فهرست مطالب

Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences - Volume:21 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
  • Volume:21 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/02/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
  • Amir Pourshabanan, Faezeh Yazdani Moghaddam *, Mansour Aliabadian, Fereshteh Ghassemzadeh, Giovanni Rossi, Hamed Mousavi-Sabet, Ekaterina Vasil’Eva Pages 1-12

    The aims of this study were to testify a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Rutilus in the Southern Caspian Sea using sequence variation of mitochondrial and nuclear genes and to define the taxonomic status of phylogenetic clades represented in this region. Phylogenetic analysis was based on the variability of mitochondrial genes cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear recombination activating gene 1 and inter-photoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Compared to previous studies, this phylogenetic analysis included significant material from the South Caspian, both from the collected samples and from GenBank data. As a result, only two species of Rutilus were confirmed in the ichthyofauna of the studied region. The first of them corresponds to R. lacustris, therefore, materials from the South Caspian can be included in genetically identified vouchers of this species to determine its morphological diagnostic features. The second species represented separate sister phylogenetic lineage for the Pontic populations of R. frisii sensu lato. Due to the low genetic distance between the Caspian and Pontic lineages and the strong overlap of their morphological features, but previously proven divergence in separate Pleistocene refugia, the Caspian populations are classified in this study as a subspecies R. frisii kutum.

    Keywords: Ponto-Caspian region, Leuciscinae, Rutilus lacustris, Rutilus frisii kutum, Mitochondrial, Nuclear genes
  • Surya Hajar FD *, Yusni Ikhwan Siregar, Dedi Afandi, N. Nofrizal Pages 13-34

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a severe public health problem at local, national, and global levels. At the local level, the trend of increasing the spread of TB cases in Rokan Hilir District, Indonesia requires the identification of the determinants, so that scenarios for prevention and control can be developed appropriately and effectively. Therefore, this study will identify factors contributing to increase TB incidence at the sub-district level in Rokan Hilir District. This study uses a mixed design (mixed method) consisting of observational studies, case control, and spatial approaches based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Observational studies were carried out on track record data of TB sufferers, demographics, and health infrastructure during the 2017-2020 period. The case-control approach was applied to socio-economic and physical environment variables in 53 case respondents and 61 control respondents. A GIS-based spatial method was used to acquire climate variability and perform interpolation, interpretation, and spatial presentation in thematic maps. The findings of TB incidents from 2017 through 2020 experienced an increasing trend of 19.58 % per year with an average number of cases (± SD) of 1,068 ± 60.97 cases/year. TB incidence increased with an expanding population (R 2 = 0.675), population density (R 2 = 0.691), number of health workers (R 2 = 0.597), and number of health facilities (R 2 = 0.509). The elevated risk of TB disease occurred in people of unproductive age [odds ratio (OR) 2.409, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.130-5.134], low education (OR 4.027, 99% CI = 1.779-9.115), low income (OR 3.632), type of floor (OR 2.449, 95% CI = 1.144-5.239), wall type (OR 2.851, 99% CI =1.322-6.146), and occupancy density (OR 3.944, 99% CI = 1.799=8.647). Demographic, socio-economic conditions, physical environment, and the availability of health facilities and infrastructure were determinants influencing the incidence of TB. Scenario intervention on determinant factors is the key to successful TB disease control to meet the 2030 national TB disease incidence elimination target.

    Keywords: Tuberculosis (TB), Determinants, Spatial distribution, Indonesia
  • Rasha M.A. EL-Saman *, Azza R. Emara, Nahed M.M. Selim, Hala M. Ibrahim Pages 35-48

