فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 23 (پاییز و زمستان 1401)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/02/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
  • رضا میرزائی*، علیرضا شیخی صفحات 1-20
    احمد خالد توفیق نویسنده ی معاصر مصری و از پیشگامان ادبیات وحشت در جهان عرب است. وی در دهه ی نود قرن گذشته، مجموعه ای با عنوان "ماوراء الطبیعه" به رشته ی تحریر درآورد که در جهان عرب مورد توجه بسیار قرار گرفت. یکی از داستان های این مجموعه، "اسطوره النداهه" است که فضایی ترسناک دارد؛ اما در آن، نویسنده به برخی از مسایل اجتماعی جامعه ی مصر در قرن گذشته و به طور مشخص روستاهای مصر پرداخته است. مقاله پیش رو با تکیه بر نقد اجتماعی و به شیوه ی تحلیلی-توصیفی قصد دارد تا جنبه های اجتماعی داستان "اسطوره النداهه" را مورد بحث و بررسی قرار دهد. مهم ترین یافته های پژوهش پیش رو عبارت است از اینکه احمد خالد توفیق، در داستان خود تلاش کرده با بیان برخی از مسایل اجتماعی درون جامعه ی مصر به ویژه جامعه ی روستایی این کشور، جنبه هایی از عقب ماندگی های موجود در این جامعه را به خواننده نشان دهد. توفیق دردهای اجتماعی را بیان می کند و سعی دارد تا جایی که ممکن است، خوانندگان خود را در خصوص پیامدهای اجتماعی خرافه و پنداشت های غلط و نیز نگرانی ها و دغدغه هایی که ممکن است انسان مصری در پی تحولات قرن بیستم با آن روبرو شود، آگاه سازد.
    کلیدواژگان: نقد اجتماعی، داستان نویسی، احمد خالد توفیق، اسطوره النداهه
  • نسرین کاظم زاده*، مالک عبدی صفحات 21-44

    یکی از مهمترین تحولات مهاجرتی در دهه های اخیر، ورود بیش از پیش زنان در فرآیند مهاجرت و افزایش مهاجرت زنان مستقل است که «زنانه شدن مهاجرت» نامیده می شود. مهاجرت می تواند استقلال و توانمندی زن را در خانواده و جامعه بهبود بخشیده، هنجارهای سنتی را تغییر دهد، و آنها را با هنجارهای اجتماعی عادلانه تری آشنا سازد، این فرایند همچنین حقوق زنان، برابری جنسیتی، فرصت های اقتصادی، اجتماعی، شغلی و تحصیلی آنان را بهبود می بخشد. اگرچه مهاجرت می تواند تا حد زیادی مفید باشد، اما بسیاری از محدودیت ها از جمله هنجارهای اجتماعی محدود، انواع تبعیض نژادی، استثمار، آسیب های روحی و روانی را نیز می تواند ایجاد نماید. رمان «الکافره» علی بدر مهاجرت کاملا زنانه ی «صوفی» قهرمان زن رمان را به بلژیک روایت می کند که برای رهایی از ازدواج اجباری، فقر، تنهایی، تبعیض، خشونت جنسی و جنگ، دست به کوچی اجباری و غیرقانونی می زند. هدف از این پژوهش آن است تا با تکیه بر ادبیات مهاجرت زنانه، پیامدهای روحی و روانی مثبت و منفی مهاجرت را از لحظه ی ورود مهاجر به سرزمین میزبان تا زمان پذیرفته شدن وی به عنوان یک شهروند به شیوه ی توصیفی- تحلیلی  کنکاش نماید. نتایج گویای آن است که صوفی بعد از ورود به بلژیک، مراحل متعددی مثل انفعال اولیه (ضربه فرهنگی)، سرخوردگی (حزن و اندوه)، حاشیه گزینی (خودکشی) و جهت گیری نوین (سازگاری) را پشت سر می گذارد.

    کلیدواژگان: مهاجرت زنانه، پیامدهای روانی، علی بدر، رمان الکافره
  • احمد لامعی گیو، زهرا خسروی زارگز* صفحات 45-66

    کهن الگوی بیداری قهرمان درون، سیر قهرمان داستان به سمت کمال و رویای فردیت با تکیه بر حضور کهن الگوهای دیگر است. شخصیت در سفر قهرمانی به شناخت عمیقی از خود دست یافته و معنای مهم زندگی را درمی یابد. رمان «ساقه ی بامبو» نوشته ی سعودالسنعوسی نویسنده ی کویتی است که بررسی تکامل شخصیت قهرمان در آن، شایسته ی وارسی و تتبع است. هدف این پژوهش که به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی صورت گرفته، شناخت روند رشد و تکامل شخصیت عیسی در رمان  ساقه ی بامبو به کمک کهن الگوی سفر قهرمان است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که عیسی/ هوزیه در آستانه ی سفر، کودکی با کهن الگوی معصوم است که در اثر تحمل رنج ها، کهن الگوی یتیم را نیز تجربه می کند. این تجربه سبب می شود که قهرمان در جستجوی سرزمینی برای آرامش برآید. پیر خردمند (غسان) به دیدار او می آید و قهرمان را به سفر فرا می خواند. عیسی همزمان که بر خاک کویت قدم می گذارد سفری به قلمرو روح خود دارد. این سفر که نمودی از کهن الگوی تکامل فردیت است، در نهایت سبب تجدید حیات روحی او می گردد. بازگشت از سفر همراه با تجربه ی کهن الگوهای دیگر، آرامش را برای او و خانواده اش به ارمغان می آورد. شناخت روند رشد و تکامل شخصیت عیسی در رمان  ساقه ی بامبو نشان می دهد که این روند به صورت کلی منطبق بر کهن الگوی سفر قهرمان است.

