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Health and Development Journal - Volume:11 Issue: 2, Spring 2022

Health and Development Journal
Volume:11 Issue: 2, Spring 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/09/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fahimeh Mirzakhani, Zahra Ameri, Narges Khanjani, Amir Amini, AmirReza Nabipour * Pages 51-59
    Background

    Risky behaviors can cause severe damage in communities. These behaviors are more common among the youth. This study aimed to investigate the mental factors associated with high-risk behaviors among university students in Tehran province, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on students selected using multistage sampling from different faculties in 2014-2015. In total, 477 students completed the Youth Risk-Taking Scale and Mental Health Inventory-28. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression.

    Results

    Psychological well-being had a significant negative correlation with the tendency to risky behavior (P < 0.001). There was a strong significant correlation between psychological distress and smoking, drinking, and sexual risk-taking. This study revealed that students with a higher level of psychological well-being were less likely to engage in risky behaviors such as sexual risk-taking, careless driving, violence, smoking, and alcohol and drug abuse (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that mental health promotion can decrease risky behaviors among youths in Iran.

    Keywords: Risky behavior, Psychological Well-Being, psychological distress
  • Vajiheh Zolehsan, Ahmad Naghibzadeh, Habibeh Ahmadipour * Pages 60-65
    Background
    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of guild training courses on the health knowledge and performance of food operators in food preparation and distribution centers in Zarand, Kerman, Iran in 2021.
    Methods
    This quasi-experimental (uncontrolled) study was conducted on 120 food operators in food preparation and distribution centers in Zarand. The data were collected using the Health Knowledge and Performance Questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed at the time of enrollment and in the final evaluation phase. The food operators’ performance was evaluated two weeks before and one month after the completion of the training course in the food operators’ workplace through questions and checklists. The knowledge and performance scores for the participants ranged from 0 to 100. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS-23 software using paired and independent samples t tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation test.
    Results
    The participants’ mean age was 36.73 ± 8.92 years. The mean scores of health knowledge were 65.70 ± 21.60 and 89.62 ± 12.12 before and after the training course, respectively, showing a statistically significant increase in the post-training phase (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean scores of health performance were 78.70 ± 7.50 and 82.42 ± 6.65 before and after the training course, respectively, indicating a statistically significant increase in the participants’ health performance in the post-training phase (P < 0.001).
    Conclusion
    The findings revealed that guild training courses are effective in improving the health knowledge and performance of food operators in food preparation and distribution centers. Thus, the potential of guild training courses can be used to raise food operators’ and workers’ awareness of health-related problems and provide effective solutions.
    Keywords: Health, Knowledge, performance, Training courses, Food, Operators
  • Azam Bazrafshan, Azadeh Sadeghi, Maliheh Sadat Bazrafshan, Mehdi Shafiei-Bafti, Hamid Sharifi, Amin Beigzadeh, Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki * Pages 66-76
    Background
    COVID-19 vaccination is one of the most successful ways to control the ongoing pandemic and prevent severe diseases, hospitalization, and death. Current evidence suggests COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (a delay in accepting or rejecting the vaccine despite the availability of vaccination services) is a barrier to successful vaccination programs worldwide. This study aimed to explore the underlying factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among the Iranian population.
    Methods
    This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews. A total of 32 Iranian participants with diverse ethnicity, language, age, and gender were selected through purposive sampling. Interviews were analyzed using Graneheim and Lundman’s qualitative content analysis method. MAXQDA software was used for data analysis.
    Results
    Three themes and eight subthemes emerged from the qualitative interviews. Individual underlying factors included knowledge, beliefs, and the fear of COVID-19 infection. Social factors included social media, the health system, and governance. Institutional factors included vaccine opponents and health experts that fueled COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and refusal among the participants.
    Conclusion
    Poor knowledge, misbelief, and fear were the most commonly reported causes of vaccine hesitancy and refusal among Iranians. Therefore, targeted interventions are recommended to address misinformation among the Iranian population.
    Keywords: COVID-19, qualitative research, vaccination refusal, Vaccination hesitancy, Iran
  • Mohammad Javad Akbarian, Yahya Jafari *, Sadegh Dameyar Pages 77-83
    Background
    Knowledge management creates value for the organization by turning human capital into intellectual assets. Organizational culture affects knowledge management by influencing these assets. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the components of organizational culture and knowledge management at Bam University of Medical Sciences.
    Methods
    This descriptive-analytical study was conducted using a cross-sectional design in 2017 on 190 staff members of Bam University of Medical Sciences who were selected through stratified sampling. The data were collected using Probst’s Knowledge Management Questionnaire and Denison Organizational Culture Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation test and linear regression analysis with SPSS-26 software.
    Results
    Most of the staff (81%) had a positive evaluation of the state of organizational culture. The highest and lowest mean scores for the components of organizational culture were related to consistency (2.88) and adaptability (2.67) and also knowledge identification (3.30) and knowledge use (2.53) as the components of knowledge management. The results showed a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.005) between organizational culture and knowledge management.
    Conclusion
    The findings confirmed a significant relationship between organizational culture and knowledge management, indicating that the stronger the organizational culture, the more successful the implementation of knowledge management will be. Thus, to improve knowledge management and sharing in the organization, managers can focus on the organizational culture and improve its various dimensions.
    Keywords: Organizational culture, Knowledge management, Staff
