فهرست مطالب

Govaresh
Volume:28 Issue: 2, Summer 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mina Zangouei, Farnaz Mohajertehran, Aida Gholoobi Pages 83-99
    Background

    The aim of this article is investigating the microbiome's effect on the development and progression of gastric cancer can substantially improve preventing, diagnosing, and treating this disease.

    Method

    In this review article, after analyzing the studies searched in PubMed and Scopus databases, related articles have been selected from 2015 to 2022, and based on this, the carcinogenic role of the gastric microbiome, which is caused by complex communities of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, were investigated.

    Results

    With the discovery of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) in 1982, the theory that the stomach is sterile was refuted, leading to a period of gastric microbial research. In addition, advances in nucleic acid sequencing techniques indicated that a complex community of microbes might coexist with H. pylori in the gastric area. Numerous studies have examined the crucial function of H. pylori in gastric cancer, particularly strains that harbor the Cag A and Vac A genes. These bacteria contribute to carcinogenesis by altering gastric acidity and, consequently, the organization of the gastric microbiota. While there is increasing evidence that microorganisms other than H. pylori and their metabolites play a significant role in gastric carcinogenesis, the function of the viral and fungal microbiome in gastric cancer has received less consideration.

    Conclusion

    More investigations are needed to provide new insights into diagnosing, preventing, and treating gastric cancer. Also, clinical research design related to the interaction between the gastric microbiome genome and the human host genome, besides identifying the signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer, can be practical.

    Keywords: Gastric cancer, Gastric microbiome, Intestinal microbiome, Oral microbiome, Microbiota, Helicobacter pylori
  • Saleh Azadbakht, Morteza Azadbakht, Golnaz Mahmoudvand, Salehe Azadbakht, Mohadeseh Momeni, Arian Karimi Rouzbahani Pages 100-104
    Background

     There is evidence of a direct relationship between peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and the risk of gastric cancer. This study determined the prevalence of gastric cancer in individuals with solitary proximal or distal gastric ulcers admitted to Shahid Rahimi Hospital in Khorramabad, Iran, from 2019 to 2021.

    Materials and Methods

     In this cross-sectional study, 635 patients were included. Age group and sex as well as data related to the year of admission, pathological examination, and location of the ulcer, were recorded in a researcher-made checklist. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22 at a significance level of 0.05.

    Results

     Out of the 635 patients, 66.3% (421) were male, and 33.7% (214) were women. The mean age was 62.5 ± 17.7 years. Overall, 16.7% of patients with gastric ulcers were diagnosed with gastric cancer by pathological examination. The frequency of malignancy was highest in the 80 years and older age group. There was a considerable association between malignancy and age group (P˂0.001; df = 4; χ2 = 27.24). There was no significant association between malignancy and sex (P = 0.144). A significant relationship was observed between malignancy and ulcer location (P˂0.001). Proximal ulcers were malignant in 24.6% of the cases (n = 74), while distal ulcers were malignant in 9.6% (n = 32).

    Conclusion

    Older patients, men, and patients with gastric ulcers are more likely to develop gastric cancer. Therefore, more effective strategies should be developed to prevent this fatal condition.

    Keywords: Gastric cancer, Gastric adenocarcinoma, Peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori
  • Atessa Pakfetrat, Azita Ganji, Leila Farhad-mollashahi, Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan, Zeinab Bahari, Toktam Zamani Pages 105-112
    Background

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated chronic enteropathy of the small intestine that occurs due to gluten sensitivity in genetically predisposed people. Due to the relatively high incidence of celiac disease in Iran and limited studies on oral manifestations in the Iranian population, the aim of this study was to examine hard and soft tissue manifestations of the oral cavity.

    Materials and Methods

     53 patients with celiac disease and 53 healthy individuals who matched the case group in terms of age and sex were evaluated. The case group included patients whose disease had been previously confirmed by serological testing and small intestine biopsy. Enamel defects and caries were evaluated according to Aine and WHO criteria, respectively. Other soft tissue manifestations, such as aphthous stomatitis, were either confirmed based on the presence of the lesion at the time of clinical examination or reported by the patient. Xerostomia was assessed based on the answers to Dyasanoor’s questionnaire, and Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs was used to assess periodontal status. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. The Chi-square and, if required, Fisher’s exact test was used.

    Results

     There was a significant difference between the two groups in the frequency of enamel defects (OR=8.4, P<0.001) and xerostomia (OR=3.3, P=0.025). In addition, there was no significant difference between subjects with classical and non-classical celiac disease in frequency (P=0.337) and pattern (P=0.466) of hypoplasia and xerostomia (P=0.415). The subjects did not differ significantly in mean Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth index . Although patients with celiac disease brushed less frequently and their xerostomia was significantly higher compared to controls, caries indices were not significantly different (P=0.85) even when the effect of brushing frequency was adjusted. Multivariate linear regression showed that after adjusting for brushing frequency, the mean periodontal index of the celiac disease group was higher than that of controls (P=0.03). Although soft tissue manifestations such as aphthous stomatitis (P=0.231), atrophic glossitis, geographic tongue, and angular cheilitis were more frequent in the patients, no statistically significant difference was observed.