    کلیدواژگان: نقد کهن الگویی، سفر، قهرمان، سعود السنعوسی، ساقه ی بامبو
  • سمیه اکبری، عبدالباسط عرب یوسف آبادی*، فواد عبدالله زاده صفحات 67-90
    در نقد معاصر باتوجه به برجسته شدن نقش خواننده در فرایند تولید متن و کاسته شدن سلطه نویسنده بر متن، نگاهی ویژه به موقعیت متن و توان تفسیری آن و همچنین موقعیت خواننده و نحوه دریافت وی می شود. در نقد ادبیات کودک بر این نکته تاکید دارد که هراندازه ادیب زمینه های حضور ذهنی خواننده/کودک را بیشتر فراهم نماید، آن متن رساتر است و از قابلیت خوانش چندباره ای برخوردار است. نقد خواننده محور اصالت ادبیات کودک را نه در نزد ادیب کودک و نه در درون متن، بلکه در هدف آن، یعنی خواننده دنبال می کند. بر همین اساس در پژوهش حاضر تلاش می شود با تکیه بر روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، داستان های کودکانه منتخب از صبحی سلیمان مورد خوانش قرار گیرد و شگردهای مورداستفاده جهت حضور ذهنی کودک در متن آن ها استخراج و تحلیل گردد. نتایج نشان می دهد در متن و محتوای داستان های موردبحث شکاف های ژرف ساختی وجود دارد که کودک باتوجه به طرح واره های ذهنی خود، آن ها را تکمیل می کند. بدین شکل که نویسنده در این داستان ها با استفاده از شگردهایی همچون سپیدنویسی، شکاف شخصیت پردازی ، ساختارهای دوبخشی، چرخش دورانی و پیش آگاهی قوه تخیل خواننده را برمی انگیزد و زمینه مشارکت او را در خلق و یا تکمیل بخش هایی از متن فراهم می آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: حضور ذهنی خواننده، سپیدنویسی، شکاف شخصیت پردازی، ساختارهای دوبخشی، صبحی سلیمان
  • طیبه فتحی ایرانشاهی، سید محمود میرزایی الحسینی*، شیرین پورابراهیم صفحات 91-114
    زمان یکی از مهم ترین مفاهیم پیچیده ی انتزاعی است که در طول تاریخ توجه بسیاری از اندیشمندان را به خود معطوف داشته است. با استناد به زبان بشر، معنی شناسان شناختی نیز به بررسی فهم بشر از زمان پرداخته اند. زبان ادبی به ویژه زبان داستان، محمل حضور عناصر زمانی است و واکاوی ساز و کارهای شناختی از جمله طرحواره های تصوری، استعاره ها و مجازهای مفهومی در متن داستان از منظر معنی شناسی شناختی، چگونگی درک این مفهوم انتزاعی و بازنمایی آن در زبان داستان را برای مخاطب میسر می کند. در پژوهش حاضر سعی شده که به بررسی مفهوم زمان در پرتو نظریه ی معنی شناسی شناختی، بر اساس روش توصیفی- تحلیلی در رمان حکایات یوسف تادرس اثر عادل عصمت نویسنده ی مصری، پرداخته شود. به این منظور، ابتدا استعاره های مفهومی و طرحواره های تصوری حاوی مفهوم زمان که در متن بازنمایی شده، استخراج گردیده و مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. همچنین مجازهای مفهومی مرتبط با عبارات حاوی زمان بررسی و تحلیل شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که نویسنده، زمان را به صورت مکان، مسیر، شیء و نیز موجود جاندار مفهوم سازی می کند تا بتواند این مفهوم زمانی را در چارچوب موردنظر روایت و برای اهداف روایی مثل شخصیت پردازی و توصیف رخدادهای داستان به کار گیرد. افزون بر این، زبان روایت حاضر از مجازهای مفهومی متفاوتی برای مفهوم سازی زمان از جمله زمان رخداد به جای رخداد و کل زمان رخداد به جای جزیی از آن استفاده نموده است. همچنین نتایج نشان می دهد که نظریه ی معنی شناسی شناختی قادر است، در کنار سایر نظریات، به تحلیل مفاهیم و مفهوم سازی های زبان داستان بپردازد و ابعادی از معناسازی روایی و ذهنیت نویسنده را روشن سازد.
    کلیدواژگان: معنی شناسی شناختی، ساز و کارهای شناختی، زمان، عادل عصمت، حکایات یوسف تادرس
  • زهره ناعمی، نیلوفر زریوند* صفحات 115-136
    نظریه ی نقش گرای هلیدی برای تحلیل معانی متن از سه فرانقش کلی اندیشگانی، بینافردی و متنی بهره می گیرد که در پژوهش حاضر تنها از منظر فرانقش متنی به تحلیل معانی قصیده ی «دور» از احمد مطر پرداخته شده است. در این جستار به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با تکیه بر رویکرد زبانشناسانه، سعی بر آن شده تا عناصر اصلی فرانقش متنی که شامل تحلیل انسجام متنی، ساخت آغازگری- پایان بخشی و نوع اطلاعات گفتمان است، در قصیده ی مذکور تطبیق و بررسی شود. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که بیشترین انسجام قصیده ناشی از انسجام واژگانی (57.14) و پس ازآن انسجام دستوری (30.61) می باشد که در مجموع بر عناصری چون «القافیه»، «عرش الطاغیه»، «جلد» و نیز خود «شاعر» تاکید داشته و ارکان اصلی قصیده را تشکیل داده اند. در این میان انسجام پیوندی (12.24) کمترین سهم را به خود اختصاص داده است که حکایت از سخنان صریح شاعر و نیز خلاصه گویی او دارد. ساختار آغازگری قصیده نیز غالبا بی نشان و دارای اطلاعات کهنه بوده و بر وجه خبری جمله ها در خصوص نقش شاعر و شعر سرایی در براندازی ظلم دلالت دارند؛ امری که توجه را نه به سمت مردم و تحریکشان به اعتراض، بلکه به نقش سازنده ی شاعران و شعرسرایی در آگاهی سازی مردم جلب می نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: هلیدی، فرانقش متنی، احمد مطر، قصیده ی «دور»
  • فهیمه یگانه دیزج ور، سید بابک فرزانه*، لیلا قاسمی حاجی آبادی، عزت ملاابراهیمی صفحات 137-159
    عنصر فنی مکان از ابتدای پیدایش ژانر رمان در قرن هجدهم تاکنون، نقش بارزی در فرآیند تعین بخشی به پیرنگ داشته است. اما در رمان های مدرن امروزی نقش آن بسیار فراتر رفته و دیگر صرفا به عنوان جولانگاهی برای جنبش قهرمانان و رخدادها به شمار نمی رود، بلکه همگام با نقش همیشگی، گاهی بسان شخصیتی مستقل و اثرگذار بر سیر حوادث و رخدادهای رمان و نیز بر روابط میان شخصیت ها عمل کرده است. این جستار با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، به بررسی و طبقه بندی انواع مختلف مکان در رمان "عالم بلاخرایط" محصول مشترک دو رمان نویس مشهور عرب، عبدالرحمن منیف و جبرا ابراهیم جبرا پرداخته است. بدین صورت است که ابتدا مهم ترین مکان های بسته و باز رمان را در دو شکل خصوصی و عمومی آن، معرفی و مصداق یابی کرده و سپس، به بیان مهم ترین کارکردهای فنی آن ها پرداخته است. نویسندگان این رمان با توصیف ماهرانه ی جزییات برخی از مکان ها، در کنار کارکردهای عادی این عنصر، جنبه ی نمادین نیز به آن ها بخشیده اند، که بارزترین آن ها شهر عموریه، به عنوان فضای اصلی رمان است. گره گشایی داستان و کشف شخصیت رازآلود نجوی که قهرمان زن این داستان است، تنها از طریق این عنصر مکانی ممکن می گردد. اما در بیشتر موارد، فراخوانی مکان صرفا به عنوان ابزاری برای پرداخت شخصیت ها یا به منظور باورپذیرکردن حوادث بوده و به انتقال عواطف و احساسات شخصیت ها به خواننده کمک کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: عنصر مکان، عبدالرحمن منیف، جبرا ابراهیم جبرا، رمان عالم بلاخرائط
  • سجاد اسماعیلی* صفحات 161-182
    هوش عاطفی، اصطلاحی است که براساس مدل گلمن، به بررسی و تحلیل روانشناسانه ی شخصیت در پنج بعد خودآگاهی، خود مدیریتی، انگیزش، آگاهی اجتماعی و مدیریت روابط می پردازد. ادیب یا خالق یک اثر ادبی، برای خلق گفتمان خود مراحلی را طی می کند که در آنها از ابعاد مختلف هوش عاطفی خویش بهره می گیرد. از آنجا که ادبیات به طور عام، و ادبیات مقاومت به طور خاص، آیینه ی تمام نمای اندیشه ها و گفتمان یک ملت در سطح جهانی است، پدیدآورنده ی یک گفتمان ادبی باید ضمن در نظر گرفتن نیاز گفته خوانان، گفتمانی را برگزیند که در انتقال اندیشه های آن متن مفید واقع گردد. سمیح القاسم شاعر مقاومت فسطینی، در قصاید خویش به خلق گفتمان مقاومت و مبارزه با رژیم غاصب صهیونیستی گرویده است. وی در قصیده ی «حواریه العار»، با خلق چندین شخصیت نمادین و اثرگذار، جدال همیشگی بین جنبش مقاومت فلسطین و نیروهای غاصب رژیم صهیونیستی را مطرح نموده است. این جستار می کوشد تا ضمن استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با رویکردی روان شناسانه، به واکاوی ابعاد هوش عاطفی دنیل گلمن، در گفتمان هر یک از شخصیت های موجود در این قصیده بپردازد. برخی از یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که شخصیت های قصیده در تمامی مراحل تحقق گفتمان خویش، از تمامی ابعاد هوش عاطفی مد نظر گلمن در مواجه با گفته خوانان خویش استفاده کرده اند؛ به طوری که ضمن آگاهی کامل از عواطف خود، مدیریت آن به روش های خاص خویش و داشتن انگیزه های متفاوت برای بروز رفتار، به همدلی با دیگران (آگاهی اجتماعی) و مدیریت روابط خود با دیگران (یکدلی) توجه داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: نقد روانشناسی، مدل گلمن، هوش عاطفی، سمیح القاسم، قصیده ی حواریه العار
  • علی نجفی ایوکی*، محسن سیفی، فاطمه حاجی قربانی صفحات 183-204
    اسطوره ی میان رودانی «گیل گمش» به همراه شخصیت مکمل وی «انکیدو» با درونمایه ی مرگ، جاودانگی و آرمان های والای انسانی، جایگاه ویژه ای در شعر معاصر عربی یافته و مورد توجه شاعران نوگرای آن قرار گرفته است. سه تن از شاعران نامدار معاصر عرب «سمیح القاسم»، «ادونیس» و «سعدی یوسف» در بستر شعرشان، توجه ویژه به این اسطوره نمودند و کوشیدند با محور قراردادن شخصیت اسطوره ای گیل گمش و الهام گیری از تجربه ی آن، به ترسیم خواسته ها و دل نگرانی های خود بپردازند و با خوانشی جدید از آن میراث کهن اسطوره ای، تفسیری تازه تر و عمیق تر از آن تراژدی غمبار ارایه دهند. در پی تمرکز ویژه ی سه شاعر یادشده بر اسطوره ی مورد بحث، این پژوهش بر آن است تا پس از معرفی اسطوره ی یادشده، در گام نخست با روش توصیفی تحلیلی و به صورت جداگانه، به واکاوی محورهای مورد توجه هر یک از شاعران از اسطوره، نقد محتوایی متن شعری آنان و تبیین اهداف الهام گیری از سوی سه شاعر بپردازد و در گام دوم، رویکردهای آنان به کهن اسطوره را مورد همسنجی و مقایسه قرار دهد و به عنوان نتیجه، آن را فرادید مخاطبان قرار دهد. از نتایج این پژوهش آن است که سه شاعر با نگاه خاکستری خود، گیل گمش را در فضای تراژدیک و غمبار حضور داده اند. دیگر اینکه سمیح القاسم به رغم استفاده ی چشمگیر از شگردهای ادبی، نتوانسته تجربه ی جدیدی بر گیل گمش خود حمل نماید و به تکرار تجربه ی کهن پرداخته است. این در حالی است که ادونیس و سعدی یوسف به مرحله ی «اسطوره سازی» رسیده و توانسته اند از رهگذر آن شخصیت اسطوره ای، تجربه های جدیدی را فرادید مخاطب قرار دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: اسطوره، گیل گمش، انکیدو، مرگ و جاودانگی، ماجراجویی
  • ابوالحسن امین مقدسی، شهریار نیازی، فرزانه آجورلو* صفحات 205-223