    This study investigated the degradation of two chlorothalonil formulations [Chlorcal 70% Wettable Powder (WP) and Open 72% Suspension Concentrate 72% (SC)]. The tested fungicides were stored at 54 ± 2°C for 14 days. During the different storage periods, samples were taken after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days to determine physical properties, evaluate the chemical stability of the active ingredient: Hexachlorobenzene as impurities by HPLC and fingerprint (GC/MS and IR), as well as the evaluation of their efficacy, by testing them against the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Botrytis cinerea under in vitro condition. The results indicated that Open 72% SC was the most effective fungicide against F. solani and B. cinerea it recorded the lowest EC50 value of 28.4 and 46.8 ppm respectively, followed by Chlorcal 70%WP with EC50 values of 42.9 and 59.4 ppm respectively. On the other hand, the effectiveness of tested fungicides deteriorated as the result of storage at 54 ± 2 ºC for 14 days with EC50 values increased from 28.4 to 130.9 and 46.8 to 278.1 in the case of Open 72% SC against F. solani and B. cinerea respectively, while the degradation efficiency of Chlorcal 70%WP was decreased at storage with EC50 values from 42.9 to 89.4 and 59.4 to 145.3 against these two fungi respectively. Chlorcal 70%WP was more stable at during storage and less effective against fungal pathogens and determination of chemical content (total soluble sugar; total protein; free amino acids) and some enzymes (amylase and catalase) activities of mycelium fungi. Potato dextrose (PD) media treated with chlorothalonil formulations induced a significant decrease in all components in each fungus except the catalase enzyme in the case of B. cinerea. The obtained results showed that active ingredients were 69.82%, 71.9% and reached 69.3%, and 70.75% after 14 days of storage at 54 ± 2 ºC for Chlorcal 70% WP, Open 72% SC, respectively. Also calculated half-life (T0.5) values for Chlorcal 70% WP, Open 72% SC were 1382.07 days and 614.035 days, respectively. This result refers that Chlorcal 70% WP is more stable than Open 72% SC after storage at 54 ± 2 oC for 14 days, whereas the amount of hexachlorobenzene was within the FAO limits for all sources before and after storage. Then the other tested GC / MS was used for the degradation of chlorothalonil fungicide, the two major degradation products in chlorothalonil were 2,5,6-trichloro- 4- hydroxyisophthalonitrile and 2,4,6-trichloroisophthalonitrile.

    Keywords: Fungi, Fungicides, Chlorothalonil, Hexachlorobenzene, IR, GC, MS, Chemical stability, Physical properties, Antifungal activity, Chemical composition, Enzyme
  • Aya Abdalrahman Mohamed Abdellatif *, Tahany Mohamed Ali Abd-Elrahman, Mohsen Abou Elela Sayed, Atef Abd El-Aziz Hassan Ragab, Dina Salah-Eldin Serag-Eldin Ibrahim Pages 49-68

    In the era of climate change, environmental degradation caused by the unabated and indiscriminate usage of synthetic nematicides, there is urgent demand to develop safe alternatives for management of nematode diseases.  In this respect, this study aimed to isolate, characterize, and evaluate novel chitinolytic rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne incognita infecting Capsicum annuum L.  Among seventeen chitinolytic bacterial isolates, which were isolated from nematode suppressive soil, five isolates exhibited high chitinolytic activity. These isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis as Chryseobacterium daecheongense (isolate AB1), Bacillus toyonensis (isolate AB2), Pseudomonas lini (isolate AB3), Lactobacillus helveticus (isolate AB4) and Klebsiella oxytoca (isolate AB5). In vitro studies revealed that maximum nematode mortality (100%) was recorded for isolates AB3 and AB5; while maximum egg hatching inhibition (90.86 and 86.27%) in AB3 and AB4, respectively. Under field conditions, maximum inhibition in gall formation, female numbers, egg-mass production, developmental stages and final population of juveniles in soil, was recorded for AB3, AB4 and AB5 isolates, respectively. The accumulation of phenolic compounds, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in pepper leaves were induced by different bacterial treatment which played a significant role in resistance of the plant to biotic stress. The histological study showed poor formation of regular giant cells in pepper roots treated with chitinolytic bacterial strains. Root transverse section of pepper plants infected with M. incognita and treated with isolates AB3 and AB4 showed maximum healthy pattern and less necrotic points compared to the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that among the tested bacterial stains, P. lini (AB3), L. helveticus (AB4) and K. oxytoca (AB5) showed high biocontrol prospects against M. incognita and could be introduced and formulated as a promising, affordable and safe bionematicides. Moreover, C. daecheongense (AB1) was recorded for the first time for its nematicidal activity.

    Keywords: Rhizobacteria, Chitinase, biological control, Meloidogyne incognita, Capsicum annuum L
  • Aseel K. Abdul Hussein, Thaer M. Taha, Iman A. Mohammed Pages 69-73

    The greater wax moth was reared on its natural food consisting mainly of beeswax, and the various life stages of this insect were obtained. The results of the study showed that the aqueous and alcoholic extract of Myrtus communis L. leaves causes increase in mortality percentages of eggs and fourth instars larvae of the greater wax moth. In addition, there was a direct relationship between the extract concentrations used and the mortality rate of eggs and larvae. The alcoholic extract of the leaves was more effective in eggs and larval mortality percentages than the aqueous extract. Eggs at 24 h were more sensitive to the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves than eggs at 72 and 120 h. The sensitivity of eggs to extracts decreased by age. The results showed that the gastric effects of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the M. communis leaves were higher on the mortality rate in the fourth instar larvae than in the contact effect.

