فهرست مطالب

Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research
Volume:6 Issue: 2, May 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/04/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
|
  • Naghi Abedini, Behrouz Nazari * Pages 98-109
    Introduction

    The safety of administration of intrathecal magnesium has been proven in many studies and this drug has no toxic effects in histopathological analyses. For example, in one study, the effects of intrathecal magnesium sulfate administration in preventing spinal cord ischemia during aortic cross-clamp have been proven and no histopathological damage has been observed. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the beneficial effects of adding intrathecal magnesium to spinal anesthetic solution in lower limb orthopedic surgeries.Please mark the changes with highlight and return the approved article within the specified time proof in the next 5 days. It should be noted that if no message is received within the stated time, the journal will consider it Galley Proof acceptance of you, the article will be online, and no further modifications or changes will be possible. 

    Methodology

    The present study is a systematic review study that was conducted in the first quarter of 2023 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. At first, the basic keywords to search for articles published in all English-language databases were determined by both researchers of this study; These keywords include: magnesium, magnesium sulfate, intraspinal, spinal, intrathecal, anesthetic solution, lidocaine, bupivacaine, surgery, orthopedics, lower limb, pain, pain intensity, hemodynamic status, blood pressure, systolic, diastolic, opioid , opioid use, analgesic, analgesia, pain control, pain management, severe pain, acute and painful pain.

    Results

    The results indicated that the addition of intrathecal magnesium leads to a significant reduction in pain intensity after lower limb orthopedic surgeries; This means that whenever magnesium sulfate is injected into the spinal cord following the injection of intrathecal anesthetic, the intensity of pain after surgery is significantly reduced and the use of intrathecal magnesium leads to optimal and useful pain management.

    Conclusion

    Our study showed that adding 100 mg of magnesium sulfate to spinal anesthesia can prolong the duration of analgesia without side effects after orthopedic procedures. Also, the safety of higher intrathecal dose of magnesium sulfate was shown in this study

    Keywords: Pain, magnesium sulfate, Intrathecal, Orthopedics
  • Bahman Naghipour, Vahideh Rahmani * Pages 110-122
    Background

    Since the minimum effective dose of the two drugs bupivacaine and Ropivacaine has not been included in the anesthesia reference books and different doses have been suggested for the drugs in the current study, as well as in previous studies, these drugs are combined with other drugs have been used, which affect the side effects and length of anesthesia, in this systematic review study on the hemodynamic changes of patients who are candidates for elective cesarean surgery by spinal anesthesia using two Bupivacaine and Ropivacaine drugs should be evaluated at the minimum dose in terms of low hemodynamic disorders, side effects and anesthesia, and suggest the appropriate drug in this field.

    Methodology

    In this review article, all databases including Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, SID, MagIran, and the Cochrane Library were searched and reviewed by both authors of this article based on PRIZMA guidelines without time and language limitations.

    Results

    So that the percentage of blood pressure drop in bupivacaine group patients was 50% higher than Ropivacaine group with 23%, and in other words, it can indicate more stability of blood pressure in Ropivacaine group.

    Conclusion

    Based on this study, statistically, the rate of systolic blood pressure drop, the need for ephedrine, as well as the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving Ropivacaine were lower, which are important when anesthetizing people with hemodynamic instability, such as pregnant women with Valvular cardiomyopathy can be important.

    Keywords: ropivacaine, Bupivacaine, Elective Caesarean Section, hemodynamic status
  • Seham Ismail * Pages 123-132
    Maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars grown in Egypt are not only numerous, but also show a wide diversity of exposure to stored grain pests causing damages that may threaten food security. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the level of susceptibility of maize cultivars to infection by Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky), a voracious insect pest of stored maize. Likewise, to evaluate the efficacy of black pepper, Piper nigrum L. powder as an insecticide against this pest to protect stored maize. The susceptibility index values ​​showed that cultivars THW-310 and THY-352 were more susceptible to infection by S. zeamais, and the levels of some amino acids were higher than cultivars SHY-162 and SHW-10, which showed relatively low infection. In all maize cultivars, application of P. nigrum powder reduced the severity of S. zeamais infestation, significantly improved seedling growth, and % germination after six months of maize storage, compared to the untreated samples. The promising P. nigrum powder could be recommended for use as a part of an integrated pest management program in stored maize, particularly for a long storage periods.
    Keywords: Black pepper, Seed germination, Maize storge, Maize weevil
  • Mahdi Nazari, Misagh Asanjani Osquee * Pages 133-142
    Introduction

    Surgery with general anesthesia increases blood sugar in two ways, one is due to surgical stress and the other is the pharmacological effects of anesthetic drugs; On the other hand, the use of spinal anesthesia has positive effects such as reducing deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, etc. Based on the studies conducted on the blood sugar level 15 minutes before the operation and 25 and 50 minutes after the operation. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate these two anesthesia methods in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery.