    سورریالیسم متاثر از جنبش های فکری رنسانس و در شاکله ی مکتبی فکری و ادبی، در پی یافتن معنی و حقیقت اشیاء و پدیده ها به اقتضای اندیشه ی آزاد و حیرت در برابر جلوه های هستی، ناگزیر از بازبینی ابعاد وجودی خویش به عنوان مدرک جهان و بازتعریف مفاهیمی چون عقل، وجود و مرگ، از چارچوب های تقلیدی در ساختار و محتوا فاصله گرفته، به جستجوی باطن هستی و ماوراء ماده پرداخت. در این میان، با توجه به محدودیت عقل و عدم قدرت انسان به طور مستقل در درک و دریافت حقیقت و باطن اشیاء، ضرورت "پیوند" با مراجع و منابع "علم مطلق" در شکل گیری "نقطه ی صفر" ذهن و تفکر اصیل و پیراسته از داده های بیرونی مطرح می گردد. سورریالیسم در ماهیت مکتبی آزادی خواه و جستجوگر حقیقت مفاهیم و پدیده ها، مبتنی بر تقلیدگریزی و خلق معانی و روابط نوین، حرکتی موثر را بنا نهاد، اگرچه این رویکرد در بعد "کشف" و درک حقیقت و باطن هستی دستاورد چندانی نداشته، اما از این حیث که موجب رهایی فکر از دایره ی تقلید و آزادی اندیشه که نقطه ی اشتراک میان عقلانیت محض و سورریالیسم است گردیده، انسان را در مسیر حقیقت خواهی و جستجوی معنای دقیق و عمیق مفاهیم و پیوند با مراجع اصیل ادراک که لازمه ی کشف و درک حقایق است، سوق می دهد. تحقیق حاضر به روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با ارایه ی تعریفی صحیح از آزاداندیشی و نیز دریافتی دقیق از مواضع فکری اندیشمندان مکتب ادبی سورریالیسم، به تبیین طرح اصیل اندیشه و اتصال آن با ساختار سورریالیسم، با نگاهی به آراء و نظرات ناقدان این آثار می پردازد.

    کلیدواژگان: سوررئالیسم، آزاداندیشی، حیرت، کشف، شعر معاصر
  • صادق البوغبیش، رسول بلاوی*، ماجد مرهج رباط صفحات 225-245

    کارل گوستاو یونگ بعد از جدا شدن از مکتب فروید، نظریه ی ناخودآگاه جمعی را پی ریزی کرد و برای روان شخصیتی انسان، پنج الگو در نظر گرفت که عبارتند از: خود، سایه، نقاب، آنیما و آنیموس؛ در نقد روانکاوی از این پنج عامل به وفور یاد می شود. نقد کهن الگویی در پی بررسی ناخودآگاه جمعی است که یونگ نقاب و سایه را از مهم ترین و اساسی ترین عوامل در تکامل شخصیت انسان می داند. یونگ بر این عقیده است که این کهن الگوها وجه مشترک بشر است و در شعر بیشتر نمود پیدا می کنند. با توجه به سازگاری کهن الگوهای نقاب و سایه در شعر لیندا نصار، این پژوهش در نظر دارد تا شعر وی را به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی مورد کاوش قرار دهد و خویشتن، نقاب ها، سایه ها و روش به کارگیری آنها را در شعر وی تعیین و تبیین نماید. لیندا نصار شاعر لبنانی در مجموعه ی «لانی فی عزله»، انسان شعری خود را همراه با نقاب نشان می دهد. این نقاب گاهی شخصیت های اسطوره ای و گاهی شخصیت های اجتماعی بوده که با هم ذات پنداری با شخصیت ها به طرح عقایدش می پردازد. همچنین در ضمیر ناخودآگاه انسان مورد نظر لیندا، سایه هایی هست؛ که فرد می کوشد تا آنها را پنهان نگاه دارد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد لیندا رفتارهایی چون شر، بدی، گناه، طمع و دزدی را سایه و خصلت های خوبی چون زهد، ایمان، رحمت و مهربانی را نقابی برای شخصیت انسان جهت حضور در اجتماع برمی گزیند و از نقاب هایی بهره می جوید که در ادبیات با توجه به نظریات یونگ قابل انطباق است.

    کلیدواژگان: شعر معاصر عربی، نقد روانکاوی، یونگ، لیندا نصار، لانی فی عزله
  • فاطمه قادری*، حمیده مروتی، وصال میمندی، رضا افخمی صفحات 247-270

    تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی رویکردی میان رشته‎ ای و از روش های تحقیق کیفی است که منظور از انتقادی در آن، آشکارکردن روابط نهانی قدرت و فرایندهای ایدیولوژیکی موجود در متون و توجه به کارکردهای اجتماعی متن است. از آنجا که ادبیات بخش عظیمی از زبان، فرهنگ و هویت هر ملت را تشکیل می دهد، متون ادبی نیز در چارچوب تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی قابل تحلیل است. این نوشتار به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استفاده از روش سه سطحی فرکلاف (توصیف، تفسیر و تبیین)، به تحلیل نمادهای اسطوره ای رمان «الجازیه و الدراویش» اثر عبدالحمید بن هدوقه نویسنده ی الجزایری پرداخته و تلاش نموده با تحلیل این نمادها و با بهره گیری از بافت موقعیتی و بینامتنی و نوع گفتمان رمان مورد بحث، مهم ترین ایدیولوژی های نویسنده و موضع گیری او در برابر کشمکش بر سر قدرت و اوضاع جامعه ی الجزایر دهه ی هفتاد را بررسی کند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که نویسنده با آفرینش و کاربرد نمادهای اسطوره ای (الجازیه و الجازیه الهلالیه، اساف ونایله و الحمار الذهبی) در سطح توصیف، در پی بیان ایدیولوژی و اندیشه ی خویش است، در سطح تفسیر نیز از گفتمان انقلابی- اجتماعی و بافت بینامتنی با هدف ایجاد تغییر در جامعه ی الجزایر بهره برده است و در سطح تبیین، گفتمان مبتنی بر بازتولید مناسبات قدرت و تعیین بهترین قدرت برای حکومت بر الجزایر  را از طریق آگاهی بخشی و واقع گرایی تصویر کرده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ایدئولوژی و روابط قدرت، فرکلاف، نماد اسطوره ای، عبد الحمید بن هدوقه، «الجازیه والدراویش»
|
  • Reza Mirzaie *, Alireza Shaikhi Pages 1-20
    Introduction
    New studies in the content analysis of fiction and novels are as extensive as critical approaches and fictional texts. In this regard, social criticism is a subset of author-centric or hypertext criticism. This method of criticism does not accept the spontaneous appearance of literature and believes that literature is formed in the heart of the society; in fact, social conditions direct the author, the work of art and the audience. Social criticism is a literary study in which historical and social works and evidence fulfill a literary intellectual mission for the reader. This is a mission based on the structure of artistic narratives. If we use literature as a social document for a particular society, we can introduce the general outlines of a historical society in a given period. This is because literature is not only a reflection of the social process but also broader because it is the essence of history. Thus, the analysis of the relationship between literature and society is the basis for the emergence of social criticism of literature, and this approach is based on the structure of literature and society. This means the reflection of social issues in the literary work through the author's intellectual, doctrinal or social perspective. Accordingly, "the interaction between society and literature has always been the focus of humanities researchers. Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq is one of the pioneers of contemporary literature in the field of horror, fantasy and science fiction and has been able to create perfect works of fantasy and horror. His works also take an opportunity to criticize the society. This research analyzes the story of "The Myth of Al Naddaha " based on a social approach as well as literary and critical sources, especially social criticism.
    Methodology
    Ahmed Khalid Tawfiq is a contemporary Egyptian writer and one of the pioneers of horror literature in the Arab world. In the 1990s, he wrote a collection entitled "The Supernatural", which received much attention in the Arab world. One of the stories in this series is "The Myth of Al-Naddaha" which has a scary atmosphere. The author discusses some of the social issues of the Egyptian society in the last century, specifically the villages of Egypt. This article aims to discuss the story of "The Myth of Al Naddaha " based on social criticism in an analytical-descriptive manner. Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq, in his story, tried to show the reader some aspects of the backwardness of the Egyptian society by expressing some social issues especially in the rural society of this country.
    Results and Discussion
    Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq is one of the pioneers of contemporary literature in the field of horror, fantasy and science fiction. He has created works full of fantasy and horror. On the side of his works, there is also room for criticism of the society. Based on a social approach and literary and critical sources, especially social criticism, this research, analyzes the story of "The Myth of Al-Naddaha" to answer the following questions: What social changes have taken place in the society during the author's period? What are the social problems that Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq has tried to clarify in his novel? What is the relationship between this novel and the society where the author has lived in?
    Conclusion
    In "The Myth of Al Naddahah", it is clear that Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq paid attention to social issues in a literary way. Although the author writes horror and science fiction, in this story, he reflects the most important social problems in the Egyptian villages and issues related to poverty, superstition, deprivation and class conflicts in his story. Tawfiq believes that reform in a rural society is possible by educating the people and making them literate. In his opinion, it is not possible to escape solving the problems, but one must stand against them and face them. The main character of the myth of Al Naddahah is based on a scientific logic. In fact, this scientific logic is one of the most important human achievements in the last century, which is reflected in this story. Tawfiq expresses social problems, which is of great importance. As an educated man in the society, has has dealt with the most important problems faced by the Egyptian villagers. Since the audience of his stories is teenagers and young people, he has been able to make them aware of the social consequences of superstitions and the dangers that society may pose. He reminds them of the rapid advancement of science.
    Keywords: Social criticism, novel, Ahmad Khaled Tawfiq, The myth of Al–Naddaha
  • Nassrin Kazemzadeh *, Malek Abdi Pages 21-44

