فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management
Volume:9 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • H. Mobini *, D. Crozat, B. Shabani, M. Haghi Pages 1-16
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    Due to the development of Information and communication technologies, data clouds produced by several sources containing vital information about cities, give more opportunities to tourists to access more information and services. Tourists can overcome challenges such as movement and finding information and services by improving the digital Tourism System’s efficiency. Digital tourism system can help tourists to move and to live in unfamiliar destinations, know different cultures, and buy services and productions more easily and independently. Therefore, digital tourism systems and their efficiency are a significant concern, which this research aims to address by evaluating the position of digital tourism systems and identifying the dimensions and influential factors affecting their efficiency.

    METHODS

     This study was a quantitative research and its target population consists of tourists or residents of the city of Mashhad use digital tourism systems. Due to the large population size, encompassing nearly 3 million residents and 20 million tourists annually, and considering the methods for determining the sample size for this study due to limitations arising from COVID-19, online questionnaires were utilized for data collection. Out of a total of 778 distributed questionnaires, 389 questionnaires were fully and accurately completed. The collected data was analysed using SPSS data analysis software to assess the analysis and relationships between the factors affecting the efficiency of digital tourism systems in Mashhad.

    FINDINGS

    The results showed that more than 82% of respondents are using digital tourism system for managing their travels and three main functions of digital tourism system mentioned by tourists are “reservation services” (41%), “take information” (31%), “moving, find destination” (28%). Additionally, in brightness of this study, it demonstrated that digital tourism system usually uses smart recommender systems to personalise its recommendations, which need tourists' information. However, many of tourists (56%) are unwilling to share their personal information. one of the most important finding of this research is that receiving social content significantly correlates with users' confidence in digital tourism system for sharing their personal information.

    CONCLUSION

    The findings showed that digital tourism system can optimise its personalisation process by using social content. It can ameliorate the users’ confidence in digital tourism system for sharing their personal information, which will increase the efficiency of digital tourism system. This finding cannot only be a solution to overcome tourists' challenges but also is a key factor for tourism companies that are the beneficiaries of digital tourism system to achieve their business goals. Moreover, it is a wake-up alert for the public sector to accept its responsibility for legislating, monitoring and producing social content in digital tourism systems.

    Keywords: Digital tourism services, Mashhad, Nonratification, Personalization, Social content, smart recommender system
  • A. Arabiun *, M. Tajpour, M.R. Zahedi Pages 17-28
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    The digital age has led to significant changes in all aspects of human life, including the way businesses operate. It is expected that the digitalization process of this type of business will accelerate in the coming years, therefore the results of this research can have a great impact on increasing their productivity and economic growth. In this context, the current study aims to investigate the impact of digital leadership on the performance of businesses, with a particular focus on the mediating role of organizational entrepreneurship.

    METHODS

    This research is applied in terms of research purpose and descriptive-survey method. The statistical population of this study consists of 601 employees and managers working in the printing and publishing industry in Tehran province. The sample size was determined using Cochran's formula, and a total of 235 individuals were selected using available sampling techniques. Data was collected using standard questionnaires, and SmartPLS4 software and structural equation modeling were utilized to analyze the data. This approach allows for the examination of the complex relationships between digital leadership, organizational entrepreneurship, and business performance in the publishing industry.

    FINDINGS

    This research examines the fit of a model at three levels of measurement: structural, general, and combined reliability. The R2 (equal path squared) values for organizational entrepreneurship and the performance of printing and publishing businesses are 0.739 and 0.653, respectively, indicating a strong level of fit for the structural model. The t-statistic was used to check the assumed relationships between the variables, with seven sub-hypotheses used to measure the main hypothesis. The t-coefficients relevant to the seven existing relationships have been confirmed, supporting the main hypothesis.

    CONCLUSION

    Businesses that adopt digital leadership strategies are more likely to develop new digital facilities and make significant changes in their strategy-making processes and organizational culture. These findings emphasize the importance of digital leadership in the publishing industry and suggest that businesses that embrace digital leadership strategies are more likely to succeed in the digital age. The insights gained from this study can be used to develop effective digital leadership strategies to help publishing businesses thrive in an increasingly digital world.

