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Advances in the Standards and Applied Sciences - Volume:1 Issue: 2, Winter 2022

Advances in the Standards and Applied Sciences
Volume:1 Issue: 2, Winter 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/01/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • MohammadMahdi Share Pasand * Pages 1-2

    The Internet of Things (IOT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are being increasingly utilized in industrial, household and business sectors expected to change many aspects of the human life. As the nearly infinite possibilities unveil, many people even the expert ones, feel threatened [1, 2]. Calls to manage the risks or restrict the growth of these new trends, make us think about how severely the implications of this growth may change our lives. Human is being surrounded by AI enabled devices which are capable of communicating to each other through IOT. This combination sounds even more threatening than AI or IOT alone. In fact, we are at the edge of believing to be manipulated rather than making use of these newly emerging technologies. This note concerns the role standardization bodies have in this situation. Standards have been widely used to ensure that specific goals (including user safety, environmental compatibility, sustainable development [3], etc.) are fulfilled for a product or service. With IOT and AI appearing in almost any technological product, we have new concerns. Some of the most important of these concerns are listed below [4-6].

    Keywords: standardization, Internet of Things, Artificial intelligence
  • Karim Kenarkoohi *, Mostafa Tamtaji Pages 3-9

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the design risk of the capacitive waveform recorder and extract the critical levels to prevent its occurrence in the waveform recorder. The simulated outputs were extracted using Proteus software in order to select the circuit with appropriate accuracy.In this research, FMEA method is used to evaluate failure modes. All parts of the waveform recorder were evaluated and states, effects and causes of failure were calculated and evaluated. Then the risk number of each failure was calculated and its crisis level was prioritized.The purpose of FMEA is to support decisions that reduce the probability of failures and their effects and help improve outputs. FMEA documents can only include a brief statement of proposed exposures or design changes: replacing elements with more reliable one, introducing backup systems, and new or improved methods that limit damage.In conducting the research, the general process for FMEA evaluation was determined. Then, by interviewing experts in the field, the failure modes of the design of the capacitor waveform recorder were analyzed. Critical situations were extracted and countermeasures were suggested to improve performance. Two methods of simulation and interview were considered to collect information. The relationship between circuit design cost and design error analysis was extracted and it was observed that with the increase of DFMEA, in addition to increasing the number of parts and increasing the risk of failure, the cost of circuit design and construction and measurement error increases.

    Keywords: Design risk, capacitive waveform recorder, critical levels, risk number, Error analysis
  • Alireza Khakifirooz *, Ali Tavakoli Golpaygani Pages 10-23

    International competitiveness is the key to Iran’s participation in global trade. Iran’s success in achieving the goals of economic diversification and trade competitiveness will correlate highly with the coherence of its national quality infrastructure. A well-functioning quality infrastructure in Iran that helps firms in priority sectors meet the requirements of export markets and supports them in demonstrating conformity with the requirements in a holistic manner, will act as a catalyst to improve the competitiveness of Iran’s economy, its ability to participate in global trade and increase the value of trade.The aim of this study is to introduce the Iran National Quality Infrastructure (NQI) and its position in the Global Quality Infrastructure Index (GQII) programme. The GQII plays as a good indicator to measure the growth and the performance of QI of any economy. It provides valuable data that can be used for different types of analysis by QI body representatives, policymakers and other leaders to informed business decisions making.In this paper, first, the concept and overall framework of a national quality system is mentioned; then the Iran NQI system framework is explained in detail. Finally, based on the International ranking of Iran in GQII, strengths and weaknesses of the Iran NQI system are pointed and the possible solutions for improvement on the overall construction and each element of it are proposed. The study would be very helpful for the government agencies, industry, academia, and enterprises for future decisions and policymaking related to strong and robust QI.