    Keywords: Alcoholic extract, Aqueous, Botanicals, Insects, Wax moth
  • A. M. A. Al-Enezi *, D. S. Jamil Pages 75-84

    This study aimed to isolate and diagnose some fungi escorted with the Cucumis melon roots plants both morphologically and molecularly. The results of isolation and diagnosis revealed 57 isolates from the sampling areas, which included Anbar, Abu Ghraib and Al-Yusufiya, which were represented by Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium spp., and Rhizoctoinia solani. The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina recorded the most significant values by giving the highest frequent reached 27.08%, followed by Fusarium spp. (20.83%), and Rhizoctoinia solani (11.45%). The pathogenicity results of the purified isolates of Fusarium spp., and Macrophomina phaseolina revealed that all isolates were significantly reduced the germination rate. However, the isolate F18 was the most intense isolate in reducing the germination rate (%), which were recorded zero germination rate on Cucumis melon and radish seeds. The isolate F12 revealed a reduction in the germination rate of Cucumis melon and radish seeds (0.67%), followed by the isolate of F. solani (F16; 10%) on Cucumis melon seeds. The isolates of M. phaseolina revealed a decrement in the germination rate, so that the isolate M1 recorded a zero-germination rate on Cucumis melon and radish seeds, followed by M15 with a germination rate of 3.33% on Cucumis melon seeds, while M7 exhibited a germination rate of 3.33% on radish seeds. The DNA electrophoresis results of the pathogenicity tested isolates of radish seeds and Cucumis melon seeds were the most pathogenic using the specialized initiator ITS4 ̸ ITS1, as it recorded the bundles of molecular weight reached 519 for Fusarium oxyspoum and 560 for Macrophomina phaseolina. These were compared with the gene bank for the presence of a high corresponding for the pathogenic fungi, which were deposited in the gene bank by accession numbers of OK560451, OK560452 and also OK560453 and OK560454, indicating by the codes of MP-Iraq1, MP-Iraq2 and also FS- Iraq1 and FS-Iraq2.

    Keywords: Cucumis melon, Fusarium oxyspoum, Macrophomina phaseolina
  • Saman M. Karim *, Tariq. H. Karim Pages 85-93

    To increase food and nutritional demands of the growing population, a significant part of agricultural research should focus on improving water use efficiency. Few studies have involved the simultaneous use of mulch and deficit irrigation in the semiarid environment to conserve water without yield penalties. Accordingly, a field experiment was conducted over a silty clay soil at the outskirt of Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan region during the summer season of 2021 to evaluate the impact of deficit irrigation levels [(100%, 80%, 60 and 40% of full irrigation (FI)] and straw mulch (with and without) on seed yield, quality traits of sesame, Sesamum indicum L. besides its water use efficiency. The results indicated that there was a steady decrease in sesame with a decrease in the amount of applied water with and without mulch. The water use efficiency increased by water deficit level from 100 to 60% of FI and declined at 40% of FI with and without mulch. Mulch offered a better performance compared to no mulch in terms of crop yield, water use efficiency and oil content. The crop response factor (ky) values were 0.849 and 0.785 with no- and with- mulch respectively. Based on these findings, it is recommended to apply deficit irrigation in combination with mulching practice   as an approach of water savaging for agriculture in regions with limited water resources.

    Keywords: Sesame, Deficit irrigation, Water Use Efficiency, Crop response factor, Mulching
  • Wafaa J.R. Al-Zaidi, Amna M. Ali, Thamer A.A. Muhsen * Pages 95-103

    This study was conducted to isolate and purify the causative agent of Black Scurf disease on potato crop and to test the efficiency of three concentrations (1, 2 and 3%) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-PNs) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in controlling the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. The results of morphology and then molecular diagnosis by PCR technology showed that isolate R22 represents the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, which is the cause of potato black scurf disease. The isolate was registered in the gene bank under accession number OM83978. According to the results of laboratory inhibition exhibited that 3% nano-zinc oxide leads to the highest inhibition rate (85.9%) compared to the control group. Also, 3% zinc oxide showed inhibition rate of 43.71% compared to the control. The results of the pot treatments test showed that all of them had an effect in reducing the infection rate (%) and the severity of infection with the fungus R22. So that, the nano-zinc oxide treatment recorded the lowest rate (%) and severity of infection (11% and 4.73% respectively), followed by the fungicide (Ethidium bromide), which scored 22.22% and 18.33% respectively, while in the case of zinc oxide, we recorded 33.33% and 19.03%, respectively, compared to the control group (plant with R22). The results of the study of growth parameters (plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and number of leaves) also exhibited that the nano-zinc oxide treatment recorded a positive increase in growth parameters that amounted to 54, 24.33, 7.33 and 99.33% compared to the control group.