    Intruduction:

     One of the Most Important Immigration issues in Recent Decades is the Increasing Involvement of Women in the Migration Process especially the Increase in the Migration of Independent Women. It is Called "Feminization of Migration”. Immigration Can Improve Women's Independence and Empowerment in the Family and the Society, Change Traditional Norms, Introduce them to Fairer Social Norms as well as Improve Women's Rights, Gender Equality, and Economic, Social, Employment and Educational Opportunities. Although Immigration Can be very Beneficial, it can also Create Many limitations, Including Social norms and limited laws, Racial Discrimination, Exploitation, and Psychological Trauma. In the novel Al-Kaferat, Ali Badr tells the Story of the migration of Sufi to Belgium, who has to Emigrate Illegally so as to Escape forced Marriage, Poverty, loneliness, Discrimination, Sexual Violence, and War.

    Methodology

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the migration of women and its psychological consequences in a descriptive-analytical manner. The study seeks to answer the fundamental question of ‘what are the psychological consequences of Sufi’s migration in the novel Al-Kaferat?’

    Results and Discussion

    As a female refugee immigrant, Sufi goes through a process from the moment she arrives in Belgium until she is accepted as a citizen. At the beginning of her arrival in Belgium, she encounters a kind of cultural shock or initial passivity. This stage includes several cases, first in the form of a honeymoon, in which everything is pleasant and attractive for her. But this stage does not last long because it confronts Sufi with some damage, including her apparent difference as an Arab woman from the people of the host country. This makes her an unpleasant and threatening alien. What makes it even more difficult for her is to obtain an asylum permit, learn the Belgian language and find a suitable job. Most importantly, the discriminatory behaviors she faces at work as an immigrant woman is painful. Sufi tries to adapt to the host community to some extent by learning the target language, finding a job, and reducing the pressure of this cultural blow. After this stage, Sufi experiences a kind of marginalization and frustration that leads her to deep sadness and ultimately suicide, which is due to loneliness, lack of good communication in the new place, and lack of acceptance. In the last stage, Sufism reaches a new orientation in the form of adaptation to the new culture. This compatibility occurs in the form of complete resemblance to the host community. In the case of a change of the fundamental views in Sufi’s life, from a refugee to a legal immigrant, to a change of identity from Fatima to a Sufi, to trying to speak Belgian without a her non-native accent, and to a change of residence from an immigrant to Belgium. The changes in dress and behavior lead to unlimited social relationships with Belgian men.

    Conclusion

    Immigration may be voluntary or forced. Voluntary migration is primarily an economic incentive to improve one's living and working conditions. But forced migration is the result of coercion and for political reasons. In the past, women migrated as dependent on men, while, nowadays, many women migrate alone or with their children. The migration of women as workers, refugees, students, business partners, etc. can be called the feminization of migration. This type of migration is strongly influenced by gender and can be along with restrictions, opportunities and incentives for migration. Feminization of immigration is a gender pattern of migration in which a high number of women leave their place of residence or birth for work or marriage. For many years, women have been neglected in studies related to immigration. Migration of women often induces two other changes or transformations: the feminization of poverty and the feminization of work. Feminization of immigration is one of the most problematic forms of migration, which leads to issues such as violence, abuse of women and their exploitation in social aspects. Women, like men, for various reasons, such as finding better living conditions, protecting their children, escaping political and work turmoil, sometimes prefer to migrate with an ambiguous fate. Among the many causes that affect this, the strong ones can be enumerated as poverty and material needs as well as the need for family support, just like the case men. However, poverty is not always the main reason for women's decision to migrate. Social conditions and the effects of traditions and customs on the family situation also affect this decision.

    Keywords: Immigration, Female migration, Ali Badr, Al-kafereh
  • Ahmad Lamei Giv, Zahra Khosravi Zargar * Pages 45-66
    Introduction

    The archetype of the awakening of the hero involves his path toward perfection and dream of individuality with focus on some other archetypes. During the journey, the hero attains a profound understanding of himself and the ultimate meaning of life. The novel The Bamboo Stalk was written by the Kuwaiti writer Saud Alsanousi and is worth examining with a focus on the evolution of the protagonist. The current research aims to study the process of a character’s (Isa) evolution in The Bamboo Stalk, using the archetype of the hero’s journey and then answering the question ‘Which archetypes of a hero’s journey are found in this novel?’ The Bamboo Stalk has not been examined via the lens of archetypal criticism yet, and the present research seeks to analyze this work through the viewpoint of the hero’s journey archetype.

    Methodology

    To expand Joseph Campbell’s ideas in The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Carol S. Pearson and Hugh K. Marr, in a book entitled “My Graceful Life”, studied the hero’s journey plot, which is a pattern of the development of individuality. They believe that the character attains a deeper understanding of himself during this journey and eventually becomes aware of his talents and the intended meaning of life. Pierson proposes twelve archetypes and believes that, in each phase of human’s life, one of these archetypes dominates a person’s life. Overall, he classifies the mythical path of every individual into three different parts, each of which is associated with its own especial archetypes. Using these ideas and a descriptive-analytic approach, the current research explores the process of Isa’s personality evolution and development in the novel The Bamboo Stalk.

    Results and Discussion

    The research findings indicate that the plot of The Bamboo Stalk involves the hero’s journey. In this novel, the procedure and process of individuality development are highly visible through the archetypes. During the journey, Isa actually shifts from unconsciousness to self-consciousness. In the first phase, he faces numerous obstacles and problems to start the journey. He starts the journey as an innocent character, expecting others to provide him with the most ideal kind of life. Also, due to suffering too much pain and misery, he experiences the orphan archetype.Through this journey, Isa gets more and more experienced, dealing with numerous difficulties and experiencing the archetypes associated with this phase of the journey. As an annihilator, he causes too many troubles for his family. As an adventurer, he looks for the answers to his questions as well as his true identity on this journey. As a family-oriented person, he brings peace to them. In his childhood dreams, Kuwait was considered a heaven-like place, where he could make all his dreams come true. In contrast, this is where he goes through a hard time for several years because, despite having various properties, he did not feel at home there. Yet, as a result of all this hardship, his character and individuality are developed.Isa is a magician who finds his intended identity by changing his viewpoint. However, this identity does not depend on a specific nationality or religion. Isa is a wise man who switches between his motherland and fatherland as well as their different religions and languages. He finds the solution to this problem in the course of this story. After getting acquainted with various religions, he concludes that all of them are satisfactory enough. The dominant archetype lets him write his novel in Filipino language, despite having both Filipino as well as Kuwaiti identification cards. At the end of the story, he is an adult male who is the father of a kid in the same field where his grandfather grew up once. He names the kid after his father and the fatherland. His return to the place that he adores is a representation of clown archetype.

    Conclusion

    The study of the process of the evolution and development of Isa’s personality in the novel, The Bamboo Stalk, indicates that this process is generally consistent with the hero’s journey archetype. In this novel, the hero overcomes his personal and local boundaries; he dies as a person without identity, still searching for one. Yet, as a perfect human being who belongs to the whole world and cherishes every nation, he is reborn. His crucial mission is to return to his motherland with a new thought system to teach the lessons he had learned while living in Kuwait. In this way, he experiences all the archetypes associated with this perfection journey.

