فهرست مطالب

Nuts - Volume:14 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
  • Volume:14 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/12/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Raquel P. F. Guiné *, Cátia Costa, Sofia G. Florença, Paula M. R. Correia Pages 1-18

    Chestnuts have been consumed in Portugal for immemorial times. These fruits are highly appreciated, not only due to their organoleptic characteristics but also due to their nutritional and functional values. For the nutrients to be more accessible and for the chestnuts to have better flavour and digestibility, it is necessary to heat, cook or roast them, for example. Chestnuts are a very versatile food, in terms of preparation, and can be cooked, roasted, as an accompaniment to dishes, replacing rice, pasta or potatoes, in the base of soups or the preparation of appetizing desserts and cakes. In Portugal the use of chestnuts to produce differentiated food products is traditional, but also new and innovative products are appearing on the market, either made with chestnuts or even with some residues of their processing, in the context of a circular economy. Examples of traditional usages of chestnut in Portugal include chestnut soup, or roasted chestnuts, which are typically consumed in the colder months of autumn and winter. In what concerns more modern trends, the use of chestnut flour to incorporate into a variety of foods, like bread, cookies or pasta is highlighted. This article explores the value of the chestnut sector in Portugal and the use of these fruits to obtain either traditional or innovative foods, such as bread, biscuits, pasta and beverages.

    Keywords: Candied chestnut, Chestnut bread, Chestnut drinks, Chestnut flour, Chestnut products, Dried chestnut
  • Nastaran Chavoshi, MohammadMehdi Marvizadeh *, Neda Fallah, Negin Rezaei-Savadkouhi, Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi Pages 19-31

    The aim of this research was to estimate the impacts of a combination of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and fennel essential oil (FEO) on the chemical and sensory properties of fresh raw Abbas Ali pistachio. The cassava starch/bovine gelatin biofilms with Nano-TiO2 (1, 3, and 5% w/w), and essential oil (1, and 3% w/w) were fabricated by the casting technique. The sensory and chemical properties and the growth of Aspergillus flavus were evaluated during three weeks of storage at 4°C. After 21-day conservation, Aspergillus flavus count of the control specimen was the highest whereas bionanocomposite film containing FEO enabled lower amounts of Aspergillus flavus population. RP-HPLC analysis findings represented that packaging with starch/gelatin had a positive effect on the aflatoxin B1 content of pistachio, and the lowest amount of aflatoxin B1 was related to the biofilm containing 5% Nano-TiO2/3% FEO. Sensory tests indicated that pistachios packaged with Nano-TiO2/essential oil had a significant effect on taste and general acceptability, and the highest score of sensory properties was related to the pistachio sample packaged with starch/gelatin/5% Nano-Tio2/3% FEO. Results showed that cassava starch/bovine gelatin film containing 5% Nano-TiO2/3% FEO and control sample had significantly higher and lower moisture and carbohydrate soluble content than the treatments. At last, the findings demonstrate that cassava starch/bovine gelatin/5% Nano-TiO2/3% FEO active film improved the chemical and sensory factors and had the positive effect on Aspergillus flavus population reduction of pistachio nuts; hence, it can be applied as biopackaging for fresh pistachio.

    Keywords: Antifungal, Aspergillus, Bionanocomposite film, Pistachio kernel, Sensory properties
  • Sohila Khojand, Mehrshad Zeinalabedini *, Reza Azizinezhad, Ali Imani, MohammadReza Ghaffari Pages 33-44

    To investigate the effects of cultivars on dry nut weight, kernel weight, oil content, and the main fatty acids of some cultivars and genotypes of almond, this study was conducted in 2019 in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The findings revealed that the influence of genotype on all measured traits is significant. The results of oil content showed that D124 had the highest values in terms of oil content. Also, examination of kernel weight shows that there are significant differences between cultivars. So that the highest amount of kernel weight is related to genotype D at 2.19 grams, while the lowest amount of kernel weight is related to A5-17genotype at 0.52 grams. The investigation of nut weight analysis showed that genotype D had the highest value (6.40grams). All the traits considered in this research can be said that the D124 genotype and cultivars of Sahand, Shahroud 6, Saba, and Ruby respectively had oil content of 62.24, 62.12, 61.62, 60.41 and. 60.29 percent. In total, regarding to the all traits considered in this study, genotype D124 in the amount of 62.24% and then cultivars, Sahand, Shahroud 6, Saba, Ruby with oil values of 62.12%, 61.62%, 60.41% and 60.29, respectively. Also, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid in D124, Sahand, Shahroud 6, Saba, and Ruby were (5.44, 73.30 and 21.14%), (4.85, 76.33, and 18.48%), (5.64, 80.11 and 14.31%), (5.30, 73.89 and 20.80%) and (5.21, 77.44, and 16.32%) respectively. These are identified as the best cultivars and genotypes in terms of food quality in the climatic conditions of Karaj, which can be used for nutritional or technical applications to provide conditions for almond production and cultivation development.

