فهرست مطالب

Poultry Science Journal
Volume:11 Issue: 2, Summer -Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Md. Amir Hossain *, Md. Jamal Uddin Bhuiyan Pages 133-147

    Protein source feed components are particularly important in broiler and layer feed formulation. Protein-rich insects may be the greatest substitute for protein-rich feed items such as fish and soybean meals. The black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens) is an excellent example of an organism that can transform organic waste into protein, lipids, chitin, and other substances. Black Soldier Fly larvae (BSFL) have 42% crude protein, 29% fat, and 23% moisture content on a dry matter (DM) basis. Without specific infrastructure, commercial manufacturing of BSF is achievable. BSF could be used in poultry feed to help reduce pollution. A buildup of organic wastes may result in a possible pollution issue but BSF can transform a wide range of organic waste into a source of protein for poultry. Moreover, the most economical diets were those that had 25% and 100% of Black Soldier Fly Larvae Meal (BSFLM), respectively. The most significant benefit of BSF as a chicken feed ingredient is that it might be a sustainable protein source and a cost-effective replacement for high-cost protein feedstuffs. The importance of the BSF as a potential source of organic protein for broiler and layer chicken production is highlighted in this review of the literature.

    Keywords: Chitin, insects, Pollution, organic waste, Sustainable protein source
  • Lida Abdolmohammadi Khiav *, Zahra Hemati, Saurabh Gupta Pages 149-157
    Necrotic enteritis, caused by avian-specific NetB toxin-producing strains of Clostridium perfringens type A, has gained worldwide concerns due to increased production losses and mortality in broilers, increased veterinarian costs, and the chance of getting contamination in products for human consumption. Prevention strategies include supplementing diet or drinking water with conventional therapeutic antibiotic growth promoters and anti-coccidial drugs.. There are various strategies to prevent the disease, including antibiotic growth promoters. Antibiotic growth promoters are antimicrobial agent that used for control of diseases such as necrotic enteritis. Other factor for prevention, anti-coccidial drugs that are taken orally. However, vaccination against toxin-producing C. perfringens type A via nano, toxoid, genetically modified, or other clostridial vaccines is a effective preventive against necrotic enteritis. This comprehensive review describes the recent advances in the development of NetB vaccines, other strategies to enhance immunization, their delivery systems in poultry against necrotic enteritis, and their pathogenesis. This review also exlains future immunization strategies like breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination, and live (attenuated) vectors to be used in feed additives and other predisposing factors applicable in the field. All the vaccines discussed in the manuscript have shown their effectiveness against necrotic enteritis in poultry.
    Keywords: Vaccine, NetB toxin, Immunization, Necrotic Enteritis, Clostridium perfringens
  • Azadeh Zahmatkesh *, Saeid Ansari Mahyari, Ahmad Riasi, AmirHossein Mahdavi Pages 159-167

    Chicken gut microbiota is affected by factors such as diets, environmental ,and bird age. In the current study, the effects of age and region on the ileum bacterial population of broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 2679 chickens in four geographical regions of Iran were sacrificed in the first to eighth week of age. Stool samples were collected and DNA was extracted and analyzed for the detection of Lactobacillus, Enterococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Actinobacteria, using specific primers and probes. Purified amplicons were quantified by QuantiFluor® and pooled for sequencing. Findings showed that L. acidophilus was the dominant bacterium during the first four weeks, and was substituted with L. crispatus and L. salivarius in the next four weeks. So, the Lactobacillus family was the most dominant bacteria at all ages showing its essential role in chicken physiology. The age of chickens significantly affected the percentage of L. crispatus, L. acidophilus, L. salivarius, Clostridiaceae, Enterococcaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Actinobacteria. The breeding region influenced Streptococcaceae, with the highest percentage in the hot region. Chicken weight had a significant effect on Enterococcaceae. Broiler breeder age and distance to the nearest farm had no effect on ileum bacterial populations. This study showed there are several factors during the broiler breeding period that have an impact on microbial population changes at different ages.