    Keywords: Digital Leadership, Mental Framework, Organizational Entrepreneurship, Social Capital, Virtual Team
  • S. Kuberkar *, Sh. Singh, T.K. Singhal Pages 29-46
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    Urban administrators of major cities in India are planning to deploy advanced information technologies such as artificial intelligence to deliver e-governance services. It is expected to enable citizens to acquire relevant information to their commonly asked questions without significant technological expertise. With its text, speech, and image processing capabilities similar to human beings, artificial intelligence is predicted to have both positive and negative social impact. The objective of this paper was to develop a conceptual framework consisting of enablers and barriers in adopting artificial intelligence enabled service delivery in a smart city from citizens’ perspectives. The study is novel in terms of empirically finding factors influencing adoption intention of artificial intelligence for availing citizen services in a nation like India which has a very large population and developing economy.

    METHODS

    The study utilized an extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology framework and employed survey-based data collection technique. A structured survey was circulated as part of primary data collection. The responses were collected from 772 sample respondents from three upcoming smart cities in India and were further examined by deploying the structural equation modeling technique using IBM SPSS and AMOS tools.

    FINDINGS

    The proposed framework in this research study has social implications in terms of key factors that are critical when conceptualizing government services using artificial intelligence to avoid any harmful effects on society. The findings demonstrated six enablers and three barriers significantly affecting adoption intention (p<0.05) and explained 81 percent of the variance (R2) with the model's Goodness-of-fit index above 0.9. The quantitative results are also validated with the case studies from six smart cities across the globe for designing and deploying artificial intelligence-based services in the public sector.  

    CONCLUSION

    the study highlights that the smart city management must make sufficient effort to ensure that artificial intelligence service delivery in a smart city is equitable for all socioeconomic levels of city residents. The study provides several policy recommendations for governments and technology service providers when deploying artificial intelligence-based services for citizens in developing countries like India.

    Keywords: artificial intelligence, Ethics, technology adoption, Smart City Citizen Services
  • O.P Agboola, S.D. Zakka *, S.A. Olatunji Pages 47-60
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    There are indications that climate change and its consequences are already creating threats to the built environment in Nigeria. These environmental threats have negative implications for healthy, well-being, and urban sustainability. This empirical study aim to identify how climate change has influenced the built environment in Nigeria's South-Western region, considering the following

    objectives

    to explore the reasons for climate change in South-western, Nigeria, to determine the consequences of environmental issues on inhabitant health in South-western, Nigeria; and to critically determine the key measures of climate change mitigation and adaptation to enhance the environmental sustainability of the Southwestern region of Nigeria.

    METHODS

    An empirical quantitative method comprising 300 questionnaires survey was administered, and 235 were retrieved and used as a sample population for the research analysis. The distribution of questionnaires was based on the convenience sampling methods among professionals within the built environment. The internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α), and the analysis was performed using the Statistical Software program; SPSS for Windows, version 22.

    FINDINGS

    The results from descriptive analysis revealed that Land-degradation, biodiversity loss, pollution, deforestation, urbanization, health challenges and population growth are predictors factors of climate change with mean scores of 4.2576, 4.2300, 4.0775, 4.0875, 4.1075, 3.8450 and 4.0925 respectively. Furthermore, the research showed a causal linkage relationship of climate change and the factors of land degradation, biodiversity, pollution and deforestation of (p<0.001). Generally, the results affirm that the predictors of climate change are attributed to the factors of land degradation, biodiversity loss, pollution, urbanization and deforestation in the region.

    CONCLUSION

    The research gives an understanding about the impacts of climate change in the south west region, Nigeria and remains a veritable document to government and policy maker towards the prevention and mitigating measures on climate change impacts. The outcome of the research has revealed negative impacts of environmental issues on inhabitants’ health through air pollution, temperature related effects and mental related infectious diseases. The climate change mitigation and adaptations results agreed that greening the environment/green infrastructure, provision of stronger urban-rural connections and promulgation of law that discourages human activities impacts are few among the items recommended in mitigating and combating the impacts of climate change in South-western Nigeria.