    Keywords: Nanoparticle, Zinc oxide, Rhizoctonia solani, Potatoes, plants
  • Hadeel Badri Dawood *, Saad Tareq Abdul Malek Yass Pages 105-114

    This study was conducted to isolate biological control agents from soil samples surrounding the roots of uninfected cucumber, watermelon, eggplant, tomato, and okra plants in fields infested with root-knot nematodes and to evaluate their effectiveness. Therefore, fifteen bacterial isolates were selected to study their effects on the vitality of the second stage juveniles (J2) of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Nine bacterial isolates showed a mortality rate of juveniles ranged between 80 and 100%, while isolate HB8 was unique in having a high ability to influence the vitality of the juveniles, as the mortality rate reached 100%. This isolate was chosen to test its effectiveness in inhibiting egg hatching. The results showed that the inhibition rate after 72 h of incubation reached 94.33%. The effect of the bacterial filtrate of isolate Priestia megaterium HB8 was tested using three concentrations (10, 20, and 30%) on the mortality rate of J2 and the inhibition rate of egg hatching. Moreover, the 30% concentration exhibited a high ability to increase the mortality rate of a juvenile to 97.66% after 48 h of incubation, while the inhibition rate of egg hatching was 96.66% after 72 h.

    Keywords: Priestia megaterium, Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita
  • Mustafa Saleem Kadhim *, May Ibrahim Younis Pages 115-123

    Continues use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in many serious problems, such as the development of insect resistance, toxicity to non-target organisms and environmental pollution. Thus, there is a necessity for effective and safe alternatives which can control stored grain pests infestation. This study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal activity of two plant extracts, ginger, Zingiber officinale and myrtle, Myrtus communis separately and in combination against adult of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The plant extracts prepared by using Soxhlet Extractor and Ethyl alcohol as solvent. Three concentrations (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%) of each plant were prepared. We placed 0.5 mL of each concentration on filter paper in petri dish, in addition to the control treatment. Ten adult insects were put into each petri dish. The mortality rate was recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. The results indicated that the mortality was varying from plant to plant as flowing: M. communis reached its maximum value of 3.33% at 7.5 g mL-1 after 72 h. In the case of Z. officinale, it was 4% at 7.5 g mL-1 after 72 h, while the mixture of Z. officinale and M. communis reached its maximum value (4%) at 7.5 g mL-1 after 48 h exposure time. Relationship between exposure time and concentrations on mortality of T. castaneum indicated that mortality was increased by elevating the concentration and exposure time. The results of the present study revealed that by considering the mean mortality as a main index, the combination of Z. officinale and M. communis was the most toxic, while M. communis the least toxic. Results suggested that the combination of the two extracts could become interesting alternative to conventional chemical insecticides against stored grain pests.

    Keywords: Tribolium castaneum, plant extract, Baghdad, combination, Z. officinale, M. communis
  • Abbas. K. Almansorri, Hider. M. H. Al-Shirifi, Sharafaldin Al-Musawi *, Bara B Ahmed Pages 125-133

    Several studies have shown that herpes simplex type 1) HSV-1 (is one of the viruses resistant to medications, so potential antiherpetic agents need to be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of aluminium oxide Nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs) on the HSV-1 infection. Characterization of Al2O3-NPs were performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The MTT test was used to investigate the toxicity action of Al2O3-NPs on viable cells. Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and TCID50 assays were used to achieve antiherpetic performance of Al2O3-NPs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to determine the inhibitory impact of Al2O3-NPs on viral antigen expression, and Acyclovir was utilized as a standard agent in all tests. HSV-1 was subjected to Al2O3-NPs at the maximum non-toxic concentration (100 μg mL-1) led to a decrease of 0.1, 0.7, 1.8, and 2.5 log10 TCID50 in the infectious titer relative to virus control (P < 0.0001). This concentration of Al2O3-NPs was correlated with 16.9%, 47.1 %, 61.2 %, 72.5 % and 74.6 % inhibition rate, calculated on the basis of HSV-1 viral load compared to virus control. Our results have shown that Al2O3-NPs exhibit a robust antiviral activity against HSV-1. This function demonstrates excellent potential for using Al2O3-NP in topical formulations for treating orolabial or genital herpetic lesions.