    Keywords: Archetype Criticism, Journey, Hero, Bamboo stem, Saud al-Sanousi
  • Somayeh Akbari, Abdolbaset Arab Yusofabadi *, Foad Abdollahzadeh Pages 67-90
    Introduction
    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the reader’s presence and participation in the stories of Sobhi Suleiman. With the initial reading of the desired stories, it is assumed that the author has been influenced by the child's specific intellectual and linguistic framework in the creation of each of these stories.In modern literary criticism, the reader plays such an important role in reading and receiving the meaning of the text that many theorists in this field consider the reader as the main purpose of creating the text. This requires that the constituent elements of the text (author, reader, and message) have a proper and logical relationship with one another. In contemporary literary texts, it is the reader who chooses the text, and his choice affects the different stages of a literary relationship. If the author selects his audience while creating a work of art, he places the text in a circle of rules and special tastes of the reader. Deviating from any of them causes a noticeable decrease in the reading of that text by the reader. This approach in literary criticism is known as the mental presence of the reader in the text. In contrast, there is another approach believing in the indifference of literary texts to the reader's tastes and moods. They state that it is the writer who plays a pivotal and fundamental role in the emergence of a literary text. If the reader of such texts is a child, due to the complexity of the content and its wide vocabulary, the texts will fail to attract the child’s attention and to be welcomed.
    Methodology
    The present research seeks to analyze the children's stories written by Sobhi Suleiman, a contemporary Egyptian novelist, based on the descriptive-analytical method and the theory of the text reception and its adaptation to the child's literary texts. So far, several illustrated story collections have been published by this author. In this research, some of his short stories were randomly selected. These stories are generally written for age groups "B" and "C". The term "latent reader" was first coined by Aiden Chambers. To reach the latent reader, elements such as style, perspective, advocacy, and rational gaps must be explored. The style is the manner of using the language to convey meaning and to connect the author's secondary self and the reader within the text. It includes the choice of words, sentence structure, and the author's attitude toward beliefs and customs. The perspective is to place the reader (child) at the center of the story and to tell the story through his or her presence. The element of advocacy means understanding the child's world, aligning with it, and creating the conditions for the child to participate in the story as a reader. Thus, the author expects the child to both accompany the story and distance himself from it so that he can understand the story deeply. The rational gaps in this regard include infrastructure (content) and superstructure (form) gaps.
    Results and Discussion
    In contemporary criticism, the author's dominance over the text gradually diminishes and the reader finds the main role. Therefore, in such a critique, a special look is taken at the position of the text and its interpretive power and the position of the audience and the way of receiving it. In children's literature, critics of reader-centered texts emphasize that the more attention the writer pays to the child and emphasizes the conditions of his presence as a complementary element of the text, the better the text is. They pursue the originality of children's literature neither in the eyes of the child's writer nor in the text, but in its ultimate goal, the reader (child). The results show that the above stories are closely related to the child's world. This is because, throughout the stories, the author uses techniques such as spelling, spacing characterization, dual structures, rotational rotation, prior awareness, and context with the aim of encouraging the child to read or listen to the rest of the story and making him or her an agent.
    Conclusion
    Before writing the stories, Sobhi Suleiman had a general idea of the child's mental world, and this foreknowledge has given the texts of the stories a relational structure. To achieve this goal, he has left some spaces in the text blank or removed parts of the text by some dots. In order to receive the desired meaning, the child emphasizes his presence in the text and enjoys this mutual interaction through filling the blanks and suggesting different solutions for the characters of the story. In these stories, there are two ways of creating gaps in the common characterization; a character with a special physical dimension is introduced with different physical characteristics, or the phenomenon that plays a major role in the story is introduced significantly different from the adult world in terms of internal and emotional dimension.
    Keywords: Singer presence, spelling, characterization distance, Context, Sobhi Suleiman
  • Tayyebe Fathi Iranshahi, Seyyed Mahmoud Mirzaee Alhoseini *, Shirin Pourebrahim Pages 91-114
    Introduction
    Cognitive semantics is a branch of cognitive linguistics which suggests that there are a number of cognitive mechanisms in the minds of humans including image schemas, conceptual metaphors, and conceptual metonymies through which meanings are created. Image schemas are the basic concepts like movement, container and force experienced by human beings from the early days of life and formed in their minds. One of the main claims of cognitive semantics is that abstract thinking roots in human experiences. Conceptual metaphor theory (CMT), first proposed in Lakoff and Johnson (1980), believes that the abstract concepts like life are better evoked by concrete and tangible concepts like journey. The former is called a target domain, and the latter is a source domain. There are lots of systematic mappings between these domains. The theory believes that the ubiquity of the systematic mappings between sources and target domains is a proof that our thinking is mostly metaphorical. The important dimension of image schemas is that they provide concrete experiential bases for the construction of some conceptual metaphors. Moreover, conceptual metonymies are mechanisms in which a kind of mental access is provided between two relevant and adjacent entities which are in the same idealized cognitive model (ICM).Time is one of the most important as well as complex abstract concepts that has attracted the attention of many thinkers throughout the history. In both formal and cognitive linguistics, this issue has been studied in literary texts, primarily in narrative texts. The novel Yusef Tadres' Stories (Hikayat Yusef Tadres), winning the Najib Mahfouz Prize (2016), is one of the famous works of Adel Esmat, the Egyptian famous novelist. This story is narrated by Yusef Tadres, the main character of the novel. He is an artist, invoked by many idiosyncratic thoughts, cognitively developed through the passage of time by the aid of his paintings. This research attempts to shed light on the cognitive system of time representation in the story and, at the same time, its conceptualization in the mind of the ego-narrator, according to the cognitive semantics theory.
    Methodology
    To analyze the temporal elements of this narrative, the researchers tried to use the ideas of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and Johnson (1987) as the bases for the identification, categorization and explanation of all the temporal elements in the story. So, all the metaphorical expressions denoting the time concept were extracted from the text. Moreover, the image schemas which represent time elements were identified and recorded. There are some time metonymies in the text that construct the concept of time. These elements were identified and explained in the process of argumentation.
    Results and Discussion
    The extracted data were used for the analysis of the time representation quality in the text and its conceptualization. The results show that the ego-narrator has used the three mechanisms of image schemas, conceptual metaphors and metonymies. Firstly, since there is a general correlation between time and place concepts, that is, TIME is universally conceptualized as PLACE/SPACE, the text provides such a mapping with the preposition "fi" (in) for the temporal elements. This constructs a kind of spatial identity for the non-spatial elements of time, both through a fundamental image schema of CONTAINER and the metaphors of time like time as SPACE or time as a PATH THAT HUMANS PASSED. Another issue is the conceptualization of time as an OBJECT, evoked by special expressions like small (Saghir), heavy (Thaghil) and pronominal elements like that (Zaleka/Telka). The PATH schema is used in the conceptualization of time. In some cases, time is evoked as a volitional movement in the path, as if TIME IS AN ANIMAL/HUMAN. In these cases time is as a moving object, and humans are static observers. In the conceptual metonymy found here, time is a CONTAINER in which all the events of the story are located and there is a metonymic relation of THE PROPERITIES OF EVENTS FOR EVENTS, as well as THE WHOLE FOR PART in which, for example, a whole day is used for a part of it.
    Conclusion
    This study shows that the novelist conceptualized time as SPACE, PATH, OBJECT, as well as, ANIMATE CREATURE to achieve narratological purposes such as description of the setting of the story, characterizations, and thematic descriptions. At the same time, the conceptual metonymies like THE TIME OF THE EVENT FOR THE EVENT and THE WHOLE TIME FOR PART OF IT are observed and aligned with other conceptualizations. The results suggest that the cognitive semantics theory, among other theories, is potentially capable of analyzing the narrative concepts, conceptualizations and the details of semantic constructions in the story, which can shed light on the subjectivity of the narrator.
    Keywords: Cognitive semantics, Conceptual metaphor, Imaginary schema, Time, Adel Esmat, Yousef Tadres' stories
  • Zohreh Naemi, Niloufar Zarivand * Pages 115-136
    Introduction
    After Saussure, thanks to the efforts of Michael Halliday, structuralism went beyond the level of sentences and syntactic studies. He expanded the scopes of the text concept and textual context. Holliday evaluates the content system of all languages under the heading of meta-role (meta-function) at three levels including intellectual (experimental), interpersonal, and textual para-role, which together provide a deeper understanding of the text for the reader. Textual meta-function is the use of language to produce spoken or written texts that connect the meanings of two other meta-functions in a real context and consider their clause and type of arrangement to determine how well they shape the text.In recent years, many attempts have been made to study structuralism and Halliday's systematic pattern of literary works, which reveals the importance of linguistic patterns. Meanwhile, contemporary Arabic poetry, considering its new forms and themes, which are as a revolution in the direction of classical Arabic poetry forms and themes, can be a suitable platform for an analysis based on the patterns of Western linguistics. In this context, the present study examines the poem "Dour" by Ahmad Matar, a contemporary Iraqi poet, according to a systematic and patterned model of Halliday. The aim is to determine the degree of textual coherence, the effect of paragraphs in conveying meaning, and the poet's message.
    Methodology
    From a meta-textual perspective, the construction of the beginning, the ending and the discourse information are considered as structural tools, and coherence is viewed as a non-structural tool of the text. In this approach, the relations between the clauses are divided into two types, external and internal. External relations (non-structural) under the title of coherence address the cohesive factors that connect the different parts of the text, which helps the reader or listener to understand the meaning. However, internal (structural) relations deal with the thematic structure and the information structure of discourse.In fact, the contextual function has to do with the initial construction, which is the extent and manner of structuring information by the speaker. Then, it concerns the informative construction, which is the amount of old and new information by the recipient and the relationship between the information presented and other discourse information.In this research, using a descriptive-analytical method and an linguistic approach, an attempt is made to study the main elements of textual meta-functions, which include textual coherence, beginning-ending construction and type of discourse information in the poem.
    Results and Discussion
    According to the analysis of the poem, at the level of grammatical elements with 30.61% coherence and at the level of vocabulary with 57.14% coherence (which is the highest coherence in the poem), the poet often draws the audience's attention to four recurring elements including "al-Ghafia", "Arsh al-Taghia", "Jeld" and the poet. These have been mentioned in various forms. Finally, with the connecting elements that have the lowest degree of coherence in the poem, i.e., 12.24%, only a small expansion of the word, its detailed elaboration or a brief expression of time between paragraphs have been dealt with. Accordingly, with this level of coherence at the level of vocabulary and grammar, the poet first draws the audience's attention to the factors that somehow depict the meaning of the title of the poem; That is, the role of the poet and his poetry in overthrowing oppression. This is compared to the tanning of the skin of the throne of Taghut and is described with a concise expression.At the level of the construction of the beginning-ending as well as the type of discourse information, it is found that most of the clauses of this poem are unmarked and according to the rules of Arabic syntax and normal form of common sentences, which gives background information to the beginnings reading this poem. The presence of unnamed beginners with old information indicates that the poet did not seek to create complexity in his speech and wants to speak frankly and simply with his audience. Also, the statement nature of most of the verses indicates that the poet does not seek to challenge the audience or encourage them to protest or do similar actions to overthrow oppression. A poem with this type of construction seeks to inform the audience about the role of the poet and his rhyme.
    Conclusion
    In general, according to the structural and non-structural analyses of the poem, the meaning of the title of the poem (i.e., Daur = role) becomes clear to the audience; That is, the roles of poet and poetry in overthrowing the throne of Taghut, a role that has been repeatedly mentioned due to the type of arrangement and information as well as the level of coherence. In fact, in this poem, the poet points to the effective role of writing in the development of people's consciousness, which, over time, achieves results and eliminates oppression.
    Keywords: Halliday, Textual meta-functions, Ahmad Matar, The ode Daur
  • Fahimeh Yeganeh Dizajwar, Babak Farzaneh *, Leila Gasemi Haji Abadi, Ezzat Molla Ebrahimi Pages 137-159
    Introduction
     Since the advent of the genre of novel in the eighteenth century, the technical element of setting has been a component to determine the plot; however, its role has become much more important in modern novels, and it is not simply a field for the actions of the heroes and the occurrence of the events. Sometimes, with its usual function, this element has played an independent and effective role in the course of the events and the relationship among the characters. The novel of Alam bi-la Kharait is coauthored by two great Arab world novelists, Jabra Ibrahim Jabra and Abdolrahman Mounif. It reflects a social theme, and a picture of Arabic societies in 1979 has been displayed. Since the title of this novel implies the setting, it is absolutely important to investigate the element of setting in this novel and to discover its dimensions and functions.
    Methodology
    This essay, through a descriptive-analytic method, investigates and classifies the most important settings in the novel Alam bi-la Kharait jointly written by two famous Arab novelists, Abdul Rahman Munif and Jabra Ibrahim Jabra. The procedure, in the first place, is to introduce and find examples of open and closed as well as private and public settings and then to investigate the bases of those examples and their technical functions. According to the results of the research, except the city of Amorium which plays the usual role of a setting and is symbolized as the main setting of the novel, the rest of the open and closed as well as public and private places, such as the multiple houses, villages, restaurant, sea and university, had often functioned as the tools of characterization. However, when these settings are described in detail, they can serve to make the events believable, create an emotional atmosphere, and convey the sentiments of the characters of the novel to the reader. 
    Results and Discussion
    The denouement and even the discovery of the mysterious character of Najva, the heroine of this story, is only possible through the element of setting. Another notable point regarding Amorium is that, through a monologue and based on the psychological analysis of the women characters in communication, Aala calls them Amorium or Madineh, ranging from Naeleh, his teenage love, to Najva and then Mayadeh. The narrator wishes to make the reader understand the symbolic secret that Najva is his homeland which he has lost for many reasons and is now in the hands of strangers, and Aala, tired and wandering in search of another homeland, opens his heart to beautiful Mayadeh. So, he may replace his lost love with her love and affection. It is directly pointed that “Mayadeh is another Amorium of mine and I cannot lose her.” Mayadeh (the substituted homeland), although beautiful, never replaces Najva (the main homeland). So, he says “Mayadeh should forgive me forever, because Najva isn’t forgettable.” The mysterious presence of women characters in this novel not only provides an appropriate basis for expressing female emotions and a romantic content but also is mixed with the concept of the homeland (Amorium). These women characters appear in the novel as complicated and mysterious characters. Through analyzing these women characters, we can figure out the importance of the setting of “Amorium” and the deep relationship between them. In the end, with the mysterious murder of  Najva, the novel, just like postmodernist stories, comes to an open end, and the investigators of the truth steep themselves in the ambiguities of her case, just like Amorium which had vanished in the history.
    Conclusion
    In the novel Alam bi-la Kharait, it is deduced that the setting of Amorium with all its symbols, such as streets, sidewalks, neighborhoods, and their houses, has at least two important functions. First, the technical functions of characterization have been selectively dealt with. Second, there is the symbolic function meaning that this place is the main setting of the events of the novel and is simultaneously the symbol of the whole Arab world due to its indeterminacy. So, two advantages can be gained. First, the discussed events and mental and social matters regarding that place can be generalized to the whole Arab world. Second, a wide range of readers from the Arab world can consider themselves as its direct addressees and have a deep communication with the content. Otherwise, if the setting had been determined to be Beirut or Baghdad instead of Amorium, the extent of the generalization of the discussed matters would have declined to be restricted to the same cities and their residents, and the number of the addressees would have declined too.
    Keywords: novel, element of setting, Abdul Rahman Munif, Jabra Ibrahim Jabra, Alam bi-la Kharait
  • Sajjad Esameili * Pages 161-182
    Introduction
    Resistance discourse is considered as one of the most important recent literary enterprises in the Arab world. This discourse can be considered an ingredient of human beings because, since the beginning of human life, there has been a battle between human and nature for survival under the shadow of which human beings have grown and followed the path of redemption. The poets and authors of Arab resistance who were observers of their country situation since the beginning of shaping their personalities, along with the courageous people of their own territory, have experience the pain and torture and consequently proposed resistance thoughts in their poems. Indeed, they have been preachers of resistance. Samih al-Qasem, poet of Palestinian resistance who has regarded resistance as an epigraph in writing his poets, depicts the conflicting space between the tyranny of Zionist regime and the resistance movement in Palestine. Samih has created an ode based on five symbolic characters who express their thoughts using conversation elements. Some of the characters are responsible for teaching resistance, and some others have usurping attitudes. Investigating how each of the characters behaves and what techniques they use to achieve their discourse and influence the readers requires psychological analysis. In fact, each of the characters in most situations utilizes emotional intelligence to achieve his or her goals. Emotional intelligence is a technique used in psychological analysis for the diagnosis of the external behavior of individuals.This research aims to analyze different aspects of emotional intelligence in creation of resistance discourse. for each of the characters from a psychological perspective. The main question of this research is as follows. In order to run their discourse and to impress the readers more, how characters of the ode Hevariat al-Ar have used the Goldman model and what aspect of emotional intelligence have they used? The proposed hypothesis for this question is based on the discourse structure of the ode, It seems that the activators in this ode do the discourse not only to utilize self-awareness and self-management but also pay attention to the managing of others’ behavior.
    Methodology
    The main approach of this research is descriptive-analytic, and its theoretical approach is based on psychological emotional intelligence. In this research, at first, different steps of creating discourse by the characters of the ode are investigated. Afterwards, in each step, various aspects of emotional intelligence are analyzed based on the Goldman model. The ode Hevariat al-Ar” is chosen as the subject of this research due to its specific discourse structure.
    Results and Discussion
    Discourse in the ode Hevariat al-Ar shows that it is comprised of five characters (including servant, slave, oziris, governor and poet), who use their particular emotional intelligence to accomplish the poet’s goal. Self-awareness is the recognition of the excitements that an individual senses and their reasons. The discourse between the characters of the ode Hevariat al-Ar is illustrative of each character’s awareness of his emotions and the resulting behavior of those emotions. Self-management is the ability to confront the negative attitudes and to create opportunities for making decisions and alter those attitudes to positive ones. Samih al-Qasem uses complete inhibition to revive the sense of trust and responsibility among his readers and creates contextual innovation. In other words, he establishes resistance discourse against the dominated regime. Inherent motivation is the redirecting and navigating of emotions and excitements towards the goal. The most important inherent motivations that force the actors in the ode to divulge external behavior is the motivation for “resistance and seeking martyrdom” among people of resistance in Palestine and the motivation of “oppression and tyranny” among people in the class of tyranny. Social awareness means being sensitive to others’ feelings and interests and tolerating their points of view. The management of relationships with people is also the ability to recognize people and sympathize with them. Each of the characters in this ode, in addition to controlling their own behavior, pays attention to sympathizing with others and managing their relationships with others (empathy). The poet navigates his emotions oriented towards his Palestinian compatriots and finds himself very close to them.
    Conclusion
    According to the discourse conversations between the characters in the ode Hevariat al-Ar”, we can conclude that all the characters follow four steps including meaning ableism, qualitative ableism, flavorist ableism and action. Moreover, they utilize five dimensions of emotional intelligence proposed by Goldman including self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, sociability and management of interacting with others. Therefore, before the characters enter the level of managing the emotions of their readers, they first control their emotions. Afterwards, with different inherent motivations, they enter the level of discourse and finally declare their awareness of their surroundings and control the interaction between themselves and the readers. Some characters, like Khadem and Hakem, convey the discourse of the tyrants and make the reader hate this class of people. Some others like poet Osiris and the slave depict the discourse of the oppressed people in Palestine, preach resistance, and actually reveal the discourse of a permanent battle between Authoritarians and the resistance movement.
    Keywords: Critique of psychology, Goleman's model, Emotional intelligence, Samih al-Qasem, Hevariat al-Ar
  • Ali Najafi Ivaki *, Mohsen Seifi, Fatemeh Hajighorbani Pages 183-204
    Introduction
    Myth has a special value and place in the contemporary Arabic poetry and is strongly intertwined with it. Prominent contemporary Arab poets turned to this element in order to symbolize the poetic language and to express ideas indirectly and more artistically. A very important myth that has appeared in a large bulk of contemporary Arabic poetry is the myth of Gilgamesh. This mythical character is defeated due to the inclusion of various meanings, including the attempt to discover the mystery of immortality, the desire for immortality, enmity and friendship together, enduring difficulties in achieving goals, meeting a wise old man, and trying to destroy evil. In the test of awakening, the loss of the plant of youth and the water of life, the surrender to destiny, etc., have created a good opportunity for contemporary Arab poets to present their personal and social experiences to the audience in the light of calling that myth in the context of their poetry. Samih al-Qasim from Palestine in the poem "Jaljamesh, Alloh-Al-Thales Ashar", Adonis from Syria in the two poems "Jalqamesh" and "Sajil 1999", as well as Saadi Yusuf from Iraq in the poem "Manzel al-Masrat" are among the poets who used this myth artistically.
    Methodology
    This research has been done by a descriptive-analytical method, and content criticism has been performed through the analysis of the three poems.
    Results and Discussion
    One of the most important mythological characters mentioned in the poetry of Samih Al-Qasim (1939-2014), a famous contemporary Palestinian poet, is "Gilgamesh". The myth has entered the poem book My exterior is the face of the essence of the day published in 2000 for the first time. In this poem, Samih Al-Qasim is inspired by the myth of Gilgamesh. What is striking at the outset is that the poet "unfamiliarizes" himself with this name. Because a tablet is added to the twelve tablets of the myth, the beginning of the speech is attractive to the audience and creates enthusiasm and motivation for reading the poem to the end and learning from the new words of the mythical character. It is worth mentioning that the poet based the poem on the centrality of Gilgamesh's character.In the relatively long poem Sejil (1999), Adonis has paid attention to this myth many times and tried to use the "formula of speech" and the technique of masking and identifying with the myth of Gilgamesh, as an intangible and objective equivalent, from the theme of that ancient text. In "Sajil", the poet has tried to use the same myth to portray the oppression and isolation of intellectuals. He wishes Gilgamesh had power and all the people of the city would obey him. But Gilgamesh is an unruly ruler and no one pays attention to his words. Therefore, the poet's purpose is to highlight the isolation of intellectualsThe contemporary Iraqi poet Saadi Yusuf has paid special attention to the myth of Gilgamesh in his poem "Manzel al-Masrat" from the poetry book "Al-Layali Koloha", which was published during the Ba'ath party's rule in Iraq. The poet "Manzel al-Masrat" represents a house in Baghdad where dancers and actors live and dance and have fun. This poem is one of the works in which Saadi Yousef invokes the myth of Gilgamesh in its opening lines so that he can express the socio-political issues of his country.According to the type of concern and desire, mainly based on Gilgamesh's journey, the poet is disappointed of achieving his desires. Confusion, bewilderment during the migration, Enkidu's death, and his quest to unravel the mystery of life and death help the character unravel and liberate his backwardness. Therefore, despite the fact that Samih Al-Qasim has placed his Gilgamesh in a wider space by using various tricks, and apart from mentioning the same philosophy of life and death, he has not gained any new experience in it and in the process of invocation; the use of old faces is a redundancy in poetry.
    Conclusion
    The study shows that Samih Al-Qasim tried to inspire the audience with the idea of ​​"human immortality" through inspiration from the mythical character of Gilgamesh. His poem is a reminder that the twentieth century man has not discovered the secret of immortality and he has no share other than death. The purpose of Adonis in invoking the ancient mythical figure in his poem "Jalqamsh" was to inspire the audience with his literary works in line with the twelve tablets of Gilgamesh's epic. He insists that, just as the mythical Gilgamesh after enduring the hardships of the journey to attain immortality, he has come to the conclusion that he must write his experiences on the Twelve Tablets to guide people. He believes that poets have to travel and go through hardships in order to gain experience, knowledge and permanence.Saadi Yusuf also aimed to depict Iraq as the equivalent of the cedar forest of the Gilgamesh period by creating an intertextual link between his poetry and Gilgamesh's speech and focusing on this character's experience of death. The poet seeks Gilgamesh so as to destroy contemporary Hombaba and restore morality and chastity to Iraq. In another interpretation, Iraq is envisioned as Enkid for Saadi Yusuf who died of moral corruption. The poet describes the death of his friend to the audience in this text.
    Keywords: Contemporary Arabic poetry, Myth, Gilgamesh, Enkidu, Death, Immortality, Adventure
  • Abolhassan Amin Moghaddasi, Shahriar Niazi, Farzane Ajorloo * Pages 205-223
    Introduction