    Keywords: Adaptations, built environment, Climate change, Environmental sustainability, Mitigation
  • S.M. Mirbagheri, A. Rafiei Atani *, M. Parsanejad Pages 61-74
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    Collective decision-making can increase the probability of reaching the correct decision. In Collective decision-making, information, experience, and knowledge are shared, and managers can use the wisdom of their employees with this method. In addition, in Collective decision-making, learning and ideation take place, and employees express their opinions freely and reach a common decision with the help of each other. 

    METHODS

    In this study, the concepts related to Collective decision-making are explained using the research background. Then, by using the grounded theory method, the most important questions related to why and how Collective decision-making are answered. To get the opinions of organizational and academic experts in this field, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 54 people who were selected by purposeful sampling. After collecting the data through interviews, the components are coded in an open, axial, and selective. 

    FINDINGS

    Through coding, 26 concepts were obtained which were later classified into 5 categories: causal conditions, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, central phenomenon, strategies, and consequences. The findings of this study provide a comprehensive model for the central phenomenon of Collective decision-making.

    CONCLUSION

    The results show that collection alliance, increased awareness and knowledge, growth, and development of members, increased wisdom and collective intelligence, increased members' commitment, increased quality of decision-making, and increased justice are the most important consequences of Collective decision-making. This study is important because it broadens the perspective of managers, and provides a deeper understanding of the nature of Collective decision-making in the organization.

    Keywords: Collective decision-making (CDM), group decision, Collective Behavior, grounded theory, Decision Science
  • A.R.P. Saputra *, W. Widarta, I. Iswiyanto Pages 75-84
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    Green Tourism to be an important factor as a medium of learning information for residents, managers and government. However, since Covid-19 this sector has experienced a decline in the performance of human resources for greening at the Gembira Loka Zoo conservation agency, even though this plays an important role. At the beginning of this pandemic, it was like "starting from scratch" in procuring environmentally friendly human resources. This study aims to analyze the Effect of Green Training, Green Reward, and Green Recruitment on Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Environment Employees at the Gembira Loka Zoo conservation agency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. This research is interesting, because of the innovative research conducted in the conservation sector on employees who are environmentally conscious.

    METHODS

    This study uses inferential statistics. Field and library methods, literature reviews, and questionnaires were used to gather information. This study used a saturated sample method with quota sampling technique on 147 employees of the Gembira Loka Zoo conservation agency with Variance Based Structural Equation Modeling analysis. The outer model was made by testing the quality of raw material instruments with reliability tests using the Cronbah's Alfa method and Composite Reliability > 0.7. The validity test used convergent validity and discriminant validity with outer loading factor > 0.70, and discriminant validity with Average Variable Extract > 0.50. Inner model by looking at goodness-of-fit. Finally, the collected data was analyzed using SmartPLS version 4 software.

    FINDINGS

    Based on the results of Structural Equation Model test, all indicators are reliable where the loading factor and Composite reliability > 0.7, all variables are valid because Average Variance Extracted > 0.50, P <0.05 value for hypotheses 2 and 3 is accepted, while hypothesis 1 is rejected because P > 0.05. This model is in accordance with the goodness of fit measures.

    CONCLUSION

    The results of the study show that Green Training has no effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior for the Environment, but green reward and green recruitment have a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Environment, and green recruitment has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Environment.

    Keywords: Green Recruitment, Green Reward, Green Training, OCBE
  • A. Rajabipoor Meybodi *, A. Jahanfekr, H. Mahjoor, E. Hosseini Pages 85-100
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    The employee's experience during employment can play a very important role in various aspects of the employee-employer relationship and subsequently in the personal improvement of the employee and the development and progress of the organization. Due to the fact that so far, the experience of employees has not been measured with regard to the effect of job satisfaction, workplace and organizational culture, this research has innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this research is the identifying the dimensions of employee experience according to the effect of satisfaction, workplace, and organizational culture.