    Keywords: fruit, Pomology, production, Prunus dulcis
  • Natalia Kharabadze *, Nino Tsiklauri, Medea Burjanadze, Nona Chkhaidze Pages 45-59
    Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) (Stal, 1855) is an invasive, highly polyphagous, severe agricultural pest, that reduces the availability, quality, and value of hazelnut production. The most important method against H. halys is the use of resistant hazelnut varieties. The purpose of our work is to investigate the potential of hazelnut resistance to H. halys. Research objects are Georgian commercial varieties Berdznula (Corylus avellana) and Tita (Corylus pontica) in the condition of West Georgia. Hazelnut fruit shell thickness, qualitative and quantitative lignin contents and H. halys stylet length were determined by microscopic and biochemical methods, also H. halys and nut phenologies, and the degree of nut damage were evaluated according to the number of healthy kernels. It was demonstrated that overwintered insects and individuals of all ages of the first- and second-generation damage hazelnut fruit before the shell ripens, which is synchronized with the early stages of hazelnut fruit development. H. halys cannot damage the fruit after lignification of the pericarp.  Lignin content and damage intensity are inversely proportional to each other according to Pearson's correlation. Hazelnut resistance depends on the synchronous development of H. halys and hazelnut phenopases, and also on the time and quantity of lignin biosynthesis in hazelnut pericarp. According to the above-mentioned resistance markers, Berdznula is more resistant than Tita. Research results contribute to maintaining a healthy environment, sustainable crop production, and food security.
    Keywords: Hazelnut, Phenology, lignin, Resistance, Halyomorpha halys
  • Mohammad Abdollahi Ezatabadi *, Mahdi Basirat, Reza Sedaghat Pages 61-70
    In this study, we first identified the existing knowledge about temporal management of pesticide consumption. Then the growers view and performance in this regard was estimated. Comparing growers’ knowledge with experts’ idea, the pistachio producers score related to temporal management of pests control was calculated. Pistachio producers of Anar and Rafsanjan areas in Kerman province, Iran were considered as our study population. Using stratified random sampling method, a sample of 100 growers were selected. Pearson correlation, analysis of variance and regression were used to investigate the socioeconomic factors affecting growers’ knowledge and the effect of this knowledge on growers’ performance. The results showed that in the field of temporal management of pesticide use, growers’ knowledge is low. Investigating the factors affecting growers’ knowledge level showed that research, education and extension activities have had the significant effect on increasing knowledge of inputs temporal management. The results also showed that knowledge of temporal management pest control did not increase land use productivity (pistachio yield) but enhanced pesticide productivity. The amount of pesticide usage decreased by 0.477 l/ha/year, with increasing of each score to pest control knowledge. In other words, with increasing knowledge of pest control, not only the costs of spraying will be reduced, but it will also have environmental benefits. In short, current conditions are not suitable for precision agriculture application in Iranian pistachio orchards, but with increasing knowledge of growers, these conditions will be created.
    Keywords: pest, Pistachio, precision agriculture, Temporal management
  • Afsaneh Shool, Majid Esmaeilizadeh(New) *, HamidReza Roosta, Hossein Dashti Pages 71-93

    The annual consumption of soil potassium by pistachio trees is high. Since the clay soil absorbs potassium, the amount of potassium that can be exchanged or used by the tree in the soil solution is little, and every year this deficiency must be compensated by fertilizers. To evaluate the role of potassium in improving the nutritional elements of the leaves and nuts of two pistachio cultivars (‘Ahmad-Aghaei’ and ‘Kalleh-Qoochi’), four levels of potassium fertilizer were used (0, 200, 300 and 400 mg of potassium per liter of irrigation water) in a factorial experiment in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications. This experiment was performed on the ON and OFF branches in 2017 and 2018. The results showed that the application of potassium increased the amounts of nutritional elements in the leaf and nut. Specifically, the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were higher in the leaves of OFF branches, whereas the concentrations of calcium and magnesium were higher in the leaves of the ON branches. In both cultivars, the application of potassium increased the amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus in the leaf, as well as the potassium content in the nut. The amounts of calcium and magnesium in the leaf and the amount of calcium in the nuts were higher in the Kalleh-Qoochi cultivar. This treatment can be recommended when plants are in their OFF year, so that potassium can be reserve into the tissues until the ON year.

    Keywords: Ahmad-aghaei, Kalleh-Qoochi, Leaf potassium, Nut potassium, Nutritional balance