فهرست مطالب

Chemical Methodologies
Volume:7 Issue: 2, Feb 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/09/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Fayyadh Abed Nashaan, Muna Sameer Al-Rawi * Pages 106-111
    Thiazolidine-4-one derivatives (IV)a,b containing 1,2,4-triazole rings linked to 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl moiety were designed, synthesized, and biological evaluated for the antibacterial/antifungal activities. These derivatives (IV)a,b were achieved from many sequence reactions. A multi-step reaction protocol was used that began with the first step involved a new and very fast one-pot solventless greener microwave-assisted method of synthesis galloyl hydrazide (I) from gallic acid and hydrazine hydrate. The galloyl hydrazide (I) was used as the starting materials for synthesizing new 5,5'-(4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl) bis (benzene-1,2,3-triol) (II) via a reflux cyclization process of galloyl hydrazide in DMSO. On the other hand, new Schiff base (III)a,b was prepared via condensation reaction of the symmetrical 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole compound (II) and substituted aromatic aldehyde in ethanol. Finally, the treatment of schiff bases (III)a,b was done with thioglycollic acid in refluxing dioxin by using zinc chloride (II) to afford the target thiazolidine-4-one derivatives (IV)a,b. The structure identification of the newly compounds (I-IVa,b) was elucidated by FT-IR,1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The new synthetic derivatives were subjected for antibacterial/ antifungal activity by using two type of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria also test it against to Candida albicans as a fungi sample.
    Keywords: Gallic acid Galloyl hydrazine MW-assisted method Thiazolidine-4-one 1, 4-triazole
  • Khulood A. Saleh, Yaman Khalid Sadiq * Pages 112-122
    Removing heavy metal ions from organic contaminants by industrial wastewater treatment systems is a difficult challenge. In this study, organic contaminants were degraded using functional composite hydrogels with photo-Fenton reaction activity. Chromium, chitosan, Fe3O4, and other ingredients go into the making of the hydrogel. Following are some factors that changed photo-Fenton activity: (pH, H2O2 conc., temp, and exposure period). AFM was used to analyze the composite's morphology and typical diameter (AFM). It investigated how much chromium adsorbs on chitosan (BET). After 60 minutes of UV exposure, The MB dye degradation in the Cr6+/Fe3O4/CS hydrogel composite was 90.4%.
    Keywords: degradation, Adsorption, MB dye, CS, Fe3O4 composite, AFM, BET
  • Shakhawan Beebany *, Saad Salem Jasim, Mohammad M.Al-Tufah, Sevgi Samih Hidayet Arslan Pages 123-136
    A new series of 5,3-substituted-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazole derivatives (P1-10) have been synthesized via a cyclization reaction of substituted chalcones with succinichydrazide. Structures of the prepared compounds were identified by FT-IR, and some of them were characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for proton 1H-NMR and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for carbon 13C-NMR. The heat of formation (HF) and steric energy (SE) have been calculated using (MOPAC) and (MM2) methods, respectively, using (CS-Chemoffice-version 6.0) program. Additionally, the biological activity for final products has been evaluated against gram-positive (staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis) and negative bacteria (escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa).
    Keywords: Pyrazole, Cyclization, Succinicdihydrazide, Chalcones, Butadione, Antibacterial Effect
  • Hiba Modar Shihab *, Asmaa Mohammed Noori Khaleel Pages 137-155
    Synthesis of a synthetic ligand (L) by mixing histidine and boric acid in molar ratios of 2:1. The complexes of transition metal were prepared by reacting CoCl2.6H2O, NiCl2.6H2O, and CuCl2.H2O with (L) in molar ratios of 2:1 (L:M). All produced compounds are investigated by using spectral methods UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and AAS. In addition to the melting point, thermal analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurement, micro elemental analysis, and determination of chloride content. All complexes of transition metal were proposed to have octahedral geometries. Every component was an electrolyte as well as a paramagnetic one. All the complexes of transition metal produced were shown to be antibacterial and antifungal against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and the fungus Candida. The anti-cancer activities of the ligand and copper complex were also studied.
    Keywords: Amino acid, Histidine, Boric acid
  • Shatha Jameel Alkhalidy *, Kifah Saed Dosh Pages 156-166
    Casein is a biologically and physiologically complex fluid that contains proteins, water, fat, lactose, minerals, and vitamins as its principal constituents that might support the treatment of human body. Isolation of casein using urea and salts was used. Then, casein was partially purified using DEAE-Cellulose and Sephadex-G-75. The hydrolysis degree was estimated after incubation with pepsin, trypsin, and a mixture of them. αs-CN was partially purified with one peak after DEAE-cellulose ion exchange and there is also one peak that appeared after the Sephadex G-25 gel filtration technique. The maximum hydrolysis was gained after 8 hours of incubation with hydrolyzing enzymes. αH hydrolysates of αs-casein showed that the inhibition rate reached about 67% after 8 hours of incubation with a mixture of pepsin and trypsin with a hydrolysis concentration of 0.114 μmol. Results showed that casein extracted from sheep milk can be highly purified using both ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Hydrolysis of αs-CN produces low molecular weight protein using pepsin and trypsin and a mixture of them. The αs-CN has a high inhibition rate of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).
    Keywords: Casein, Sheep milk, Amino acid, Hydrolysis, Ion Exchange, Gel filtration
  • Basma A. Hadi, Hiba H. Ibraheem * Pages 168-182
    Substituted pyridine derivatives have been synthesized by reacting 3-acetyl-2H-chromen-2-one with suitable aldehydes using ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate to afford 3-acetyl-4-( substituted -phenyl)-6-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl) pyridin-2(1H)-one (2a-c). TLC has checked the homogeneity of all three synthesized compounds. Their IR, and 1H-NMR, which can reduce mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acids were investigated using weight loss measurements and surface detection techniques, with scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations utilized to identify the used surface technique. The inhibition efficiency was more significant than 99.62%. The formation of protective adsorption layers on the steel surface was credited with excellent inhibitor results. To better understand the inhibition process, quantum chemical calculations were used.
    Keywords: corrosion, weight loss, Synthesis, DFT, HOMO, LUMO