    Keywords: Herpes Simplex Virus type 1, Aluminium oxide nanoparticles, Real-Time PCR, Antiviral Activity, Indirect immunofluorescence assay
  • Kuanysh Syman *, Khlood Abood, Abed J. Kadhim, Zahraa A. Al-Ajeeli, Asal Faiz Hameed, Zainab Al, Hawraa Riyad Muedii, Turasheva Svetlana Pages 135-141

    Composting is one of the urban waste management techniques that aims to lessen the amount and weight of trash that needs to be removed, as well as the spread of flue and fat, resource recycling, and disposal costs. Composting facilities must have an environmental impact assessment (EIA) strategy in place in order to adhere to environmental laws and regulations within the context of the adaption of an environmental development plan. The environmental evaluation of the Baghdad composting plant was therefore utilized Leopold's modified matrix and checklist methodologies. At the outset of this study, the local ecosystem was examined. The effects of constructing the Baghdad compost plant on the environmental components were examined by dividing the construction and operation phases and selecting evaluation alternatives based on the properties and types of pollutants anticipated for the aforementioned facility. The three immediate, direct, and indirect effects, and the three-time intervals—short, medium, and long term—were all examined in this study. In this study, the Leopold matrix was expanded into a four-part matrix and evaluated separately from the importance and range of impacts in addition to taking into account how long the effects will last in the environment. The findings and accomplishments of this study have been examined and given in two options: project implementation without environmental considerations and project implementation with the use of techniques to lessen negative effects by separating the construction from the operational phases. The project's implementation was deemed unacceptable based on the predicted effects of the non-implementation option (-303). After minimizing the negative impacts, the implementation option was approved, producing the desired outcome (421).

    Keywords: Compost, Environmental Assessment, Leopold matrix
  • Zainab Mohammed Karim, Hussein J. Hussein *, Abeer Fauzi Al-Rubaye Pages 143-149

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of crude terpenoid, flavonoid, and alkaloid extracts from flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. against Candida species isolated from different clinical samples such as mouth and vagina in Babil Province during 2021 in Iraq. Antifungal activity was achieved in vitro using agar well diffusion method against Candida species by preparing three concentrations for each crude compound (25, 50 and 100 mg mL-1) and compared with positive control represented by Fluconazole (50 mg mL-1) and negative control represented by 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. The aim of this study was to control Candida species isolated from different clinical samples such as mouth and vagina using secondary metabolites extracted from flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. According to the data collected from the study, the crude terpenoids and flavonoids extracted from flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. exhibited significant superiority at p < 0.05 over the fluconazole when applied to Candida species especially at 100 mg mL-1. Finally, it can be concluded that flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. is most effective in controlling Candida species, especially its terpenoid and flavonoid compounds.

    Keywords: Dianthus caryophyllus L, Anticandidiasis, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Terpenoids
  • Suratni Afrianti, I Irvan *, Taufiq Bin Nur, D Delvian Pages 151-159

    The biodigester is a tool used to process organic matter into biogas and is a solution to manage the accumulation of organic waste. Piles of garbage, if left un-cleared, will have a negative impact on the environment in the form of water and soil pollution, and damage the aesthetics of the environment. This study aimed to create combination model of biodigester and composter in managing organic waste into biogas and compose. We focus to discuss about the parameters of observed in biodigester. This study method is a laboratory experiment. The reactor was deployed continuously, using a heater with a temperature of approximately 55-60 ºC and stirring between 100 rpm. The reactor temperature could be adjusted according to the living conditions of the thermophilic bacteria used at a temperature of 45-65 ºC and installed in an integrated manner with the fermenter. The study method on pH parameters is APHA 4500-H, chemical oxygen demand (COD) with spectrophotometry, total solid (TS) with APHA 2540B, volatile solid (VS) with APHA 2540E method, total suspended solid (TSS) with APHA 2540B method and volatile suspended solid (VSS) using the APHA 2540E method. The study results on HRT 10 with pH 7 showed an average yield of TS, VS, TSS, VSS, COD, and Alkalinity amounting to 31.613, 22.125, 12.629, 10.713, 17.625 and 4.481 mg L-1, respectively. This study proposes a new combination model of biodigester and fermenter which is effective in manufacturing biogas and compost from organic waste.

