فهرست مطالب

Animal Diversity - Volume:4 Issue: 3, Sep 2022
  • Volume:4 Issue: 3, Sep 2022
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/12/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Namgay Dorji, Bal Krishna Koirala*, Tashi Phuntsho, Yeshi Tshering, Khandu Tshomo, Phuntsho Tobgay Pages 1-6

    The Great slaty woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus (Temminck) is a globally threatened bird species and has been categorized as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We report the first photographic evidence of M. pulverulentus from Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary (PWS), Sarpang district, in the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan. A group, comprising five individuals, of M. pulverulentus was sighted opportunistically at the study location on 19 April 2022. We recorded the nesting cavities actively used by M. pulverulentus in the forest habitat dominated by Sal trees (Shorea robusta). This study highlights the significance of protecting lowland forests, and mature Sal stands in particular, for conservation of this globally threatened species of bird.

    Keywords: Conservation, nesting cavity, Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary, Sal forest
  • Lutz Christian Maul* Pages 7-9

    The book by Boris Kryštufek and Georgy I. Shenbrot, published a few weeks ago, is an encyclopaedic masterpiece and up-to-date standard work on the rodent group of Arvicolinae Gray, 1821 (voles and lemmings) belonging to the family Cricetidae Fischer, 1817 (hamsters). The authors are two experts on these mammals, and are known worldwide by scientists working in mammalogy for their publications. In addition to countless individual articles, B. Kryštufek is best known for his monograph on the ‘Mammals of Turkey and Cyprus’, which he published together with Vladimír Vohralík (Kryštufek and Vohralík, 2001; 2005; 2009). Georgy Shenbrot wrote, among many other books and papers, mainly devoted to desert and steppe rodents, ‘An Atlas of the Geographic Distribution of the Arvicoline Rodents’ in co-operation with Boris Krasnov (Shenbrot and Krasnov, 2005). It is certainly no exaggeration to call the present book, reviewed here, a worthy, up-to-date successor to Hinton's classic ‘Monograph of Voles and Lemmings’ (Hinton, 1926) and Gromov and Polyakov's volume on ‘Voles (Microtinae)’ (Gromov and Polyakov, 1977) in the framework of the ‘Fauna SSSR’ series (which actually always represented the entire group worldwide). So, one can say that a fundamental work on voles appears about every 50 years.

    Keywords: Mammals fauna, Microtus, Northern Hemisphere, Rodentia, species, taxonomy
  • Lam Norbu*, Phuntsho Thinley, Norbu Jamtsho, Lekey Dorji, Pema Tenzin, Tandin Wangchuk, Ugyen Lhendup, Pasang Dorji, Zapa Dorji, Karma Jamtsho, Tshering Dorji, Tandin Jamtsho, Sangay Lodey, Ugyen Dechen Pages 10-22

    Hawkmoths are a charismatic, diverse group of moths that are well-studied worldwide. In this study, we explored and presented the first ever comprehensive hawkmoth checklist for Tashigang Forest Division, Bhutan with five new taxa records for the country. We conducted fauna exploration over a period of five years (2017–2021). Data were collected opportunistically from twelve different localities. Online database and the current literature on hawkmoths of Bhutan were referred to for correct species identifications and nomenclature. We recorded a total of 48 species belonging to 23 genera and four subfamilies. Macroglossinae was the most dominant subfamily with 29 species, followed by Smerinthinae with 14 species, Sphinginae with four and Langiinae with one species. Ampelophaga thomasi Kitching and Cadiou, Cechetra subangustata Rothschild, Macroglossum saga Butler, Rhagastis confusa Rothschild and Jordan, and Notonagemia analis R. Felder are here reported as representing five new records to Bhutan. Further investigation in the area and in other parts of Bhutan appear necessary to discover more hawkmoth species and reveal endemism.

    Keywords: Langiinae, Macroglossinae, Smerinthinae, Sphinginae
  • Kalyan Mukherjee* Pages 23-30

    This paper is reporting Evolvulus nummularius (L.) L. (Convolvulaceae) as a new larval host plant for Junonia orithya (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae) and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. and L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), as a new larval host plant for Virachola isocrates (Fabricius) (Lycaenidae) from Raibaghini, Bankura, West Bengal, India.