    METHODS

    This study is applied and descriptive. The statistical population consisted of employees of the municipality of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmed provinces. The statistical population of the research included 823 municipal employees, which was estimated to be 260 for the statistical sample according to the online Cochran formula. The researcher-made questionnaire was compiled according to the research literature and sent to the statistical sample through the porsline link of the questionnaire.  For content validity, the evaluation of scientific and executive experts who are aware of the subject and society showed that the questions of the questionnaire evaluate the variables and their relationships well. In the measurement model, the internal consistency of the model or reliability has been measured by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient and shared reliability. To measure divergent validity, Fornell and Larcker criteria were used. Data analysis was done using the software of structural equations of Lisrel.

    FINDINGS

    Convergent validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to fit the measurement. The convergent validity was higher than the standard value of 0.5, which was acceptable for all variables. Cronbach's alpha was higher than the standard value of 0.7, which was acceptable for all variables. The t-statistic was used to test the hypotheses. The amount of t-statistic for culture and satisfaction variable was more than the acceptable limit, i.e. 1.96, which means that these two hypotheses have been confirmed. The value of t statistic was less than acceptable and this hypothesis was rejected.

    CONCLUSION

    Considering the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction with employee experience, there is a need for managers to try to carry out activities or make decisions that increase employee job satisfaction and improve and make organizational culture more effective in order to create an effective experience and be efficient for employees.

    Keywords: Employee Satisfaction, Factor analysis, human resources management, Innovation, Professional experience, work environment
  • S. Tawsif *, S.K. Paul, M.S. Khan Pages 101-118
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    Historical reports show that COVID-19 pandemic has been confirmed over 213 nations or territories which accelerates the livelihoods. It also hampers the livelihoods of urban peoples mainly poor slum dwellers in developing countries like Bangladesh. The purpose of this article is to assess the vulnerability of urban slum dwellers based on five livelihood capitals during COVID-19.

    METHODS

    Rajshahi City Corporation area is purposively selected which is grouped into three zones (central, interim and peripheral) based on the distance from the central business district, Shaheb Bazar. The study is conducted with a semi-structured and self-developed questionnaire to fulfill its objective. The questionnaires are focused on predetermined 48 indicators of five livelihood capitals (human, social, physical, natural and financial). Total 361 slum households (9%) are selected from 4010 households at 95% significance level which are proportionately distributed in 12 slum areas and household heads are nominated through simple random samplings. Data are coded, edited and inserted carefully; standardized and livelihood capital index are calculated with SPSS and map is produced with ArcGIS 10.4.

    FINDINGS

    Study reveals that about 47.8% (central), 57.5% (interim) and 45.1% (peripheral) slum dwellers are illiterate and live in a miserable condition. Human capital index is found higher in central slums (0.435) than peripheral (0.406) and interim (0.387). The social capital index is revealed as similar of human capital index. But physical capital index claims the trend as central (0.776)> interim (0.646)> peripheral (0.536). Again, financial capital index of the central slum dwellers is higher as they receive help during pandemic and get earning opportunity and these slum areas are located near the central business district. In addition, natural capital index is totally different and peripheral slum dwellers are in better position (0.635) than interim (0.549) and central (0.358) slums. Finally, the study concludes that mean livelihood capital index of central (0.4334) slum dwellers are better than interim (0.4216) and peripheral (0.4222) slums which assesses all the study slums as moderate.

    CONCLUSION

    The study suggests that financial improvement is becoming an ultimate need for slum dwellers since the financial capital index reveals as poor among all the slum areas. Moreover, individual or community-based strategies, international collaborations, government and non-governmental organizations need to come forward to improve not only the financial capital but also other four capitals in all slum areas to build a sustainable livelihood as majority of them live below the standard livelihoods.

    Keywords: Central Business District, COVID-19, livelihood capital, Urban Slum dwellers
  • M. Amjadian, N. Mirsepasi *, M.. Kameli Pages 119-134
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    The use of job turnover as a strategic management approach has become crucial in the progression of human capital and in enhancing the effectiveness and output of organizations. This has been widely recognized through scientific studies. With the significance of this matter in mind, the objective of this study is to investigate how the departure of employees from their jobs impacts the efficiency of the Ministry of Education in Iran.