    Keywords: Boigas, CSTR, Biodigetser, Organic waste
  • Usama H. Mheidi *, Adil H. Abdulkafoor, Imad M. Ali Pages 161-167

    A field experiment was conducted during the 2018-2019 season in one of the private fields in Karma City, Anbar Governorate, Iraq to study the effects of organic fertilizer levels (0, 5 and 10 tons ha-1) and spraying with amino acid arginine at concentrations of 0, 100, 200 mg L-1 on growth and also yield characteristics in addition to some medicinally-active compounds in watercress seeds, Eruca sativa Mill. The study factors were arranged as split-plot experiment according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replications. According to the results, the fertilizer level at 10 tons ha-1 exhibited a significant elevation in the characteristics of growth, yield, oil rate (%), and seed contents of glucosinolate glycoside and Astragalin alkaloid, whereas spraying arginine at 200 mg L-1 showed significant differences in the characteristics of yield, oil rate (%), and seed content of glucocinolate glycoside and Astragalin alkaloid. In addition, the interaction of the studied characteristics displayed a significant effect. So that, the plants given 10 tons ha-1 of organic fertilizer under the influence of spraying with 200 mg L-1 arginine, revealed the highest rate of 1000-seed weight, oil rate (%), in addition to the seed content of glucocinolate glycoside and Astragalin.

    Keywords: Eruca sativa, Fertilizer, Plant, Growth, Medicinal plant
  • Zaid Mowfaq Abdalkarem *, Mayada F. Mohamed Pages 169-175

    This study was carried out to see how adding Allium cepa peel extract can affect growth performance and lipid profile of the broiler chicken after heat stress. At first, the peels of red onion have been extracted using hot water. A total of 300 one-day-old chicks were examined. This experiment lasted for 28 days and employed a completely randomized design. The birds were grouped into 5 treatments (C-, C+, T1, T2, and T3). Group C- fed with basal diet without any addition; C+ fed a basal diet with 0.5% synthetic antioxidant BHT; T1 fed basal diet + 3% red onion peels extract; T2 with basal diet + 6% red onion peels extract and T3 with basal diet + 9% red onion peels extract. In 30th day, all birds were exposed to heat stress by raising temperature to 30 ºC. Data were collected about feed intake and weight gain weekly. The results of the body weight performance of chicks were studied. The statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) elevation in productive performance of onion-supplemented groups, compared to the control positive and negative in dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the results of the lipid profile revealed that all groups supplemented with red onion peel extracts (T3, T2, and T1 respectively) experienced significantly (p < 0.05) reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein compared to control groups. However, they exhibited an insignificant effect on high-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein concentrations in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of red onion peel extract enhanced body weight gain, tissue antioxidants, lowered serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and an immunomodulatory effect in a dose-dependent manner.

    Keywords: Red onion, Chicks, Broiler, Growth Performance, Lipid profile
  • A. Palham Abbasi *, H. Ahmadi, Sh. Mohammad Khan, A. Moeini Pages 177-189

    An awareness of the state of erosion in watersheds seems to be necessary for planning and prioritizing management and conservation activities. The purpose of the present study is to prioritize areas for watershed conservation and management activities by preparing a soil erosion intensity map using a geomorphological model and the AHP technique in the Safaroud River watershed, which is located in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. So, criteria in the geomorphological model, such as physiographic, climatic, geological, vegetation and land use criteria were used for the erosion intensity mapping. The studied criteria were weighted using the AHP technique. The erosion facies map was prepared, and the weight of each facies for erosion incidence was calculated. By combining the raster map of each criteria weight with the raster map of the facies weight together in GIS, the raster map of erosion intensity was prepared. The results showed that the land use criterion exhibited the minimum weight (0.045), while the climatic and geological criteria the maximum (0.209). By preparing the homogeneous unit map and calculating the weighted average of the erosion intensity in each homogeneous unit, it was determined that homogeneous units No. 17, 28, 39, 29 and 14 with erosion intensity coefficients of 0.0848, 0.0663, 0.0585, 0.0571 and 0.0476, and a total area of ​​341.94 hectares had the highest erosion intensity in the area. Hence, these homogeneous units are prioritized for protection and management plans.