    Keywords: 16S rRNA, Heat stress, Microbiota, Breeder age, Weight gain
  • Sheikh Zaid Danish Mateen, Gowher Sheikh *, Qazi Sahib Pages 169-179
    The study was planned on 120 one-day-old broiler chickens, randomly distributed into 5 dietary treatments with 3 replicates having eight chickens each. Control birds (CON) were reared under thermoneutral conditions and offered a basal diet to meet their nutrient requirements. Treatment CS was offered the basal diet under cold stress. While, treatments ZNC100, CR2, and ZN+CR were offered basal diet under cold stress, supplemented with organic Zinc, organic Chromium or their combinations at 100, 2, or 100 + 2  mg/kg DM, respectively. Birds under CS treatment had higher feed intake compared to other treatments. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and nitrogen-free extra of birds under CON treatment were greater than CS, ZNC100, and CR2 treatments. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen and albumin to globulin ratio in CS treatment was higher compared to CON treatment. The antibody response of 21-day-old-broiler chickens in the CS group was lower than the birds of the ZN+CR group. The lowest activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were found in the blood serum of the CS group. The percentage of dressing carcass in both CON and CS treatments were lower than those of birds under ZN+CR treatment. Moreover, the yield of breast and drumstick of the ZN+CR treatment was higher (P < 0.05) than the CON treatment. There was better production performance along with improved immune status in broiler birds fed a diet supplemented with organic Zinc and Chromium alone or their combination under cold stress.
    Keywords: Cold stress, Performance, Immune status, Trace minerals, Carcass parameters
  • Masoud Karimipoor, MohammadReza Rezvani * Pages 181-187

    This research aimed to compare the effect of substituting dietary Oxytetracycline with aqueous Prangos ferulacea extract (APFE) as a phytobiotic on growth performance, prececal nutrient digestibility, cecal microflora, and carcass traits in broilers. In this experiment, a total of 300 Hubbard broiler chickens were used in a factorial arrangement with two factors: Oxytetracycline (0 or 0.1 %) and APFE (0, 2, or 6 %) in a completely randomized design. The experiment consisted of 6 treatments of 5 replicates each with 10 birds.  All birds reared for 42 das and received feed and water ad libitum. The results showed that the use of Oxytetracycline improved the daily weight gain, but decreased fat digestibility, the relative weight of the pancreas, and the Escherichia coli population during days 12 to 42 of the exeriment. The use of APFE improved the daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), fat digestibility, and carcass percentage, but decreased the cecal Escherichia coli population. The interaction effect of using the APFE and Oxytetracycline for feed intake and FCR‏ was not significant. Regarding the reducing effects of APFE on the cecal Escherichia coli population and improved growth performance, APFE at 6 percent could be introduced as a natural antibiotic and an appropriate replacement for Oxytetracycline.