    Influenced by the intellectual movements of the Renaissance, the flow of the contemporary literature moved away from the imitative frameworks in structure and content and found a new approach based on questioning and searching in the view of existence and the origin and end of life. In this environment, contemporary human beings seek to find the meaning and truth of objects and phenomena in accordance with free thought and astonishment against the manifestations of existence. They do this by reconsidering their existential dimensions as evidence of the world and redefining concepts such as intellect, existence and death. In search of the inner world of the universe and the supernatural and, meanwhile, considering the limitations of the intellect as well as the impotence of human beings, it is of  necessity to connect with the channels of existence and sources of absolute knowledge in order to understand and receive the truth and the inner things. Surrealism in the libertarian and truth-seeking school of concepts and phenomena, based on the avoidance of imitation, the creation of new meanings and relations as well as the creation of novel images, established a movement in contemporary literature, although this approach has not achieved much in discovering and understanding the truth. Considering that it has caused the liberation of thought and freedom of thought, it has led man on the path of seeking the truth and searching for the exact and deep meaning of concepts and connection with the original sources of perception that are necessary to discover and understand facts. The contemporary literature, a function of the Renaissance thought stream, underwent significant changes of content, concepts and structure, during which the approach of the works moved away from conventional themes and contents and unequivocally accepted imitative forms to a free attitude and return.