    Methodology

    In this study, which was a systematic review and was conducted during 2022 based on the steps of the PRIZMA guidelines, databases that publish articles in the medical field were searched based on the objectives of this study; In this search, every article that was published in English and Farsi and had a good quality was included in this systematic review so that its contents could be used for the purposes of this study.

    Results

    No significant difference in the average blood sugar between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia groups before surgery, after surgery, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after surgery and during recovery. The average blood sugar in this group decreased after surgery compared to before surgery.

    Conclusion

    Considering the importance of blood sugar regulation around the time of surgery, the current study found spinal anesthesia to be somewhat preferable to general anesthesia in controlling the patient's blood sugar.

    Keywords: Blood glucose, Orthopedics, Surgery, Spinal anesthesia, General anesthesia
  • James Yakubu *, Sodipo Olufunke, Umar Mamza, Juliet Atiji, Abiso Musa, Faisal Ahmad, Idris Hassan Pages 143-151
    This research aimed to investigate in vitro antimicrobial property of Acalypha wilkesiana against some selected pathogenic microbes that are resistant to drugs. The crude and defatted methanol extracts were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites as well as analysed for in vitro antimicrobial activity using agar-well diffusion method. The phytochemicals in the leaf include flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, cardeinolides, and cardiac glycosides. The methanol leaf extract showed activity against some microbes in a concentration-dependent manner, with highest inhibition zone against Salmonella typhi (24.67±0.33mm) at 500 mg/ml with insignificant difference as compared with to the inhibition zone of the standard drug, Ciprofloxacin (20 mg/ml) [25.00±0.57] and the lowest zone of inhibition against Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, and Klebsiella pneumoniae had the least zones of inhibitions of 7.00±0.00, 7.00±0.00, 7.00±0.00, and 8.00±0.00, respectively, at 100 mg/ml. S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans had no zones of inhibition and no zone of inhibition shown at any concentrations on Aspegillus niger. The antimicrobial susceptibility test shows that Acalypha wilkesiana had the highest activity against C. albicans (19.00±0.57), while no activity against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. Although the residual portion had the best antimicrobial effect, thus, this study has provided guide that the compound(s) responsible for the antimicrobial effect could be polar in nature.
    Keywords: Plant, Phytochemical, Microbes, Pathogens, Extract
  • Mickael Vitus Martin Kpessou Saizonou *, Alassane Youssao, Magloire Gbaguidi, Nicephore Date, Azim Abibou, Samson Agossou Pages 152-163
    Agricultural practices are increasingly affecting the environment. Various diseases related to environmental pollution are recorded everywhere due to new agricultural practices. Indeed, agricultural inputs, pesticides, and herbicides destroy the quality of waterways and soils and affect the health of populations as well as the use of machinery that is not suitable for agricultural activities. This is the case of Save in Benin. Certain water-borne diseases are common in the region and are linked by the populations to agricultural practices. This study aims to find the correlations between these practices and the quality of biophysical environment to confirm or not, the concerns of the populations. It was made by surveys with 150 people and analyses of samples of water and soil by standards methods in the area. The results of physical and chemical parameters obtained reveal positive correlations between agricultural practices and soil impoverishment. Indeed, for example, 21% of those enquired use only herbicide for land clearing and 49 %, intensely chemical inputs. Similarly, 50 % of soils contain arsenic. The values of parameters of surface waters are generally in line with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. But on some sites, the total nitrogen concentration, of up to 2840 ppm, is above the standards and also that of magnesium, whose value is 2278 ppm. These findings provide information on the importance of the number of farmers using chemical inputs and the quality of soils and surface water. The results obtained partly justify the assertions of the populations regarding their concerns.
    Keywords: Agricultural practices, biophysical environment, Save