    Keywords: Evolvulus nummularius, Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, new host plant, Nymphalidae
  • Bharat Sharma, Rajeev Joshi*, Sambandam Sathyakumar Pages 31-43

    Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus Shaw), one of four species of bear found on the Indian sub-continent, has a geographical distribution across Nepal, India, and Sri Lanka. It is listed as Vulnerable under the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species due to the rapid decline of the global population. This decrease in Melursus ursinus presents a need for comprehensive research to predict and understand the distribution pattern. The present study predicts the habitat suitability and distribution pattern of M. ursinus in the Chitwan National Park, Nepal and its buffer areas. The entire study area was divided into 4 X 4 km grids. Within each grid, 10-meter radius plots were sampled for bear signs and habitat evaluation occurred at every 250 meters along a transect (1–1.5 km). Data on direct and indirect signs (diggings, pugmarks, scrapes, and scats) and other habitat use parameters of M. ursinus were collected. The study was carried out during the dry season (January to March 2019) in almost 57 grids of the study area. The calculated habitat suitability for M. ursinus determined that 25% of the total area was suitable, and the remaining 75% was less suitable habitat. Drainage, followed by slope and elevation, were found to be the important variables affecting the distribution of species in the study area and this model was found to be 88.5% accurate in terms of explaining the dependent variables. The findings of the present research will be useful for park managers, researchers, and academicians in the formulation of an appropriate conservation plan for this charismatic mammal species.

    Keywords: Buffer zone, distribution pattern, habitat threat, line transect, MaxEnt, Sloth bear
  • Jigme Tenzin*, Yeshi Phuntsho, Phuntsho Thinley, Karma Tenzin Pages 44-52

    In Bhutan, protected areas constitute 51.4% of the total geographical area, out of which 7.7% is designated biological corridors (BCs) that serve as connectors between protected areas. The biological corridor (BC-03) constitutes a total area of 407.7 km² and connects Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary in the west, Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park and Royal Manas National Park in the north and southeast through Sarpang–Tsirang District landscapes. However, most BCs, including BC-03, lack comprehensive inventories of mammal species. We conducted joint rapid biodiversity assessment (RBA) using camera trap surveys from November 2019 to February 2020. Our findings from BC-03 include records of 26 mammal species belonging to 11 families in five orders. Nearly half of these species are listed as Endangered, Vulnerable, or Near Threatened. Overall, the BC-03 landscape was found to support 77.8% of the mammal species of Sarpang District and 21.7% of Bhutan (as per Biodiversity Statistics of Bhutan, 2017). Therefore, BC-03 is of conservation interest. Comprehensive conservation plans, periodic monitoring of keystone species, and restrictions on the expansion of cardamom plantations in BCs are suggested for securing wildlife habitats and ensuring long-term persistence of keystone species, including within BC-03 in southcentral Bhutan.

    Keywords: Biological corridor, camera trap, mammal species, Sarpang–Tsirang landscapes, threatened species
  • Vasantkumar M. Rabari*, Arzoo Malik, Nishith Dharaiya Pages 53-61

    Knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of terrestrial mammals is imperative in the design of conservation strategies in protected areas. There is a lack of information available on the occurrence and abundance of wild mammals in the Balaram-Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat of India. Thus, the present study was carried out to understand the relative abundance of the wild mammalian species in the Balaram-Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary via camera trapping. We used day/night camera traps to record the presence of diurnal and nocturnal mammals in the Balaram-Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary. We plotted 11 cameras near water bodies for 20 days from 6 January 2020 to 26 January 2020. A total of 268 photographs of wild animals were captured. Among the photos 13 wild mammalian species were identified, including the Rusty-spotted cat Prionailurus rubiginosus (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), which is reported for the first time in this area. The Relative Abundance Index (RAI) of each identified species was calculated to understand the species richness, providing baseline data for species occupancy.

    Keywords: Arawali Mountain Range, mammalian diversity, North Gujarat, Relative Abundance Index (RAI)
  • Azadeh Rezaei, Hoda Khaledi*, Ahmad Savari, Babak Dostshenas, Hosein Mohammad Askari, Rezvan Attari Pages 62-69

    Macrobenthos play an important role in aquatic ecosystems because they mineralize, promote, and mix the oxygen flux into the sediment, which recycles the organic matter. Sampling of macrobenthos populations for this study was carried out in the supratidal, mid tidal, low tidal, and subtidal regions of the Dayyer, Ouli, and Kangan stations in the Persian Gulf during both cold and warm seasons. Water parameters such as the temperature, salinity, pH, turbidity, and electrical conductivity were assessed, and were indicative of moderate water quality. Representatives of a total of 31 taxonomic families were identified during both seasons, of which 59 were identified to genus and species. The highest average number of species was observed in the low tidal region of Kangan in the warm season at 16.6 ± 1.2 species, and the lowest number was observed in the supratidal regions of Ouli and Kangan in the cold season at 6.6±2 species. The species diversity, as calculated using the Shannon–Wiener Index (H’), showed a significant difference between sampling seasons and sampling stations, as well as pollution level at the beaches. The species diversity index in Ouli, Dayyer, and Kangan stations also differed between the seasons. In both seasons, the Kangan station showed the highest species diversity while the Dayyer station showed the lowest. These results reveal a rich species diversity of macrobenthos and good water quality at the three beaches in the Persian Gulf. Re-assessment of species diversity during an environmental impact assessment prior to urban development should be further conducted to ensure that the

    community is not significantly affected and the ecosystem remains intact.

    Keywords: Species diversity, macrobenthos, Shannon–Wiener Index, water quality