    Keywords: Geomorphology model, Erosion Intensity, AHP, Safaroud River
  • D. Yadi Heryadi *, Hendy Tannady, Glisina Dwinoor Rembulan, Betty Rofatin, Ristina Siti Sundari Pages 191-197

    The Covid-19 pandemic that has hit Indonesia since 2020 sociologically has caused various changes in the order of social life and has implications for various social changes that occur in rice farmers and their level of welfare. The specific purpose of this study is to take an inventory of various phenomena of changes in farmer behavior in organic rice agribusiness and whether there are differences in farmer behavior in the agribusiness system before and during the Covid-19 pandemic associated with their level of welfare. In the long term, this study will be used to prepare the Food Crops Agribusiness Development Model following the research roadmap of the researchers that have been carried out. The study used a survey of organic rice farmers in the East Priangan area with a total sample of 43 farmers from a population of 427 organic farmers. The data used consist of primary and secondary data. Different analyzes were used to determine the behavior of farmers in organic rice agribusiness activities before and during the covid-19 pandemic. The different analyzes were processed using the Wilcoxon statistical test. Based on the analysis, there are genuine behavioral changes in all agribusiness subsystems studied, which consist of providing production facilities, on-farm subsystem, product processing subsystem, marketing subsystem, a subsystem of supporting elements, and changes in this behavior. Also causes a decrease in the level of welfare.

    Keywords: Agribusiness, Social changes, Subsystem
  • Wed Al-Graiti *, Asaad H. Sayer, Saleem Ethaib, Sameerah Jameel Tarfa, Amina Sabah Hashem Pages 199-205
    Biodiesel from renewable sources is one of the possible alternatives support the energy security. This study aimed to produce biodiesel from Oedogonium algae and duckweed plant by direct transesterification. An amount of 5 g of dry biomass was taken for the considered duckweed plant and the algae was immersed in 50 mL of methanol: hydrochloric acid: chloroform (10:1:1 v/v/v)   solvent to extract fatty acid methyl esters (FAME).  The extracted materials were taken for the characterisation using FT-IR and GC-Mass spectrometry. The prepared samples were specifically diagnosed for the identification of compounds particularly lipids. The results showed presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the formed ester (biodiesel). Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids identified in the biodiesel derived from duckweed plant were 24.19% and 20.34% respectively and from Oedogonium algae were 19.92% and 17.2% respectively. These results demonstrated a high potential to produce biodiesel from these types of biomass which could provide another route for energy supply.
    Keywords: Biodiesel, Oedogonium, duckweed, Direct transesterification, Fatty acid methyl esters
  • Safaa Neamat Hussein * Pages 207-215

    The tomato crop is exposed to a number of phytopathogens, including the fungus Fusarium solani, which is a widespread soil-borne pathogen, grows in a wide temperature range, facultative parasite that lives on the plants residue and other organic matter in the soil. The aim of this study was to diagnose the causal agent of tomato root rot disease based on a field-laboratory investigation during 2019- 2020. Different fields of Babil and Karbala provinces were surveyed. Samples were collected from the roots of infected plants, then fungi were determined morphologically based on taxonomic keys. Our investigations showed that F. solani was predominant fungus, forty nine bacterial isolates isolated from the rhizoplane of healthy tomato plants, eight of them was superior in the antagonism test against the pathogen in vitro. These bacteria were diagnosed as Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus, Bacillus megaterium, B. pumilus, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Enterobacter cloacae, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, two chemical elements of magnesium sulphate and sodium silicate were used in combination with biocontrol agents to control the disease. Under greenhouse conditions, the quadruple inoculum treatment up to ten inoculum exhibited significant increase of tomato seeds germination and dry weight of the plants, and exhibited significant decrease of disease incidence and severity.

    Keywords: Fusarium solani, PGPR, Tomato root rot, Magnesium sulphate, Sodium silicate
  • Jenni Ria Rajagukguk *, Yallbert Kudus Pages 217-226

    Rekind (Industrial engineering) engaged in construction on EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction) projects are activities ranging from civil and structural work, tank fabrication, piping work, electricity and instrument etc. From the work of each of these disciplines there are activities that require welding, sand blasting, painting and liquids to clean the outer rust (pickling), Majun that has been used, chemical liquids for internal cleaning of installed pipes, used lubricants. In this EPC, work causes waste, which cannot be allowed. In addition, if the company does not realize that the waste produced is simply thrown into the liquefaction system without any processing process. It will have a negative impact on the environment and human life. Given the magnitude of the risks and their impacts, efforts to manage B3 waste on construction activities are directly under the responsibility of the construction manager of PT Rekind and are coordinated by the HSE (Health, Safety, Environment). For this reason, we should know how to manage B3 waste in EPC activities at PT. Rekind through incinerator technology. So the study method carried out is an engineering research method or the method of management activities through the Type Rotary Kiln incinerator technology, where the management of B3 waste materials from the activity begins to mark the place where the B3 storage produces for a maximum of 90 days and transportation to treatment from the storage of B3 Waste. Rotary Kiln type incinerator technology is a two-stroke combustion process with various types of B3 waste materials, the first Combustion Chamber is for waste and the second Combustion Chamber is for the remnants of rudimentary gases burning in the Primary Chamber and lower temperatures are often needed to prevent the slagging of certain waste materials. The ash produced during the combustion process is discharged through the bottom of the second combustion chamber. So that the purpose of this study is to produce new material in the form of ash, which can be reused into fertilizer and others.