    METHODS

    The present study was conducted via a survey methodology. The statistical population comprising all individuals employed by the Ministry of Education encompassed a total of 1500 employees. The size of the sample was ascertained utilizing Morgan's table of 306 individuals and cluster sampling. Furthermore, to ensure the sufficiency of the sample, Bartlett's test was employed. The research data was acquired through a comprehensive analysis of the relevant research literature and a researcher-designed questionnaire consisting of 74 items rated on a Likert scale. The validation of the questionnaire was verified by esteemed scholars and experts with a minimum of 5 years of experience in the fields of management and academic research, whereas the reliability of the data was ensured by conducting a test to confirm the construct reliability. A series of measures were obtained, with a minimum measure value of 0. 7, and a variance of each construct exceeding 0. The statistical data was subjected to analysis by means of the employment of SPSS version 28 and Lisrel version 11 software applications.

    FINDINGS

    The present study's findings demonstrate significant correlations between various aspects of the job turnover process and organizational productivity. Specifically, the analysis showed strong positive associations between job turnover at the individual (r = 0. 71), intra-organizational (r = 0. 82), and extra-organizational (r = 0. 65) levels and the dimensions of efficiency (r = 0. 84) and effectiveness (r = 0. 89) of the organization. There exists a noteworthy correlation with the Iran’s Ministry of Education.

    COONCLUSION:

     The current study indicates that the job turnover phenomenon, as it pertains to individual, intra-organizational, and extra-organizational levels, exerts an impact on the productivity, efficiency, and overall organizational effectiveness of the Ministry of Education. Moreover, the simultaneous occurrence of job turnover in all three dimensions enhances its effectiveness.

    Keywords: Efficiency, Effectiveness, Job turnover, Ministry of Education, organizational productivity
  • D. Singhal, H.A Salunkhe * Pages 135-156
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    An employee's satisfaction and performance are linked to the company's work discipline, personal factors, and organizational culture. This paper studies these three factors in the context of Information Technology companies and their connection to employee satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a significant issue in Information Technology Companies, leading to increased labour turnover in Information Technology Companies. The study highlights the relevance of Information Technology companies to understanding the reasons behind their employees' satisfaction. Until now, little is known concerning the variants of job satisfaction among Information Technology employees, enriching the understanding in this particular professional area. The study was conducted to assess the job satisfaction needs of the employees in major Information Technology companies. The study helps to know the preferences and problems of the employees.

    METHODS

    In this study, data was collected from employees from various Information Technology companies to uncover the factors that impact the satisfaction of employees. Considering the study's goal and the literature review, the technique was analytical and interpretive. Due to large populations random sampling method is convenient for the study. The study's objectives were achieved explicitly via the questionnaire's design. To test the proposed hypotheses, all data were processed using the Structural Equation Modelling, Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and Analysis of Moment Structures.

    FINDINGS

    Information Technology companies need their employees to feel satisfied to achieve the overall objectives and remain loyal to the company to achieve company success. From the responses, we learned that 31% of the respondents were satisfied with their employer about the various allowances and benefits they receive. Also, we knew that around 50% of the respondents were happy with their choice of the company because of its future commitments. 102 of the respondents highly disagreed that they were satisfied with the attitude and nature of their employees. Also, 22.26% of the male respondents have said they are only sometimes motivated to go to work. The limitation of this study was that the collected data was only of the general employees of the Indian Information Technology companies and not to specific departments of those companies. Also, no categories of companies were defined as per turnover.

    CONCLUSION

    By recognizing the importance of job satisfaction, managers can create an environment that motivates and engages employees, leading to better performance, increased productivity, and reduced employee turnover.

    Keywords: Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS), Job Satisfaction, Job Commitment, Teamwork, Performance, employee turnover, Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS): Work-life balance
  • K. Fahimi *, M. Amirabadi Pages 157-176
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    Excellence models are essential for organizations to improve performance. Deming Prize, Canada Awards for Excellence, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, and European Quality Award are the most well-known excellence models worldwide. These models do not present any mathematical model in accordance with a comprehensive step-by-step roadmap for implementation. Moreover, they are general models and have not been customized for a specific organization. So, this article presents a comprehensive, graphical, step-by-step roadmap to implement an excellent model for Tehran Municipality that is elevated by Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution and analytical hierarchical process to make decisions by mathematical analysis.