    Methodology

    Using a descriptive-analytical method and providing a correct definition of freethinking as well as a detailed account of the intellectual positions of the thinkers of the school of surrealism, the present research explains the original idea and its connection with the structure of surrealism. It also makes references to the opinions of critics in the field.

    Results and Discussion

    Considering the limitation of reason and the lack of power of man, independently, in understanding and receiving the truth and the inside things, it is necessary to make a link between the references and sources of "absolute knowledge" in the formation of the "zero point" of the mind and original thinking freed from external data. Surrealism lies in the nature of a freedom-loving school and the searching for the truth of concepts and phenomena, based on avoiding imitation and creating new meanings and relationships. The question of one’s Self and the question of the most basic concepts of existence in order to understand and receive the truth of life and discover the mysteries and inwardness of objects and phenomena are beyond what has been induced in the human mind. However, a change occurred in the schools of classicism and modernism, but its full manifestation was realized in the poetic works of Surrealism. The poets of this school, in searching and discovering the meanings and truths of existence, rejected the existing positions and definitions in order to get rid of the stagnation of the literary society. They also considered the questioning of astonishment against the manifestations of life and existence as the main element of literary creations. They understood the origin and the end of existence. The origin of this approach was to pay attention to the inner world and human instincts in relation to their deep and original needs, which has led contemporary human beings to review and recover their inner powers and redefine concepts such as existence, intellect, life and truth in order to reach beyond matter. It has led to the discovery of its secrets.

    Conclusion

    The approach of surrealism, in the sense that it frees thought from the circle of imitation, and freedom of thought, which is the point of commonality between pure rationality and surrealism, leads man on the path of truth-seeking and searching for the precise and deep meaning of concepts and connects him to the original sources of perception. It also provides an understanding of the facts of life. This study aims to explain the structure of the mind and the power of thinking as the only reference that man has to recognize and understand the meanings and concepts, on the one hand, and examine the structure, process and the origin of meanings and images on the other hand.