    Keywords: digestibility, Broiler chicken, Oxytetracycline, Aqueous Prangos ferulacea extract
  • Opeyemi Oladejo *, Saidu Oseni, Martina Kyallo, Jean-Baka Entfellner, Noah Tor, Christian Tiambo, Roger Pelle Pages 189-201
    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of genes that generally influence immune response in vertebrates, and it has been explored among different animal species in various countries. However, there is a paucity of information on its application in Nigerian locally-adapted chickens (NLAC). This research investigated genetic polymorphism, allele variability, and genetic relationships using LEI0258 major histocompatibility complex-linked microsatellite marker among four NLAC populations: Fulani × Yoruba ecotypes, FUNNAB Alpha × Noiler breeds. Blood samples were randomly collected from 50 mature birds in each population and DNA was extracted and subsequently subjected to PCR, Sanger sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. There were two variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs), with 90% of the alleles containing only one R13 and varying numbers of the R12 motifs that ranged from 1 to 19. Additional polymorphism was revealed by the presence of five SNPs and three indels in the upstream and downstream regions of LEI0258. A total of 48 alleles were observed with sizes ranging from 188 to 530 base pairs while the allele frequencies within the populations ranged from 1.9 to 29.2%. However, only 17 out of the 48 alleles had corresponding MHC-B haplotypes. Haplotypes B2, B12, and B21 found in this study had been reported to confer resistance to infectious poultry diseases especially avian influenza in locally adapted chickens. There were high allelic variability and genetic polymorphisms observed via the atypical LEI0258 microsatellite in describing the MHC-B region.
    Keywords: Characterization, genetic diversity, Immune response, LEI0258 marker, Nigerian locally-adapted chicken
  • Nafeesa Abu Kassim, Eric Lim Teik Chung *, Mohamed M. Alghirani, Yee Lyn Ong, Mamat Hamidi Kamalludin, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Teck Chwen Loh Pages 203-211
    The main aim of this study was to elucidate the potential of Yucca schidigera supplementation on the health performances, blood biomarkers, and relative telomere length of broilers reared under tropical conditions. A total of 300 one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were purchased, weighed, and divided randomly into six dietary regimens. The dietary treatments consisted of T1: commercial feed without antibiotics (negative control) and T2: commercial feed added with 100 mg/kg oxytetracycline (positive control). Birds in T3, T4, T5, and T6 were fed with commercial feed supplemented with 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg of powdered Y. schidigera saponins. The broilers were monitored daily and the clinical sign and mortality were recorded. On day 42, ten male broilers from each treatment were randomly selected and slaughtered, and blood samples were collected for leucocyte profiling, immunoglobulins, cytokines, and telomere length analyses. All data obtained were subjected to the Chi-Square Test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey Post-Hoc Test to determine the significant differences among treatment groups. The data were considered significant at P < 0.05. Throughout the 42-day study, a few cases of leg problems, diarrhea, and mortality were observed, but there were no significant associations (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the leucocyte profiling, immunoglobulins, cytokines, and telomere length expression among treatments. Negative control broilers not fed with any additive demonstrated the lowest values as compared to the antibiotic and treatment groups. Overall, T6 broilers fed with a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg of Y. schidigera saponins exhibited the best leucocyte profiling (increased total WBC count, monocytes, and basophil count; decreased H/L ratio), immunoglobulins (upregulated Ig-G, Ig-A, and Ig-M,), cytokines (increased IL-4 and IL-7), and the longest telomere length expression followed by T2 broilers. In summary, this study has established that 100 mg/kg of Y. schidigera saponins supplementation in diet can be used to enhance the health performances of broilers raised under hot and humid conditions.
    Keywords: Cytokines, H, L ratio, Immunoglobulins, Saponins, relative telomere length
  • Masoumeh Monsefi, Mohsen Afsharmanesh *, Mohamad Salarmoini, Mohammad Khajeh Bami Pages 213-222
    This study examined the effects of oxytetracycline, sweet paprika, and hot paprika supplementation on broiler chicken growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, intestinal microbiota, and immunological response. A total of 300 one-day-old broiler chickens were assigned to six groups, each with five replicates.The experimental treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet as control group, 2) a basal diet with oxytetracycline (0.05 percent), 3) a basal diet with hot paprika (0.75 percent), 4) a basal diet with hot paprika (1 percent), 5) a basal diet with sweet paprika (0.75 percent), and 6) a basal diet with sweet paprika (1 percent). The results showed that the dietary supplements had no effect on growth performance and carcass traits. Sweet and hot paprika positively affected lipid oxidation and cooking loss in breast meat. In the ileum, broiler chickens fed 1 percent sweet paprika had lower coliform counts and higher lactic acid bacteria/coliforms ratios than other treatments (P < 0.05). Furthermore, oxytetracycline in the diet significantly reduced the number of lactic acid bacteria compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). In addition, when compared to the control and antibiotic groups, birds fed 0.75 and 1 percent sweet paprika and 1 percent hot paprika had higher villus height, goblet cell density, and villus height/crypt depth ratio and lower crypt depth and epithelial cell layer thickness (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 0.75 percent hot paprika or 1 percent sweet paprika increased total antibody response to sheep red blood cells and IgG compared to antibiotic and control groups (P < 0.05). Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that dietary inclusion of sweet paprika and hot paprika could improve meat quality, intestinal microbiota, intestinal morphology, and immune response in broiler chickens.
    Keywords: Broiler, Sweet paprika, Hot paprika, Gut morphology, Lactic acid bacteria
  • Ivelina Pavlova *, Hristo Lukanov, Atanas Genchev Pages 223-231
