فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 4, Oct 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Tamara Abd Alkareem, Shaimaa Hassan, Saifaldeen Abdalhadi * Pages 306-319

    Breast Cancer (BC) is a special case in which the breast's cells grow out of control. Different types of breast cancer are developed according to which cells in the breast turn into cancer and different parts of the breast can give rise to breast cancer. Many types of treatment are used to treat breast cancer and metal complexes are one of the most crucial treatments for breast cancer. Numerous metal complexes have been shown effective in the treatment of breast cancer as well as many complexes utilized to treat specific forms of the disease. Metal complexes will help medicinal chemists organize, plan, and put innovative methods toward the development of novel medications into practice. This review highlights the causes and treatments of breast cancer and gives many examples of recent research that uses metal complexes as a medication.

    Keywords: breast cancer, Metal complex, Cancer treatment, Chemotherapy, Hormone, Radiation therapy
  • Mohammed Gargodhi *, Fatma Rajab, Najwa Ansir Pages 320-329
    This article presents a new approach to measure the concentrations of lead and cadmium in soil marine samples. The technique involves a two-step process: first, the samples are pre-concentrated using liquid-liquid extraction, and then atomic fluorescence spectrometry is used for analysis. In this process, dithizone is used as the chelating agent. During the procedure, a complex is formed between lead and cadmium with dithizone. The researchers also investigated important factors that may affect the efficiency of the extraction, such as pH of the sample and shaking duration.The results demonstrated that the extraction process yielded optimal results within a pH range of 7 to 9, and the ideal duration of shaking was between 10 to 30 minutes. Through stoichiometry analysis, it was determined that the most probable structure of the extracted ion pair complex consisted of one metal ion bonded to two ligand molecules (1M+2:2HDZ-). The influence of organic solvents on the extraction process showed that the distribution ratio (D) for extraction increased with a decrease in dielectric constant. Particularly, carbon tetrachloride demonstrated a higher distribution ratio (D), possibly due to its lower dielectric constant, which aids in the disruption of hydration shell around metal cations (Cd and Pb), allowing for enhanced coordination between the ligand molecules and metal cations. A previously described method for analyzing Cd and Pb in marine soil was adapted for this study.
    Keywords: Marine soil, Dithizone, elements, FAAS
  • Hassan Mohammadipour Anvari, Mohammad Irajian * Pages 330-343
      Vancomycin is an antibacterial drug used to treat intestinal infections caused by Clostridium difficile, which can cause bloody or watery diarrhea. Clostridium difficile infections are among the most common infections in patients who have recently taken antibiotics for a long time or have been hospitalized. This drug is also used in the treatment of staph infections that cause inflammation of the small intestine and colon.
    Material and Methods
    Vancomycin powder 1 g intraarticular intraoperatively administered during total knee arthroplasty. It was not applied selectively so that an inclusion bias brought on by limited application to certain indications could be disregarded
      Vancomycin is bactericidal and works by inhibiting the construction of the cell wall and blocking glycopeptide polymerization. The spectrum of effect of this drug includes many Gram-positive organisms, including those that are resistant to other antibiotics. This drug is effective in infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin. Also, this drug is effective for treating infections caused by streptococcus pneumococcus resistant to penicillin.
    Intra-articular injections for the treatment of joint problems is a term used to directly inject a drug into the joint with the aim of reducing pain. Corticosteroids (steroids) were the first drugs used for this purpose. Vancomycin is used in limited cases, including in the prevention and treatment of endocarditis and other serious infections caused by gram-positive cocci (such as staphylococcus resistant to penicillins). Oral vancomycin is not effective in the treatment of systemic infections, but it is used orally in the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis caused by antibiotics.
    Keywords: Intraarticular, Vancomycin, Total Knee Arthroplasty
  • Mohammad Irajian, Hassan Mohammadipour Anvari * Pages 344-356
     Cefazolin injection at home is usually prescribed by specialists in hospital or clinical settings to treat bacterial infections. Cefazolin may be prescribed to people who have a bacterial infection whose body does not respond to other antibiotics or to people who are at risk of infection after surgery.
