فهرست مطالب

Advances in the Standards and Applied Sciences - Volume:1 Issue: 4, Summer 2023

Advances in the Standards and Applied Sciences
Volume:1 Issue: 4, Summer 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • MohammadMehdi Movahedi * Pages 1-2

    Today’s, medical devices play a crucial role in modern healthcare, contributing to improved patient outcomes and enhanced quality of life and overall well-being. To ensure the safety and reliability of these devices, accurate and precise measurements are of utmost importance. The calibration process of medical devices plays a crucial role in ensuring the accuracy, reliability, and safety of these equipment. In this short note, we explore the significance of calibration in medical devices, its impact on patient care and outcomes, regulatory requirements, and the best practices for effective calibration procedures. By understanding the importance of calibration, healthcare professionals can enhance patient care and ensure the optimal performance of medical devices.Medical devices are essential tools in modern healthcare, aiding in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients. These devices range from simple thermometers to sophisticated imaging equipment and life-supporting machines. Accurate and precise measurements are critical for making informed clinical decisions and ensuring patient safety.

    Keywords: Calibration, Quality Control, medical devices
  • Ali Panahi, Jamal Ahmadi *, Behzad Saeedi Razavi Pages 3-11

    The durability and service life of concrete structures reduce considerably due to the induced cracks from the concrete volumetric changes. Therefore, adopting appropriate measures to overcome this drawback is crucial. In this respect, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of internal curing on high-performance concrete's autogenous shrinkage and mechanical properties. For this purpose, the curing capability of concrete specimens containing a pre-saturated artificial aggregate (LECA), superabsorbent polymers (SAP), and recycled crushed bricks (RCB) as internal curing agents was investigated. The volumetric changes and mechanical properties tests of internal cured concrete specimens, including autogenous shrinkage, the compressive, tensile, bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) tests, were performed to investigate the effect of internal curing on the micro-structures and hydration procedure. According to obtained results, the SAPs could omit the autogenous shrinkage of studied concrete specimens. The test results of specimens containing LECA also showed a reduction in the autogenous shrinkage value; however, using LECA caused a reduction in the mechanical properties. In comparison, recycled crushed bricks could reduce the concrete autogenous shrinkage and improve its mechanical properties.

    Keywords: Internal curing, Autogenous shrinkage, lightweight aggregate, Superabsorbent polymers, High-Performance Concrete
  • Masoumeh Hajizadeh * Pages 12-21

    In this article, by examining three dictionaries - the Comprehensive dictionary of the Persian Language; Oxford Dictionary; Al-Munjid Dictionary - from three authentic languages, English, Persian, and Arabic, we find that the ways of presenting entries, definitions, and overall information provided to users are different from each other in these dictionaries; this is the challenge facing compilers of print and online dictionaries. Considering that part of the input data of the translation machines represents dictionary of different languages, these different methods of compilation downgrades the performance of the translation machines, besides, they sometimes create insoluble challenges and difficulties for users. Unifying the way of compiling printed and online dictionaries with the help of ISO’s documents can be a solution to this problem. In this article, we will specifically discuss the function and necessity of using the ISO’s documents in the field of lexicography, which is currently being compiled and edited in a working group “TC 37/SC 2/WG 9” and is known as “ISO 1951:2007 Presentation representation of entries in dictionaries / revision”.

    Keywords: Lexicography, Machine Translation, ISO’s document
  • Reza Shahbazian * Pages 22-30

    The fast growth of Internet of Things (IoT) has created unprecedented opportunities for innovation and connectivity across a wide range of domains. With this exponential expansion, however, comes an urgent need to address the security challenges in IoT networks. This paper addresses IoT security standards, concentrating on the protocols, guidelines, and best practices created by prominent standardization groups. We study the standard role in developing the IoT ecosystem, emphasizing the relevance of interoperability, privacy, and ethical considerations. We examine significant standards developed by organizations such as the IEEE Standards Association, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper also discusses shortcomings, and future prospects of IoT security standards. We contribute to a better understanding of the efforts being made to fortify the IoT against growing security threats and emphasizes the importance of an interdisciplinary approach that considers not only technological concerns but also privacy, ethical, and societal ramifications.

    Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), Security, Privacy, Standard
  • Sina Yousefisadr *, Masoumeh Momeni Pages 31-35

      Network-on-Chips (NoCs) as a standard interconnection impose high latency and excessive power consumption in many-core systems. Emerging data-intensive applications possess a high volume of data movement across the network which deteriorates the network congestion condition. These applications have an intrinsic feature, namely error tolerance, which presents a new communication paradigm. We employ a differential-based approximate method for packet transmission to reduce the packet size on the network. General NoC architectures have a large enough flit channel so that the packet header includes many free bits. As we reduce the packet size by transmitting the difference data on the network, we can accommodate the additional parts of the header to store the difference data that must be transmitted. This approach in data storage and transmission optimizes the packet size, which reduces the network congestion by using the idle space of head flit and employing approximate-based data transmission. We apply this method in 3D NoC due to its low latency architecture. Therefore, we could alleviate 3D NoC thermal challenges. The simulation results show that our approximate-based NoC architecture decreases the latency and dynamic power consumption by 37% and 42% in comparison to traditional 3D NoC, respectively.

    Keywords: Packet difference transmission, Multi-layer NoCs, Network congestion, approximation
  • Ehsan Zayerzadeh * Pages 36-40

    A large number of disposable medical devices (DMD) are being used every day. In this regard, one of the most important issues is the safety of these tools for patients. In this study, the cytotoxicity of different DMD from different brands was investigated. We studied the cytotoxicity of extracts of DMD including intravenous transfusion sets (IVTS), intravenous infusion set (Microset) and syringe using L-929 cells. Alterations in cell morphology and viability were evaluated using light microscopy and the MTT assay, respectively. Findings of the study demonstrated that 20 percent of IVTS samples, 10 percent of microset samples and 5 percent of syringe samples were cytotoxic. In this regard, four cytotoxic IVTS induced about 95%, 88%, 84% and 79% lethality in treated L929 cells. Also, two cytotoxic microset samples induced 74% and 65% lethality in treated L929 cells and a cytotoxic syringe sample induced 71% lethality in treated cells. Microscopic evaluation showed that treated cells with the toxic samples were damaged and there were no normal morphology and cell growth. We conclude that some DMD are toxic and as a result they could be hazardous for human health. We strongly believe that before clinical use of these medical devices, their biocompatibility must be evaluated by certified laboratories.

    Keywords: disposable medical devices, Cytotoxicity, MTT, L-929 cells
  • Majid Nouri *, Milad Ramezankhani, Mohsen Katani Shooshtari Pages 41-48

    Radiators are among the essential parts of car engines, and any weakness or defect in them can cause severe damageto the engine. The most critical tasks of radiators is effective heat transfer between air and fluid inside the radiatortubes, which is done by fans. Since the air temperature has a direct relationship with its pressure, measuring the airpressure before and after the radiator is necessary. In this research, three different methods have been used to calculate the air pressure drop at speeds of 3, 5, and 8 m/s. The purpose of this work is to introduce the best possiblemethod to reduce the risks that are caused by the wrong reading of the air pressure drop using the accuracy of theobtained results, The point that each part of the radiator is determined by which pressure (static or dynamic pressure)is crucial and plays an essential role for choosing better type of pressure gauge. If this is done, the obtained resultswill be correct. If the air pressure drop is not calculated correctly, it can cause severe damage to the engine and othercar parts. The best method that has the slightest error and the least risk for car radiators is when the pressure gaugecalculates the static pressure inside the wind tunnel and the dynamic pressure outside the wind tunnel. In this case,the error of the obtained results comparing to the standard results is 9.16, 15.41 and 10.18%, at speeds of 3, 5 and 8 .

    Keywords: car radiator, engine cooling, air pressure drop, cooling water system, Air pressure drop measurement method