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age and productive type on meat production in domestic quail. A total of 240 male and female quail of meat type (n=80), heavy dual-purpose (n=80) and light dual-purpose (n=80) type, sexed at 14 days of age, were fattened to 28, 35, and 42 days of age. Mortality (%), live weight (g), growth (g), feed consumption (g), feed conversion (kg/kg gain) were monitored during the fattening period. At 28-, 35-, and 42-days of age 9 male and 9 female birds from each productive type were slaughtered and the carcasses were analyzed. Live weight and carcass weight were seriously affected by the productive type and sex of the quail, especially at the end of the test period (P < 0.001). The amount of hand-boned meat from the most valuable parts of the carcass were affected by productive type P < 0.001) with statistically significant gender differences at the end of the test period (P < 0.05). The sex and productive type affected the meat yield which increased with slaughter age from 28 to 42 days (P < 0.001). With an increase in the slaughter age from 28 to 42 days, the inter-sex differences in slaughter yield increased (P < 0.001). Increased production costs (up to 75%) and lower efficiency of feed transformation (especially after 35 days of age) into finished products were observed with increasing fattening age in all three productive types. Meat production from a specialized meat-producing line is considered the most efficient and the least efficient - from the light egg-laying line. The study demonstrated that age and productive type have a serious impact on the fattening and meat-producing characteristics of quail and on the efficiency of quail meat production.
    Keywords: Age, Sex, Meat type, Japanese quail, Meat production
  • Mehrshad Rashnou, Babak Masouri *, Heshmatollah Khosravinia, Bahman Parizadian Kavan Pages 233-241
    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of purslane and garden cress seeds on productive performance, yolk fatty acids profile, blood biochemical parameters and egg quality in Japanese quails. A total of 150 one-day-old quail chicks were randomly assigned to five experimental groups with six replicates including a control diet (without inclusion of remedies) and the diets containing 50 or 100 g/kg either purslane seeds or garden cress for 84 days. egardless of the inclusion level, dietary purslane and garden cress seeds decreased egg mass production compared to the control group (P < 0.05). All experimental treatments reduced yolk cholesterol compared with the control birds, where the diets containing 100 g/kg purslane seed or garden cress were more effective. Feeding birds with a diet containing 100 g/kg purslane seed reduced yolk percentage compared to the other diets (P < 0.05). Birds fed with the diet containing 100 g/kg garden cress showed an increased yolk concentration of mono- (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a decreased omega-6 fatty acids as well as omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n-6/n-3; P < 0.05). The diet containing 100 g/kg purslane seed increased yolk concentration of PUFA and omega-6 fatty acids (P < 0.05). The birds fed diet fortified with 50 g/kg garden cress decreased PUFA concentration of yolk (P < 0.05). A greater omega-3 fatty acids concentration of yolk was found in the birds maintained on the diet containing 100 g/kg garden cress while a lesser level was exhibited in those fed on the diet with 100 mg/kg of the same additive. Serum triglyceride concentration was increased in the birds receiving the diet with 100 g/kg purslane (P < 0.05). The diets containing garden cress increased the serum activity of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme (P < 0.05). Shell ratio, egg-specific weight and yolk ratio were significantly reduced in the birds fed on the diet with 50 g/kg garden cress (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the inclusion of 100 g/kg purslane in the diet decreased eggshell weight, egg-specific weight, shape index, shell thickness and yolk ratio (P < 0.05). Dietary purslane seeds may improve egg quality through a reduced yolk concentration of cholesterol in quail eggs. An improved fatty acid profile, an elevated omega-3 fatty acid, and a healthier n-6/n-3 ratio was observed, particularly with the diet containing 100 g/kg garden cress.
    Keywords: Purslane, Garden cress, Yolk fatty acids, Japanese quails, Egg performance
  • Dalia Aboelhassan *, Inas Ghaly, Hasnaa Radwan, Hesham Abozaid, Eman Hassan, Ibrahim Farag Pages 243-255
    Chicken Pit-1 gene could be a candidate locus that affects important economic production traits. So, the present work was conducted to detect and analyze the different patterns (genotypes) in five reported polymorphisms (MR1-MR5) of such genes and investigate their effects on growth rate and carcass characteristics (Breast and thigh weights) in five different chicken breeds (Fayoumi, Dokki-4, White Leghorn, El-Salam and Inshas). Blood samples were collected from five breeds. DNA was isolated, and different patterns for MR1 and MR2-MR5 were analyzed by simple-PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. Sequence analysis and alignment of different detected patterns were performed. The results detected several patterns in five markers MRI-MR5 of the Pit-1 gene, two different types in MR1, MR2, MR4 and MR5, and four types in MR3. Sequence analysis identified various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MR patterns generating heterozygous and homozygous genotypes. Except for MR2, heterozygous genotypes were strongly associated with improving growth rate and carcass characteristics in some chicken breeds of MR1, MR3, and MR5 and all five breeds of MR4 as compared to homozygous genotypes. However, the results clarified a positive relationship between homozygous genotypes and improving the economic production traits in some breeds of MR1, MR3, and MR5 and all breeds of MR2 with respect to heterozygous genotypes. The present investigation proved that the detected SNPs in different patterns of the Pit-1 gene could be beneficial markers for selection of Egyptian chicken breeds for enhancing the growth rate and carcass characteristics. On the other hand, some homozygous genotypes are helpful in the successful breeding program. Therefore, the use of Pit-1 variations can be valuable for improving the important productivity traits in the chicken.
    Keywords: Chicken breeds, Pit-1 gene, PCR-RFLP, DNA sequencing, Economic traits
  • Kyongho Choe *, Myongdok Im, Jeman Chae, Cholmin Kim, Sunil Choe, Myongil Jin, Chunsik Ri, Unju Son Pages 257-268