    Conclusion

     Celiac disease increases the risk of enamel defects and xerostomia. Therefore, dentists can play a key role in the early detection of celiac disease using oral findings. However, the presence of soft tissue manifestations, especially in adults, could not be proven as a meaningful criterion for the early detection of celiac disease

    Keywords: Celiac disease, Enamel hypoplasia, Oral manifestations
  • Yasaman Zaviyeh, Elham Maserat, zeinab mohammadzadeh Pages 113-125
    Background

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, the implementation of social distancing and public fear of the virus postponed follow-up visits to manage patients' underlying medical problems, especially cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Telehealth provides accessible and cost-effective care for vulnerable patients. The aim of this early study was to review the telehealth interventions for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders during COVI-19 outbreak.

    Methods

    This study used rapid review to provide an accurate review of the articles. Study selection was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guideline. A systematic review was conducted on studies published from January 2020 to   July 30, 2020, in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases, and the update was done on October 31, 2020

    Results

    Technology-based interventions were performed in various countries: two studies in the USA, three in Europe (Italy, Germany, and London), two in Asia (China and Pakistan), and one in South America. Most Telehealth approaches used in the included articles are video consultations using mobile applications such as Skype, face time, and regular phone calls. 

    Conclusion

    According to the results, the application of technology in the management of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders can be used to provide healthcare to patients regardless of distance, detection of disease, monitoring disease progression and complications, reducing healthcare costs, saving available resources, preventing readmission of patients, reducing the provider workload, and increasing family participation in disease management, quality of life, and patient satisfaction.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Metabolic disorder, Cardiovascular, Telehealth
  • Ali Jafari, Fazel Isapanah Amlashi, Zahra Norouzi, Iman ShahabiNasab, Sima Besharat, Puria Qadirian Pages 126-130
    Background

    Consuming gluten can lead to the immune-mediated condition known as celiac disease (CD) in genetically-prone people. Presently, the only approved and available treatment is stringent and lifetime devotion to a gluten-free diet (GFD). This study aimed to assess GFD adherence in patients with CD in Golestan province, northeast Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    All cases with confirmed CD registered in the Golestan Registry of Celiac (N=220) were selected for this cross-sectional study. 87 patients volunteered to take part in the interviews and completed the questionnaire. Since the day of diagnosis, all patients in this center had been treated with a GFD, but their adherence to the regime was unknown. Celiac Dietary Adherence Test (CDAT) and the Standardized Dietician Evaluation (SDE) were used to evaluate their adherence to GFD. 

    Results

    Among the 85 individuals who responded in depth to the CDAT, the mean (standard deviation) age was 32.41 (15.45) years, 32 (36.8%) were male, and 72 (32.8%) adhered to the diet according to their self-expression. However, in the SDE, only 52 (30.23%) exhibited great to good adherence.

    Conclusions

    The adherence and weak adherence groups had similar mean ages. However, non-adherence was associated with higher mean age. Although women had stronger adherence, there was no difference in sex. The elderly and males exhibited low GFD adherence.

    Keywords: Gluten-Free Diet, Celiac Disease, Adherence
  • Alireza Bakhshipour, Roya Rafaiee, Raheleh Rafaiee Pages 131-136
    Background

    Celiac disease (CeD) is a permanent immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten. Patients with CeD have various clinical features. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, laboratory, and histopathological features of 150 patients with CeD in Zahedan, Southeast Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    In a retrospective cross-sectional study, we investigated the characteristics of 150 patients with celiac in Zahedan from 2008 to 2018. In addition to the demographic characteristics of the patients, other parameters such as clinical symptoms, comorbidities, serum level of anti-tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG), liver function tests, and report of the intestinal biopsy were obtained from patients’ recorded files. Descriptive statistics were used for the collected data.

    Results

    150 patients were included in the study. 72 (48%) were males, and 78 (52%) were females. The mean (±SD) age was 28.5 (±10.69) years (range 16-82 years). The most frequent symptom was abdominal pain (38%), followed by diarrhea (32%) and nausea (30%). Iron-deficiency anemia was found in 30% of patients. Immunoglobulin A, and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA anti-TTG) were found in 144 (96%) patients. The results of the biopsy showed 76% with Marsh I, 10% with Marsh II, and 52% with Marsh III histological changes according to the Marsh classification.

    Conclusions

    Most of our patients with CeD were oligo-symptomatic forms. It is essential for healthcare professionals to have the clinical features of patients diagnosed with CeD in their area.

    Keywords: Celiac disease, Pathology, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Adult
  • Mohammad Sohrabi, Ali Gol, Moj Khaleghi Pages 137-145
    Background

    This study investigated the effects of lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4356 on the oxidant and antioxidant factors of the liver and levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) before and after streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats.

    Materials and  Methods

    Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6): Control (C), Control probiotic (CP), Diabetic (D), Diabetic Pretreatment with lactobacillus (DPB[A1] ), and Post-treatment with lactobacillus (DPA) groups. C group received daily 1 mL of normal saline for 6 weeks. CP group received daily 1×109 cfu/mL L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 for 6 weeks. D group received daily 1mL normal saline for 2 weeks before and for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. DPB group received daily 1×109 cfu/ml L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 for 2 weeks before and for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. DPA group first received daily 1mL normal saline for 2 weeks before diabetes and then received daily 1×109 cfu/mL L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 for 4 weeks after it.

    Results

     L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 decreased liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 concentration and serum AST significantly in both pre- and post-treatment groups compared with the D group. Catalase activity (CAT) and serum ALT showed a significant decrease in the post-treatment group compared with the D group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity showed a significant increase in the post-treatment group compared to the D group.

    Conclusion

    The present study showed that L. acidophilus ATCC4356 had more protective effects on the liver in the post-treatment group compared with the pretreatment one.

    Keywords: Diabetes, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Hepatic complications, Oxidative stress, ALT, AST