فهرست مطالب

Advances in Environmental Health Research - Volume:11 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
  • Volume:11 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/03/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Najmeh Bayat, Ramin Nabizadeh, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, MohammadHadi Dehghani, Hamed Soleimani, Masoomeh Askari, Mahmood Alimohammadi * Pages 1-7
    Background

    Given the increasing need for health care and the expansion of various medical facilities in health care centers, it is necessary to determine the adverse effects of subsequent medical wastes. In this study, we aimed to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of medical wastes of Shariati public hospital in Tehran.

    Methods

    We weighted the medical wastes to determine the share of each hospital section in total hazardous medical wastes generation. Then, the components of common and infectious medical wastes were analyzed. The raw data were analyzed using Excel and R software.

    Results

    The total amount of generated medical wastes of common, infectious, sharp, and chemical/ pharmaceutical wastes in the hospital were 982.78 ± 27.08, 885.76 ± 26.11, 37.062 ± 1.55, and 45.33 ± 3.2 kg/day, respectively, and the average amount of wastes generation in each ward of the hospital per day was between 1.47-6.86 kg/bed. Also, we considered the production of medical wastes in detail and found that it was 0.61-3.11, 0.77-4.78, 0.03-0.23 and 0.01-0.91 Kg/patient/day for common, infectious, sharp and chemical/pharmaceutical wastes, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The average amount of wastes produced in the hospital was consistent with the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) report based on the amount of daily wastes generation in academic hospitals (4.1-8.7 kg/bed/day). However, the overall amount of infectious and sharp wastes in the hospital was 47.37% which exceeded the recommended amount by the WHO (15-25%).

    Keywords: Hospital, Medical Waste, Waste Generation, Waste Management
  • Yaser Abbasabadi, Reza Tehrani *, MohammadHasan Janani Pages 8-19
    Background

    One of the most important challenges in the business world is environmental performance and how to disclose it. Companies interested in disclosing environmental information try to present their information to users transparently comprehensibly. One of the most recent reports that can provide environmental information transparently and cover the criticisms of green accounting, which was presented as an independent report, is integrated reporting.

    Methods

    In the present study, the green accounting model in integrated reporting is prepared with a critical approach. This model was developed qualitatively and the multi-grounded theory method was used.

    Results

    Accordingly, among the selected texts and interviews with 20 experts in the field of accounting and auditing, the relevant concepts and categories were extracted and by categorizing and linking the categories, the desired model including causal conditions, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, core category or phenomenon, strategies and consequences were extracted.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to the Accounting Standards Development Committee to hold meetings to assess the need for integrated reporting in the country and use the experiences of other countries using this report. It is also recommended for the auditing organization to assign a case in the headings of its review in companies under the title of the presence or absence of an integrated report. It can be a stimulus for companies to follow and become familiar with integrated reporting.