    Keywords: Surrealism, Free thinking, Astonishment, Discovery, Contemporary poetry
  • Sadegh Alboghbeish, Rasoul Balavi *, Majid Marhaj Robat Pages 225-245
    Introduction

    After breaking away from Freud's school, Karl Gustav Jung developed the collective unconsciousness theory and set five patterns for the human personality psyche including the Self, the Shadow, the Persona, the Animus, and the Anima. In psychoanalysis, these five factors are used extensively. Archeological criticism seeks to examine the collective subconscious that Jung considers persona and shadow to be the most important and fundamental factors in the evolution of human personality. Jung believes that these archetypes are a common feature of all mankind and can be found in poetry. Considering the compatibility of the masks and shadows archives in the poetry of Linda Nasser, the present study makes attempts to explore her poetry in a descriptive-analytical way and to identify and explain the nature, personas, shadows and their use in her poetry. Linda Nasser, a Lebanese poet, in the Laenni Fi Uzlat (which means because I'm in isolation) collection, shows her poetic man with a persona. This persona is sometimes a mythical and sometimes a social character drawing on his ideas with a sense of identity. Moreover, in the human subconscious desired by Linda, there are shadows that one tries to keep hidden. The research findings suggest that Linda chooses behaviors such as evil, badness, sin, greed, and theft as shadows, and good traits such as stoicism, faith, mercy, and kindness as the traits of the human character in the community. These traits are carefully considered in the literature and are adaptable to Jung's theories.

    Methodology

    The conservative Arab society in general and the Lebanese society in particular and the cultural and social practices in these societies create a gap between the text and the society, and the author tries to hide behind the text. Linda Nasar is a poetess who uses archetypes to describe herself. She shows herself, chooses the shadow and the mask so that she can continue her life from these archetypes. She also shows the meanings of the words to their readers by applying masks and shadows. Considering this study, the study of "Lani in solitude" and the critique of Carl Jung's archetype, it can be concluded that Linda Nassar also used archetypes such as fear of society's misconceptions, evil on the part of people in society, sinful deeds and public opinion about it, good and evil, and categories that introduce these two. Each of these archetypes indicates a particular behavior and can be subdivided into shadows and masks. This research seeks to show the shadow and mask in Linda Nasar's poetry a using descriptive-analytical method.

    Results and Discussion

     Archetypes that indicate disgusting behavior which every person seeks to hide are a subset of shadow, while appropriate social behaviors are a subset of mask. Linda Nassar's man has the same archetypes, shadows and masks. There are many reasons for her using archetypes, the most important of which is the conservative Lebanese society and the lack of physical and mental freedom of women in such a society. Linda refers to the bad temperament of human beings who are in the shadows, and everyone is aware of its existence and tries to hide it. The other person Linda talks about is full of evil and negative shadows. She describes the existence of such shadows as evil, hatred, resentment and sin. Linda Nassar resorts to shadows and masks to avoid the criticism of the society and its people, and she embodies two worlds in one direction, a world that adapts to reality and a world is what others want.

    Conclusion

     The poetess shows her hopes and aspirations for the shadow and induces her fear to the reader for successive masks. In this study, an attempt was made to examine the reasons for the use of masks and shadows in Linda Nassar's poetry according to Carl Jung's theory. It was found that the poet used many archetypes to fill the void caused by fear. The poetess is capable of conveying issues in an artistic and literary way. In societies where women's minds and bodies are involved in conservative and reactionary thoughts, it is necessary to speak in secret. The work of the eminent Lebanese poetess Linda Nassar conveys her thoughts by choosing the codes of mask and shadow and presenting a psychoanalytic writing to her reader.

    Keywords: Contemporary Arabic poetry, Jung, archetype, Persona, Linda Nassar
  • Fatemeh Ghaderi *, Hamideh Morovati, Vesal Maymandi, Reza Afkhami Aghda Pages 247-270
    Introduction

    Discourse analysis is a new method of identifying the socio-cultural factors that play roles in the creation of discourse. In terms of domain, this method not only functions at micro-levels but also addresses macro-levels including the society, history and ideology. It clarifies the place of discourse in campaigns for conservation or the change of power relationships. A major approach to the critical analysis of discourse was proposed by Norman Fairclough. He considers discourse as a means of expressing one's ideology and reflecting socio-cultural changes as well as power-related issues. He has presented the concept of discourse analysis at descriptive, interpretive and expository levels. Considering that every mythical symbol is the reconstruction of an original fact and serves to intertextually denote a part of a certain ideology or culture, the present study makes use of the aforementioned three levels postulated by Fairclough so as to analyze the mythical symbols in the novel Al-Jazieh wa al-Daravish authored by Abdul Hamid ben Hadouga (1925-1996).

    Methodology

    Through a descriptive-analytic method and with reference to the levels set by Fairclough (i.e., description, interpretation and exposition), the present study seeks to analyze the mythical symbols in the novel Al-Jazieh wa al-Daravish by the Algerian author Abdul Hamid ben Hadouga. These symbols, along with the contextual and intertextual features as well as the type of the discourse run in the novel, help to clarify the novelist's ideas and his position versus the power conflicts in the specific circumstances of the Algerian society during the 1970s.Analysis of the mythical symbols in the novel Al-Jazieh wa al-Daravisha) Descriptive level: One of the tasks at the descriptive level of discourse analysis is the retrieval of the metaphors used in the text. This task is, indeed, a part of the lexical investigation of the text. Such an analysis is quite possible with regard to the fact that the myths to deal with are in line with the metaphors in the text and many characters are symbolically represented. In this novel, Ben Hadouga uses the character Aljazieh to accurately depict the circumstances of the Algerian society in the 1970s. This character is the reminder of several symbols and myths. She is the daughter of a hero who died to liberate Algeria from colonialism. Through metaphors and ideological lexical items such as genuineness, martyrdom and campaign for the liberation of homeland, the author seeks to shed light on the manifestations of nationalism and religiousness. As he puts it, "She is a genuine girl whose father is a great martyr and whose mother is a righteous woman. God meant death for her in childbirth, and the birth was something like martyrdom. Now, her trainer is Aisha, a daughter of Mansour, who is a great hero and a virtuous combatant." The other mythical symbols discussed in the novel are Isāf and Nā'ila and Himar ul-Dzahab, which are Greek myths.b) Interpretive level: At this level, the interpreter determines the type of discourse, introduces those who run the discourse, and analyzes the contextual and intertextual features of the text on the basis of the background knowledge activated by the text surface features and the symbol discussed at the descriptive level.The situational context and the type of the discourse: The novel denotes the circumstances in Algeria during the 1970s. It makes use of mythical symbols and creates icons out of real figures as well as sociopolitical and cultural conditions in Algeria after it was liberated from colonialism but entrapped in internal conflicts and political purgation.Intertextual features and presumptions: One of the stipulations of Fairclough's theory is to pay attention to intertextual features at the interpretive level. Intertextually, there are relationships among the other novels by Ben Hadouga, namely Rih al-Djanoub  (The wind of the South, 1971), Nihayatou al Ams  (The End of Yesterday, 1975) and Banae al‑Soubh  (Laying Bare, 1980). These novels state a sequence from armed campaign to campaign for social developments. The novel Al-Jazieh wa al-Daravish states the latter. In this novel, Abdul Hamid takes inspirations from Algerian historical and narrative texts to consciously create symbolic icons out of historical events and induce a mental comparison of those events with the situational context of the novel.c) Expository level: At this level, the text adopts a certain ideological position so as to answer the question "Does the discourse try to conserve the power structure or change the current situation?" The discourse managed through Aljazieh, Himar ul-Dhahab, and Isāf and Nā'ila is of an ideological type. It calls for a change and seeks to establish a genuine Islamic-Arabic identity.

    Conclusion

    In this study Fairclough's approach of discourse analysis was used to analyze the mythical symbols in the novel Al-Jazieh wa al-Daravish at the levels of description, interpretation and exposition. The results obtained are as follows:- At the description level, Abdul Hamid ben Hadouga’s discourse about the mythical symbols relates to the events that occurred in Algeria in the 1970s, i.e., during the post-independence time. By using these symbols or creating symbols out of historical figures and events, the author describes the chaotic conditions of the country and considers the genuine religious and Arabic culture as well as liberation from the Western colonial culture as the factors of social advancement. In his novel, Al-jazieh is the reminder of Zidgia, who symbolizes religiousness. In addition, Al-jazieh al-Hlalieh symbolizes wisdom and resistance and mysteriously represents the affairs in Algeria. Besides, Isāf and Nā'ila serve as symbols for the campaign against secularism, and Himar ul-Dhahab raises awareness and indicates the role of being truly religious in bringing about real safety.- At the interpretation level, Ben Hadouga’s discourse in the novel is closely entangled with socio-political circumstances in the Algerian society. This discourse is formed under the impact of various groups that seek dominance over Algeria. The author rejects this dominance and tries to embody his own ideology by linking his discourse to a mythological texture. This is just like his attempt to better impart the concepts of resistance and perseverance as well as the attachment of politics and religion by using the mythical symbols of Aljazieh, Himar ul-Dhahab, and Isāf and Nā'ila.- At the exposition level, the main objective pursued by Ben Hadouga is to raise people's awareness for the regeneration of power relationships. Being ideological, scrupulous and committed, his discourse calls for a change of the conditions in the Algerian society of the 1970s. The author intends to change the power structure in favor of Islamists who have a genuine Arabic culture. To this end, he has both used Algerian mythological symbols and created myths out of the national figures and heritage symbols

    Keywords: Ideology, Power relations, Fairclough, Mystical symbol, Abdul Hamid bin Hadouqa, Al-Jaziah wa Al-Daravish