    Material and Methods
    The main result was the emergence of any SSI within a year of surgery. The surgical information recording system had records for every patient who underwent THA. The attending surgeon examined the surgical site daily while the patient was admitted, and the clinical data was documented on a standardized record form. Patients were scheduled for follow-up appointments in the outpatient clinic at 2 & 6 weeks, 3 & 6 months, and 1 year after surgery following discharge.
    Simple dressings, superficial wound revision, and short-term oral antibiotics were used to treat cases of superficial incisional SSIs. Deep incisional and organ-space SSI cases underwent open or arthroscopic debridement while keeping the prosthesis in place, either with or without subsequent oral medications.
      In case of infection in the artificial joint, the most important point is timely diagnosis. Symptoms can be swelling, redness and pain in the affected joint. It is important not to start antibiotics for the patient before a definitive diagnosis because it not only makes the diagnosis difficult, but also interferes with proper and effective treatment. For diagnosis, it is necessary, if necessary, draw joint fluid and send it to the laboratory. In cases where the infection was detected in time in the first four weeks from the beginning, the treatment can be done by keeping the prosthesis. In these cases, washing the joint completely and prescribing appropriate antibiotics based on culture results controls the infection in 80% of cases.
    Keywords: Antibiotic, Prophylaxis, preoperative, THA
  • Ibrahim Mohammad, Garba Aliyu, Blessing Tabugbo, Usman Rilwan * Pages 357-369
    Pasta is a common food product created from wheat flour combined with water or eggs, shaped into various forms, and cooked by boiling or baking. The primary route for heavy metals to enter the human body is through food consumption. This study aims to assess the presence of heavy metals in pasta products. We conducted an analysis using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to determine the concentrations of manganese, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc. The results of our heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of significant concentrations of these elements in four distinct pasta types: HWS, GPS, DS, and CS. Notably, CS exhibited elevated levels of nickel (Ni) contamination, while HWS contained a high concentration of cadmium (Cd). These findings suggest that manufacturing processes employed in the industry may be responsible for the contamination of these heavy metals in pasta products. Furthermore, it is concerning that HWS and CS still contain concentrations of Ni and Cd above the maximum permissible limits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Considering the limits of blank (LOB), limits of detection (LOD), repeatability (R), and reproducibility (Rp) presented in this study, we observed minimal variability or uncertainty in the measurements. This suggests a notable level of precision in the measuring instruments and the tested samples. Consequently, the pasta products investigated in this area can be considered safe for consumption. Nevertheless, we recommend continued research of this nature in other regions of the state to ensure the safety of pasta products across the entire area.
    Keywords: Pastas, Wheat, egg, food, heavy metals
  • Mamedu Anthony, Olumide Ige, Usman Rilwan *, Obiri Okara, Sunday Ikpughul, Atef Taher Pages 370-378
    In this study, we investigated the neutron-induced fissile isotopes of Protactinium-231 using the Coupled-Channeled Optical Model code (OPTMAN) up to 20 MeV. The research was driven by the growing demand for nuclear reactor fuels. Protactinium-231, a naturally occurring radionuclide with significant fuel potential, is found in nearly 100% abundance. When subjected to neutron bombardment, Protactinium-231 can yield fissile materials suitable for use as reactor fuel. We performed computations using two different approaches: The Potential Expanded by Derivatives (PED), which incorporates the Rigid-Rotor Model (RRM) treating nuclei as rigid vibrating spheres while considering nuclear volume conservation, and the Rotational Model Potentials (RMP), which accounts for the Soft-Rotator Model (SRM) treating nuclei as deformable, rotating spheres. Each set of calculated data was compared with data retrieved from the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF), and a high level of agreement was observed. In all cases, the threshold energies were found to be ≤ 4 MeV for both PED and RMP. Notably, the results obtained from the RMP approach exhibited closer agreement with the retrieved data than those from the PED approach.
    Keywords: Reactor, Breeder, Fuel, OPTMAN Code, Coupled-Channelled Model, Soft-Rotor, Rigid-Rotor