    Keywords: Environmental Information, Financial, Non-Financial Information, Multi-grounded theory method
  • Tajudeen Yahaya *, Danlami Bashar, Umar Liman, Ja’Afar Umar, Abdulrakib Abdulrahim, Clement Gomo Pages 20-27
    Background
    Pit latrines are the most common human excreta and urine disposal facilities in low-income countries because they are economical. However, leachate from the facilities may percolate into the ground and compromise groundwater, necessitating periodic monitoring of nearby groundwater. This study assessed the effects of pit latrines on borehole and well water in Adesoye, Barracks, Onigbongbo, Arowojobe, and Shonibare in Maryland, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Methods
    Water samples were analysed for physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, calcium, pH, and chloride), heavy metals (lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, and zinc) and microbial content (bacteria, coliforms, and fungi). The mean values of each parameter was compared with the World Health Organization standards and used to calculate the average daily intake (ADI) and hazard quotient (HQ) of the heavy metals.
    Results
    The physicochemical analysis revealed that each of the borehole and well water samples contained permissible levels of electrical conductivity and calcium. They also contained one or more non-permissible levels of pH, hardness, total dissolved solids, and chloride. The heavy metal analysis revealed non-permissible levels of lead and nickel in all of the water samples, while other heavy metals were within the permissible limits. Total bacteria and coliforms were above the permissible limits in all of the water samples, while fungi were undetected in some samples. The ADI and HQ of the heavy metals were within the threshold limit.
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that groundwater in the areas is unsuitable for consumption. Consumers should treat groundwater and seek experts’ advice before sinking groundwater.
    Keywords: Chloride, Coliform, heavy metals, pit latrines, Lead
  • Khoshnaz Payandeh * Pages 28-39
    Background
    The potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are one of the most dangerous pollutants in the environment. In this study, the elements namely cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper and zinc were investigated in the soil.
    Methods
    In this study, 144 composite samples were randomly prepared from surface soils in a depth of 10 cm in the cities of Shushtar and Dezful. Soil sampling was performed in 12 stations in Shushtar and Dezful. The PTEs were determined by ICP Varian 710-ES device.
    Results
    The pattern of accumulation of PTEs was as Cu > Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cr in Dezful. In Shushtar, the accumulation of metals in the soil was as Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni > Zn > Cr. The concentration of Ni and Cr in the surface soils of Shushtar was higher than Dezful. The Ecological risk of Cd in the surface soils of Dezful and Shushtar was higher than other PTEs. The most important risk factor for carcinogenicity was related to Cr (3.15 × 10-7) in children. Hazard quotient (HQ) value of studied PTEs for adults and children were obtained by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contactabsorption of less than 1.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, the PTEs of Cd, Pb and Cu caused high pollution in the soils of Shushtar and Dezful, which is due to agricultural, industrial and urban activities in these areas. In general, the metals Cr, Zn and Ni slightly contaminated the soil. Also, the ecological risk of PTEs showed that the highest effects on soil was related to Cd and Pb metals.
    Keywords: Heavy metals contamination, Hazard Quotient, Soil contamination, Toxic elements
  • Roya Ebrahimi *, Reza Rezaee, Kazem Godini, Shadieh Mohammadi, Ali Jafari, Nader Marzban, Van Tai Tang Pages 40-46
    Background
    Tea is one of most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Only in Iran, around 12000 tons of tea is annually used. Besides, green tea, which is made from Camellia sinensis leaves and buds, is very popular among people. Although teas have health benefits, since they may be much drunk, they may pose a threat to consumers’ health because of absorbing various ions in their leaves. Unfortunately, there are a limited number of studies on the health effects of green teas.
    Methods
    It was a cross-sectional study performed in 2021. In this research, the concentrations of ions: fluoride (F), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3), sulfate (SO4), and phosphate (PO4) in the six bestselling green tea brands, both loose and bag, in Iran were detected by means of ion chromatography.
    Results
    The highest amounts of F, Cl, NO3, SO4, and PO4 in the brands were found to be, respectively, in 0.27310, 0.62103, 0.83533, 1.28067, and 1.1037 mg/L. The concentrations of the ions in the both loose and bag tea samples were different significantly. Also, the content of F in the all samples was lower than those acceptable levels suggested by different organizations.
    Conclusion
    It was found that the concentration of the ions was by far lower than those have been introduced as the standard levels. Nonetheless, the water used for tea infusion may contain high levels of these compounds and its volume drunk every day is also very important.
    Keywords: Various Ions, Risk Assessment, Green tea, Fluoride concentration, Iranian market
  • Katayoun Jahangiri, Azadeh Fatehpanah *, Hesam Seyedin, Amir Kavousi, Hossein Malekinezhad Pages 47-52