    Coccidiosis is a protozoal disease caused by Eimeria that significantly impacts the global poultry industry. In this study, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Juglans mandshurica epicarp aqueous extract as an alternative treatment against coccidiosis in broiler chickens. In the in vitro experiment, unsporulated Eimeria tenella oocysts were exposed to various concentrations of the aqueous extract. After 48 hours of incubation, the degree of inhibition of sporulation and morphed oocysts were examined. For the in vivo experiment, seven groups of two-week-old broiler chickens were divided into A1-A5, positive control (PC), and negative control (NC) groups. The A1-A4 groups received different doses of the aqueous extract calculated based on toxicity tests, while group A5 was fed diets mixed with salinomycin. Groups A1-A5 were infected with E. tenella, while PC was infected but unmedicated, and NC was uninfected and unmedicated. Results showed that the aqueous extract inhibited the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. All experimental groups fed with the extract exhibited significantly higher weight gain, particularly those receiving 5 mL/kg BW. Moreover, the groups receiving doses of 5 and 7 mL/kg BW showed significant differences in bloody Diarrhea and cecal lesion scores compared to the PC group. The anticoccidial index (ACI) value for these groups was above 160, indicating high efficacy similar to the group fed with mixed salinomycin. In conclusion, the study suggests that J. mandshurica epicarp aqueous extract could be a safe and effective alternative treatment for coccidiosis in broilers. This could provide a new approach to control coccidiosis in the global poultry industry.

    Keywords: ACI, extract, Broiler, Coccidiosis, Plant medicine