    METHODS

    Different excellence and performance models have been studied, and then an excellence model for deputies of Tehran Municipality is designed. Also, an Analytical hierarchical process for weight extraction and a Technique for order of preference by similarity to an ideal solution for ranking is applied.

    FINDINGS

    A novel excellence model for deputies of Tehran Municipality has been developed. Strategies, goals, objectives, targets, critical success factors, and general, proprietary, and transaction indexes are defined. Analytic hierarchy process  calculates weights of indexes based on arbitrary data, and results are presented in 11 Tables. The most important index was the proprietary index, with a weight of 70% for the deputy of technical and construction. The less important index was the general index for the deputy of planning, human capital development, and council affairs, weighing 8%. Moreover, deputies of Tehran Municipality have been ranked by TOPSIS. The best deputy got 71%, and the worse got 7% scores.

    CONCLUSION

    This study constructed a customized five-step excellence model for Tehran Municipality to reach excellence. The model can help Tehran Municipality for better urban planning. Step one constructs the performance assessment team. Step two extracts indexes by brainstorming method with the help of the European foundation for quality management model. Step three collects, cleans and loads the data in the data warehouse. In step four, weights of the indexes and facets are calculated based on AHP, and then facets, indexes, and goals are ranked by technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution as an effective multi-criteria decision making tool. Finally, the model has been implemented at offices of plan monitoring, project control, and performance evaluation in planning, human capital development, and council affairs department at Tehran Municipality.

    Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process (AHP), Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)Analytic hierarchy process (AHP), European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), Excellence model, performance assessment, Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS)
  • B.Kh. Almagharbeh * Pages 177-188
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

    Agile human resource practices have become one of the most important concerns of modern departments because of their role in achieving competitive advantage. The majority of academics believe that in order to implement Agility of human resource practices, many scholars argue that effective implementation of agile HR practices requires trained and motivated personnel. This research aims at clarifying the effect of human resources agility in Organizational Sustainability at Jordanian hotel sector.

    METHODS

    The current study looks at the effect of human resource agility on organizational sustainability. A quantitative approach was used through a questionnaire-based survey. A descriptive analytical strategy was utilized in the study. The study targeted the entire workforce of Jordan's hotel sector, consisting of 21,835 employees across 22 hotels. The study's sample consisted of 410 workers that are employed in the hotel sector in Jordan. Numerous statistical methods, including frequency, percent, mean, standard deviation, Cronbach's alpha, exploratory factor analysis, average variance extracted, and composite reliability, have been employed to meet the aims of this research. Additionally, a structural equation modeling was used to quantify the impact of human resource agility on organizational sustainability.

    FINDINGS

    Findings showed that resilience resilience had a positive influence on social and economic sustainability) Estimate = 0.323 and 0.207; C.R = 3.660 and 2.357; P-value = 0.01 and 0.00(. While environmental sustainability was not significantly impacted by resilience. Additionally, the results showed that adaptability significantly influence all organizational sustainability dimensions, including social, environmental and economic sustainability (Estimate = 0.247, 0.203 and 0.521; C.R = 2.312, 2.698 and 5.296; P-value = 0.021, 0.011 and 0.00(. Additionally, the results showed that proactivity significantly impact on social and environmental sustainability (Estimate = 0.475, 0.319; C.R = 5.085, 3.524; P-value = 0.00, 0.00 (.

    CONCLUSION

    The study suggests that the hotel industry should provide and promote agile human resource practices in order to maintain organizational sustainability and prevent organizational decline. look into and analyze the mediating role of job embeddesness on the relationship between human resource agility and organizational sustainability at other industrial or service fields in Jordan as well as across different nations and various regional boundaries. The study also recommends that scholars explore the mediating role of job embeddedness in the relationship between HR agility and organizational sustainability, both within Jordan and across other countries and regions.

    Keywords: human resources, Jordanian hotel sector Organizational Sustainability, structural equation modeling