    The long trends of drought have caused much damage to the society. This phenomenon leads to an imbalance between water supply and demand with the abnormal dominance of arid climate over an area. Given the recent widespread climate changes in the world and the importance of conserving water resources, the present study aimed to identify methods to reduce pressure on drinking water resources in drought conditions. This study was conducted by using the narrative method (scope review). The research environment included Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed databases and the articles were selected and reviewed according to the defined and peerreviewed inclusion criteria. The period searched was 2000-2020. The findings showed that the effective components in reducing the pressure on drinking water resources are the use of new devices such as water desalination equipment, the use of methods to reduce water loss, culture and community education, and policy and adoption of water management strategies to prevent waste and recycling. Given the level of economic growth of each country and the prevailing culture, it is necessary to take managerial measures, educate members of society and use modern equipment to reduce water consumption. The results of this study showed that the recycling of drinking water and the use of gray water is also an important factor that needs special attention.

    Keywords: Drinking Water, water supply, Climate Changes, Drought, disaster
  • Maryam Abgineh, Mehrdad Ghanbary *, Mahmood Rahmani Pages 53-59
    Background

    Given the strategic importance of environmental issues, especially in recent years, companies are trying to disclose environmental information. Financial performance of companies is an important factor regarding the disclosure of this information. Thus, the aim this study is to identify the components of financial performance based on the environmental information disclosure.

    Methods

    This study is a systematic review study conducted by searching English keywords, including financial performance, environmental, social and governance, ESG, disclosure and Persian keywords, including financial performance, disclosure, environmental performance and environmental disclosure in databases of PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Scholar Google, SID, Magiran, and IranDoc.

    Results

    After reviewing and screening 388 domestic and foreign articles, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 articles were carefully reviewed. The results of studies revealed that to measure the financial performance of companies to disclose environmental information, four variables of ROE, ROA, Tobin’s Q and profit margin were used. Other results also revealed that some variables including, the variables of corporate governance, type of industry and some macroeconomic variables (economic growth) can affect the relationship between financial performance and environmental information disclosure.

    Conclusions

    Large companies have good financial performance. Companies with have clients are aware of the importance of building and maintaining a company's reputation, so that the companies use environmental disclosure as a tool to communicate their operational results.  Environmental information disclosure is a tool to create corporate image and social contracts by publishing credible information about environmental performance to reduce or enhance the company reputation. Thus, financial performance can be directly affected by the environmental information disclosure.

    Keywords: financial performance, Environmental Information, Disclosure
  • Abbas Akbarzadeh, Alireza Valipour *, Seyed MohammadHadi Meshkati, Nazanin Hamnabard Pages 60-71

    With population and economy growth, water usage, wastewater generation and treatment, treatment plants capacity and innovation ability in Iran have increased dramatically in the last decades. Currently, Iran is in the grip of severe water scarcity, with renewable water availability of less than 1700 m3/capita/yr. Total municipal wastewater generated in Iran is 4.61 billion m3/yr out of which only 42% is treated. The conventional activated sludge process accounted for the largest share (>60%) in municipal wastewater treatment in Iran. The treatment plants operational costs usually amount up to 0.2 US $/m3 wastewater. About 55% of treated municipal effluent is reused in Iran, with an emphasis on the agricultural sector. The electricity consumption in municipal wastewater treatment facilities amounts for 0.1% (241 million kWh/yr) of the total electricity consumption of the country. Meanwhile, the current laws and policies are sometimes inefficient or do not prompt the ideal outcomes. Thus, the present study provides an overview of municipal wastewater treatment in Iran by describing the current situation and collecting data from 68 treatment plants, and defining key barriers and future policies needs towards Iran's sustainable municipal wastewater management (up to 2040). Here, the opinions of 50 experts from the governmental sector, industry division, and faculty members were surveyed through the meetings of the technical and steering committee. Overall, sustainable municipal wastewater management in Iran would be obtained by developing water resources, increasing the population covered by wastewater facilities (90%), improving effluent discharge standards, and lowering energy usage to 0.45 kWh/m3 wastewater.

    Keywords: Iran, Water Resource, Municipal Wastewater Treatment, Sludge, Energy, Reuse, Policy