XRD were used to identify IONPs. Chemically produced β-Fe2O3 NPs have an average crystallite size of 10.910730 nm, while Sol-gel-produced NPs are 18.834940 nm. In the simple chemical procedure, the grain size was (4.4 to 205.7) nm and averaged 47.2 nm. In sol-gel, it was (9.1 to 308) nm and averaged 53 nm. Utilizing simple chemicals, the energy gap grew from 1.94 to 3.33 eV, and using sol-gel, it grew from 1.94 to 3.16 eV. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that sol-gel approach created β-Fe2O3 nanoparticles had a near band edge emission of 2.75 eV, while the simple chemical process had 2.72 eV. In this experiment, light-exposed NPs broke down MB dye photo catalytically. Sol-gel produces 77.2% degradation at 75 minutes for 3 mg and 88.6% at 150 minutes for 5 mg, while simple chemical produces 43.1% at 75 minutes for 3 mg and 51.7% at 150 minutes for 5 mg.
    Keywords: MB dye, Conocarpus Extract, IONPs, Photocatalytic activity, Sol-gel method
  • Yamamah Jawad Bahraluloom *, Russul Thabit, Hiba Rafid Kamal, Ibrahim Mourad Mohammed, Alaa S. Hussein, Ayoob Murtadha Alshaikh Faqri, Ahmed S. Abed Pages 1013-1020
    Increased demand for commodities as a result of the growing population has sped up industrialization. As a result of the expansion in industrial setups, there has been an increase in the generation of industrial waste. By polluting the water, air, and soil, these industrial pollutants seriously harm the ecosystem. Cyanide is one of the most significant environmental contaminants found in the sewage of various industries, and it can pollute water supplies in ways that are hazardous to both humans and the environment. There are numerous strategies to remove cyanide from aqueous media, however the majority of them are expensive. Consequently, this study’s objective is to remove cyanide utilizing nanocrystalline ZnO/NiO mixed metal oxide powder (ZnO@NiO). The influence of the adsorbent, initial cyanide concentration, contact time, and pH were evaluated in discontinuous phase for the removal of cyanide from aqueous media utilizing ZnO@NiO nanocrystals under varied conditions. Adsorption equilibrium were investigated in this study. The results of the study showed that the removal efficiency increases with the increase in retention time and the amount of adsorbent. The maximum amount of cyanide removal was obtained at pH = 10, retention time of 90 minutes, cyanide concentration of 2.5 mg/liter, and the adsorbent weight of 1 g, which was more than 98%.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Cyanide removal, Industrial effluents, Nano crystal
  • Noor Sabah Khadim, Hind M. Saleh *, Nisreen Abdulkareem Abdulaali Pages 1021-1033
    The current research was designed to study the adsorption of Cobalt Co (II) and Nickel Ni (II) on the surface of modified polyurethane-magnetic nanoparticles (PU-MNPs) as adsorbent. The adsorbent was characterized using a variety of techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Dispersive X-Ray Detection (EDX and) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Different parameters were studied to obtain the best results such as pH, contact time, the concentration of initial metals and temperature. The highest results were obtained at a pH of 5 for Cobalt ions, and at a pH of 7 for   Nickel ions. The minimum contact time was 120 min for Cobalt ions and 60 min for Nickel ions. The initial concentration was 150 mg/g for Co ions and 250 mg/g for Ni ions, and 300 agitation rpm speed at temperature 25±2 °C, which was 82% and 94% for Cobalt and Nickel ions respectively. The results showed that the adsorption follows the Lankmayr and Freundlich equations. It was noticed that the Cobalt Co (II) and Nickel Ni (II) ions both followed the Langmuir isotherms. The maximum adsorption of Co (II) was higher than that of Ni (II).