  • Peigham Heidarpoor *, Soheyla Hadyan Pages 84-91
    Background
    Sedentary lifestyle is regarded as one of the main risk factors for obesity and chronic diseases. As schools provide students with important opportunities for physical activity, their closure, prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic, had a detrimental impact on vulnerable populations, particularly youth and school students. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of virtual physical education on students’ quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Methods
    This community trial was conducted with an experimental and a control group. For this purpose, 300 students aged 13 to 15 years, selected among students of the 1st year of high school, were selected from the four education districts of the urban areas of Karaj city in the year 2020 using a cluster sampling method. The selected students were randomly assigned to the two groups of intervention and control, each with 150 people. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of inclusion criteria and demographic characteristics. Following group assignment, the intervention group received virtual physical education for eight 30-minute sessions, one session each week. All subjects completed the Physical Activity and Quality of Life Questionnaires before and after the training. The data were analyzed with SPSS software version 20, using the chi-square test, paired t-test, and independent t-test.
    Results
    The mean and standard deviation of the scores in almost all areas of quality of life (both physical activity and mental health) in the intervention group had a significant improvement after the training courses (P < 0.05). After training, the mean scores of quality of life in the virtual education group were significantly greater than control group (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    The virtual school-based physical activity intervention had positive effects on children’s psychological and psychological wellbeing. The online educational method could provide customizable physical education learning activities as a suitable step in promoting physical activity engagement for different groups of students.
    Keywords: physical activity, Virtual learning, Quality of Life, Students
  • Ebtesam Savari, Maryam Dastoorpoor *, Khodabakhsh Karami Pages 92-97
    Background
    In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention to the subject of happiness. Happiness increases job and academic performance and maintains emotional, mental, and physical health. The aim of this study was to determine the status of happiness and its effective factors among students of the Department of Public Health at Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, in 2021.
    Methods
    This study was a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study. The information of 202 students were collected by census method. The Standard Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (online) was used to collect information. One-way ANOVA and chisquare test were used for analysis of data.
    Results
    The average age of the students was 25 ± 6.05 years, 79.7% were female, 80.7% were unmarried, and 55% werenon-dormitory students. According to the data, 4.5% of the students had low levels of happiness and 19.8% and 75.8% had average and high happiness levels. The results showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between the stateof happiness and the variables of age, academic grade, gender, level of education, marital status, and place of residence of thestudents (P value > 0.05). However, a statistically significant relationship was observed between students’ happiness and their personal health (P value < 0.001).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that the state of happiness among students of the Department of Public Health at Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences was good. As some students had a lower level of happiness, it seems necessary that more attention be given to these students.
    Keywords: Happiness, its effective factors Health and
  • Mohsen Dehghani Ghanatghestani * Pages 98-104
    Background
    Radon is a major source of natural radiation in water, soil, and air. Natural sources of radiation are major contributors to the radiation humans and other living beings receive.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on drinking water sources of three cities and 18 villages of Roudan county in 2021. The measurement of radon concentration in the collected samples was performed using the RAD7 device.
    Results
    In the studied water sources, the highest and lowest radon concentrations were 11.00 ± 2.09 and 0.95 ± 0.23 kBq/m3, respectively. The average radon concentration was 4.98 ± 0.76 Bq/L which was lower than 11 Bq/L (the EPA level recommended for drinking water). The mean annual effective dose of radon, due to direct and continuous water intake for adults and children was 48.01 ± 11.56 and 65.86 ± 15.86 μSv/y, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that radon concentrations in two regions of Roudan county were higher than the allowed World Health Organization (WHO) concentration and people who normally use these resources for drinking during the year are exposed to abnormal radiation levels.
    Keywords: Radiation, Radon concentration, effective dose, water pollution, Hormozgan, Roudan County
  • Hamidreza Poureslami, Maryam Sharifi, Hossein Asadipour, Ali Basirinia, Sajad Raeisi Estabragh, Mohsen Mehdinejad, Mahla Mazloomian, Mahsa Sayadizadeh * Pages 105-109
    Background
    In addition to mechanical methods, mouthwash, toothpaste, and fluoride gels are high-performance methods that can play an important role in reducing plaque and preventing caries in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability and use of oral health products related to children, and the familiarity of parents with methods to prevent decay.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, a checklist containing questions about the familiarity of parents with and the use of products related to children’s oral health was prepared and then completed by 325 parents of children aged 6 to 9 years who referred to the pediatric department dental clinics of the School of Dentistry. A dental student obtained information about the availability of products from pharmacies using a checklist. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression tests using SPSS 26 software.
    Results
    This study showed that parents were relatively familiar with some health products such as dental floss and children’s toothpaste and mouthwash, but the information of parents was not enough on products such as casein phosphate, xylitol, and fluoride gel. About 40% of the pharmacies did not have finger toothbrushes or children’s toothbrush brands. One third of pharmacies did not have children’s mouthwash. No pharmacy had fluoride gel.
    Conclusion
    This study showed that parents’ familiarity with children’s oral health products was low. Action should be taken to increase the awareness of parents. The reason for the lack of products in pharmacies should also be investigated and the existing obstacles to access them should be alleviated.
    Keywords: mouthwash, Oral Health, fluoride gel