    Keywords: Hazardous, Toxic Waste (B3), Management, Incinerator Technology, Rotary Kiln Type Incinerator, EPC Projects
  • Saade Abdalkareem Jasim, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, Mohammed Abed Jawad, Dmitry Olegovich Bokov, Lakshmi Thangavelu, Aliasghar Manouchehri * Pages 227-243

    The side effects of chronic exposure to synthetic drugs such as tramadol have become a concern for the health system. Medicinal plants can be used as rich sources of natural compounds with therapeutic properties to reduce the side effects of synthetic drugs such as tramadol. Hence, this study sought to review the published research concerning the protective role of medicinal plants against tramadol toxicity. This systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. This study included all published articles evaluating the efficacy of the medicinal plants against tramadol toxicity until December, 2021. For this systematic review, search was performed using keywords including tramadol, toxicity, poisoning, overdose, medicinal plants, and herbal medicines from reliable databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wiley, Elsevier, and Science Direct. The risk of bias tool for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE’s RoB tool) criteria and the OECD guidelines and the WHO Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) handbook were used for quality assessment of animal and in vitro studies, respectively. This review determined 18 medicinal plants and one multi herbal formulation against tramadol toxicity. Plants such as Nigella sativa (Black Seed), Moringa Oleifera (Drumstick tree), and Aloe Vera, pomegranate, wheat, barely, pumpkin, walnut, kiwi fruit, turmeric, apple, fennel, and garlic also displayed therapeutic effects against tramadol toxicity. This review exhibits a wide range of medicinal plants with therapeutic effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties which could protect the organs of the body against toxicity caused by tramadol. Hence, the use of these plants or their compounds can be effective in reducing the complications caused by many diseases.

    Keywords: Herbal Medicines, Medicinal plants, Natural compounds, Phytotherapy, Toxicity, Tramadol
  • Yahya Ebrahimi, Andrés Alexis Ramírez-Coronel, Aiman Mohammed Baqir Al-Dhalimy, Raed H. C. Alfilm, Mohammed Al-Hassan, Rasha Fadhel Obaid, Ameer A. Alameri, Fatemeh Rastiani, Yousef Khaledian, Samira Shokri * Pages 245-249

    Throughout history, humans have always been exposed to numerous pathogenic and non-pathogenic threatening factors and have used various methods and agents to treat and control them, one of these methods is the use of honey and bee stings. Honey is a natural sweetener produced by bees from the nectar of flowers with the secretions of living parts of plants. Nowadays, honey and bee stings are used to remedy a wide range of diseases include allergies, blood, digestive, heart, lung, skin, etc. Databases were searched to obtain articles including “Google Scholar”, “ISI”, “Scopus”, “PubMed”, and “Science Direct”. Keywords used in this study included honey, bees and human health in their titles. The recent findings have shown that there is a complex combination of fifty different substances in bee venom, including protein, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, folic acid, glucose, fructose, histamine and amino acids. Allergic reactions are involved. In general, bees and their stings can play a role in the treatment of disorders.

    Keywords: Honey, Bee venom, Heart, Human health
  • Arash Jouladeh-Roudbar *, Saber Vatandoust Pages 251-254

    Alburnoides petrubanarescui is endemic to the Urmia Lake basin, shared by Iran and Turkey. Previously, the species was found in several rivers in this basin, however, it is currently only found in the upper part of the Nazlu Chay River. The species' extent of occurrence (EOO), which was previously estimated to be 20.000 km2, is now 300 km2. Over the past three generations (10 years), the EOO of Urmia spirlin has decreased by 98%, however, the population of the Nazlu River is stable, and there is no strong evidence to suggest that the population will decline in the future. Drought and water abstraction cause the species' population to reduce. Dam building and river pollution reduce their range, making them vulnerable to extinction. Therefore, we classified the species as Vulnerable D2.

    Keywords: Spirlin, urmia lake, IUCN Red List, Iran