    Keywords: Adsorption, Cobalt (II) Ion, Magnetic nanoparticles, Nickel (II) ion, Polyurethane
  • Hussein M. Mohammad, Shaymaa I. Saeed, Luma M. Ahmed * Pages 1034-1048
    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) were synthesized by novel precipitation method as inverse spinel (Fe2O3. FeO). They are directly prepared without calcination under oxygen gas. The Fe3O4 NPs had been prepared by combining the iron sulfate solution with the aqueous mixture including sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate, without and with using various surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), triton X100, cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) and cetramide (CT) as templates.  The FT-IR analysis demonstrated the Fe-O octahedral and tetrahedral bending at 744 cm-1 and 598 cm-1 respectively. The XRD analysis discovered  the mean crystal size of  Fe3O4 NPs is smaller than that presence of surfactants, and its value increment from 8.5 nm for Fe3O4 NPs to 21.55 nm, 22.53 nm, 27.66 nm, and 27.72 nm for Fe3O4 + Triton X-100, Fe3O4 + CT, Fe3O4 + SDS, and Fe3O4 + CTAB, respectively. SEM revealed their samples are nanoparticles and aggregated together like broccoli.  The possibility of using Fe3O4 NPs as magnetic adsorbents to remove the eosin yellow dye from aqueous solutions was successes and economy, due to collect by magnets without need for a long time to separate with centrifuge or filter paper. The maximum chemisorption of dye was 94.48 % using Fe3O4 NPs + CT at shaking 1hour, because CT has a positive part as a hydrophilic moiety and the used dye is acidic nature so will attract and dye easy removal, and the reuse reached to five times with efficiency depressed to 75.61 %.
    Keywords: CTAB, Eosin Yellow Dye, Magnetite, Nanoparticles, SDS, Triton X 100
  • Tamara C. Tultabayeva, Urishbay Ch. Chomanov, Mukhtar Ch. Tultabayev, Gulzhan E. Zhumaliyeva, Gulmira S. Kenenbay, Aruzhan Y. Shoman *, Assiya K. Shoman Pages 1049-1058
    The aim of this work is to provide a brief introduction of antimicrobial lipids and their current status and challenges, and to present a detailed discussion of ongoing research efforts to develop nanotechnology formulations of fatty acids and monoglycerides that enable superior in vitro and in vivo performance. Examples of nano-emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and controlled release hydrogels are presented in order to highlight the potential that lies ahead for fatty acids and monoglycerides as next-generation antibacterial solutions. As a result of the research, the authors have developed a method for optimizing the composition and properties of the fat bases of milk and dairy products by mixing milk fat with non-dairy fats of various fatty acid groups. Studies on the chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of dietary fats have been carried out. The obtained data make it possible to theoretically substantiate the possibility of using animal and vegetable fats in the production of fat-containing dairy products with partial replacement of milk fat with vegetable oils, animal fats, or their mixtures, taking into account the formula for balancing the fatty acid composition. This method is available and convenient for use in production conditions.
    Keywords: Fatty acid, Nanoparticle, polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Manouchehr Behzadi *, Saghar Jarollahi, Maryam Ahsani Irvani, Davood Ghanbari Pages 1059-1066
    In the presence work we firstly synthesize silver nanoparticles by a green procedure using D. moldavica leaves extract. Nanoparticles were prepared by a simple precipitation method via aid of sun light irradiation in a short time about 15 min. morphology of the nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and for better estimation of grain size transmission electron microscopy was also applied. X-ray diffraction pattern approved crystallinity and purity of the silver nano products. Dynamic light scattering was used for measuring of the size distribution. Ultra violet-visible absorption illustrate the band gap of the prepared nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of silver nanostructures was evaluated against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli bacteria. The Kirby-bauer method was accomplished for determination of zone of inhibition.
    Keywords: antibacterial, Nanoparticles, Green synthesis, DLS
  • Amer A Sultan, Mohanad Y. Saleh *, Emad Farhan Ali Alkhalidi Pages 1067-1074
    Biological mineralization is the process by which living organisms form minerals to strengthen or harden existing tissues. It is considered a dynamic and complex lifelong process that is understood to be exceptionally common and is observed in all taxonomic kingdoms. Various structural features in mammals such as bone or enamel are the product of biomineralization. Controlling the process of biomineralization is considered the key to the future of conservative dentistry and the principle of minimally invasive dentistry. The purpose of the current research was to determine the effect of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano- HA) on the remineralization of in-situ induced enamel caries. The biomineralizing materials represented by nano-hydroxyapatite were synthesized from raw natural origin materials (bovine bones), the characteristics of this material were examined by, FTIR, XRD, SEM and FESEM before and after the remineralization of human teeth as a comparative study between the two materials. The XRD results displayed multiple diffraction peaks that indicate polycrystalline structures of the nanoparticles that compose the powder. The FTIR study resulted in bands at 562, 598, 960 and 1018 cm-1 belonging to phosphate groups (PO4)3 were found. These functional groups are characteristic of hydroxyapatite. All images released from the SEM revealed clusters of nano-particles with hexagonal structures and different sizes ranging from 18 to 34 nanometers in dimension. The results reflected the significant role of the synthesized nano- HA in fortifying the enamel layer of human teeth. It concluded that the natural origin of synthetic nano- HA had the potential to produce an enamel-like layer.