    Keywords: Quality Infrastructure, Ranking, Global, Iran
  • Mohammad Faraji *, Farnaz Dastmalchi, Saba Belgheisi Pages 24-29

    In this study, in order to investigate the natural colorants of black tea, various test methods were developed and set upped. For this purpose, methods for measuring natural tea pigments, polyphenols, synthetic dyes, some metals and the pH of the extract were developed. The results of measuring natural tea pigments showed that Iranian tea has higher natural pigments (chlorophyll, pheophytine and their derivatives) than foreign tea. The results of analysis of polyphenols showed that foreign tea compounds have higher polyphenolic compounds and therefore the colour of the extract was much richer than the colour of Iranian tea extract. Examination of synthetic colours also showed that there is no synthetic colour in any of the foreign or Iranian tea samples. Heavy metal testing with ICP-OES also showed that foreign tea has more metals, especially aluminium, than Iranian tea. Also, measuring the pH of Iranian and foreign brewed teas showed that the extract of foreign teas is more acidic than the extract of Iranian teas. According to the results, it can be concluded that the origin of the difference in the colour of brewed tea extract is primarily due to the variety of tea itself and its proper processing and fermentation process, which can lead to higher formation of theaflavins and thearubigins (natural red pigments). On the other hand, high concentrations of aluminium and polyphenolic compounds in foreign tea can also lead to the formation of coloured complexes (orange to red) and more colourful tea colour.

    Keywords: Black tea, natural pigments, Synthetic dyes, Pheophytin, polyphenolic compounds
  • MohammadMehdi Movahedi *, Ali Tavakoli Golpaygani, Hossein Parsaei, Payman Heydari Pages 30-38

    Today’s, more than 10000 types of different medical devices are currently employed in medium and large hospitals. These devices have an important role in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring processes in health centers. An efficient preventative maintenance program of these devices is essential to guarantee the correct functioning and ensure the safe and reliable operation of them. As the maintenance activities increase as increasing the variety of medical devices, the need for a better maintenance management system become more essential than the past. In this paper a new multi-criteria decision-making approach of system engineering to lifecycle management and preventive maintenance priority of medical devices based on a kind of quality function deployment is presented. The model was implemented and tested in three public hospitals in one of the western provinces of Iran. None of the three hospitals had established a proper assessment management program processes to identify their equipment needs and required maintenance priority based on their annual budgets. Our suggested model solved one of the big decision problems in their management system, the results helped them to have a priority list of the medical devices that should be replaced and the preventative maintenance priority of critical devices based on the wards, type and number of them according to the available budget. Implementation of our proposed model in medical centers can maximize the reliability of equipment and systems among the limitation of organizational resources and budgets

    Keywords: medical devices, Lifecycle, Management, Quality Function Deployment
  • Kamran Hassani *, Shahrokh Shojaei, Pedram Tehrani, Ali Tavakoli Golpaygani Pages 39-42

    Micromixing has a practical application in analyzing of many biochemical and biologicals detection devices of lab-on-a-chip (LOC). The conventional static micromixers require the channel with more lengths and also require times to reach to complete mixing owing to its dependence on transverse diffusion. However, in the electrokinetic micromixers, as the surface properties of the microchannel run the electro-osmotic flow characteristics, surface heterogeneity (non-uniform zeta potentials) can be seen to make vortices or specific flow structures for better mixing performance. This study aims to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to numerically compare the concentration rate of the various electrokinetic micromixers in in the presence of the electric conductor. The results revealed that the off-center microchannel design in a micromixer can augment the rate of concentration. In addition, circular microchannel design showed better mixing compared to the triangular and square designs. These results are useful not only for understanding of the profiles of concentration in the electrokinetic micromixers, but also for providing a comprehensive information on the design of the microchannels, which may result in better mixture in the fluids

    Keywords: Micromixer, Lab-on-a-chip, Design, CFD, concentration
  • Reza Tavangar *, Hamid Ansari, Majid Nouri Kamari Pages 43-49

    Brake friction composites are required to have a stable tribological behavior under moderate and severe braking conditions. To understand the factors that govern friction behavior, it is necessary to figure out the worn structure in the different conditions. The present study aims to enhance the comprehension of the evolution of pad surface’s micro-structure at different braking applications. For this reason, a commercial copper-free polymer matrix brake pad was tested against a grey cast iron rotor based on the SAE J661 standard. Wear surface was studied by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and an interferometer. Two main regions were observed upon wear surface named high land and low land. High land itself consists of three regions called contact plateaus (primary, secondary type one, and two) and low land which are introduced as micro-slot. The formation of the friction layer strongly depends on the variation of wear structure. A slight change in the worn structure led to variation in friction layer effective parameters which affect the friction coefficient.

    Keywords: Brake pad, wear mechanism, polymer composite, friction layer, wear structure