    Keywords: Biomineralization Demineralization, Enamel, Nano-hydroxyapatite
  • Maryam Aghamohammadsadegh, Abdolhamid Bamoniri *, Bi Bi Fatemeh Mirjalili Pages 1075-1085
    Azo compounds in addition to common uses in science and technology, is used as optical materials in the processing of molecular data, ion sensors, and biological applications. Primary aromatic amines are diazotized in an acid, and the subsequent coupling process can produce azo dyes. Supported Ti(V) catalyst is a powerful Lewis acid that is used to promote organic reactions. In this work, azo dyes were effectively synthesized using Nano-γ-Al2O3/Ti(IV) as a solid acid reagent. The heterogeneous nanoparticles were fully characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XRF, EDS, TGA, FESEM, TEM and BET techniques. This solid acid reagent enhances the coupling reaction of β-naphthol with aryl diazonium salt to form diazo dyes under solvent free grinding conditions. In this protocol, many aromatic amines with electron withdrawing or electron releasing groups are used to form azo dyes. Azo dye products are characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. This new synthetic method has the advantages of short reaction times, easy work-up and high yields.
    Keywords: Azo dyes, β-naphthol, Grinding condition, Nano-γ-Al2O3, Ti(IV), Solvent-free condition
  • Ghufran M.Shabeeb *, Rajaa M.Abdullah, Safa Nazar. R Pages 1086-1096
    A mechanochemical approach is used to make a polyaniline:AIcaulan clay nano composite in this study. The presence of a green color indicates the formation of polyaniline/clay. Thin sheets of iodine-doped polyaniline/clay that have been pre-prepared are used. The weight percent of iodine in the nanocomposite films was 16%, 33%, and 50% wt percent of the total weight of PANI/ clay. These as-deposited films were analyzed for physicochemical and optoelectronic features using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectra, and optical absorption spectra. FT-IR The chemical activity of both pure and iodine-doped thin polyaniline/clay sheets is then investigated using spectroscopic measurements.SEM images reveal an uneven distribution of grains throughout the subsurface, according to morphological analysis.The optical band gaps of the films are then investigated using absorption spectrum measurements. Indirect transitions' energy transition gaps are characterized and determined. The energy band gap will be shown to vary depending on the content of polyaniline and clay iodine. As iodine concentration rises, the optical band gap decreases from 3.47to 2.18eV.
    Keywords: Alcaulan clay, iodine doping, Mechanochemical method, Optical properties, Polyaniline
  • Seyed Mohsen Mousavi *, Masoumeh Chamack, Hanieh Fakhri Pages 1097-1107
    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) made of metal ions or clusters coordinated to organic ligands are classified as crystalline nano porous materials shaped in one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures. These materials have shown many applications in various aspects of technology. In this regard, applying of MOFs as promoters for semiconductor photocatalysts is one of promising applications. Thus, new photocatalyst hybrid material (CuO/ZnO/TMU-5) was synthesized from zinc-based metal-organic framework (TMU-5) and metal oxide composite (CuO/ZnO; containing ZnO and CuO oxides). Obtained materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses. The efficiency of the resulting materials was evaluated in photocatalytic processes for the removal of tetracycline contaminant from water. The results showed that CuO/ZnO/TMU-5 species showed higher photocatalytic activity comparing to pristine CuO/ZnO. UV-vis spectroscopy analysis revealed that coupling of TMU-5 to CuO/ZnO changes its band gap toward lower energy resulting in increase of the photocatalytic removal of organic pollutant under visible light.
    Keywords: Copper oxide, Metal-organic framework, photocatalyst, Tetracycline, Zinc oxide