فهرست مطالب

فصلنامه مطالعات مدیریت (بهبود و تحول)
پیاپی 109 (پاییز 1402)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • مهدی یزدان شناس*، حامد دهقانان، سعید صحت، فروغ سقائیان صفحات 1-26
    هدف این پژوهش ارایه مدلی برای استراتژی های مسیر شغلی مدیران در صنعت بیمه ایران بوده است. روش پژوهش به لحاظ ماهیت تحقیق از نوع کیفی و به لحاظ هدف، از نوع کاربردی است.‏ مشارکت کنندگان که تعداد آنها بر اساس اشباع نظری تعیین گردید را مدیران صنعت بیمه تشکیل داده اند که به صورت نمونه گیری نظری انتخاب شدند. گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته و تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات نیز با استفاده از روش داده بنیاد انجام شد. یافته های تحقیق حاکی از شناسایی شرایط علی تاثیرگذار بر استراتژی های مسیرشغلی از جمله لنگرگاه های مسیر شغلی، فلات مسیر شغلی عینی و ذهنی؛ پدیده اصلی در استراتژی های مسیرشغلی شامل شبکه سازی، ارایه خود و جاذبه های بین-فردی؛ شرایط زمینه ای و محیط تاثیرگذار بر استراتژی های مسیرشغلی شامل روشن بودن گام های مسیر شغلی، نگاه هزینه ای به آموزش و جنسیت؛ شرایط مداخله گر تاثیرگذار بر استراتژی های مسیرشغلی شامل تناسب شغل با شاغل، نظام شایسته سالاری و تناسب شغل با علایق فردی؛ راهبردها و کنش های تاثیرگذار بر استراتژی های مسیرشغلی شامل سرمایه انسانی، نحوه ارتباط و دانش فنی افراد؛ و پیامدهای استراتژی های مسیرشغلی مواردی همچون شناخته شدن، استقلال و شکوفایی استعدادهای مدیران صنعت بیمه در ایران بودند.
    کلیدواژگان: مسیر شغلی، استراتژی های مسیر شغلی، مسیر شغلی مدیران، صنعت بیمه
  • یاسمن مدرسی*، میرعلی سیدنقوی، حبیب رودساز، ایمان رئیسی وانانی صفحات 27-80
    در دنیای دیجیتالی امروز، سازمان ها برای اینکه بتوانند در دنیای رقابت باقی بمانند، در پی تغییراتی در ظاهر، تفکر و عملکرد خود هستند. تحول دیجیتالی تحولی شگرف است که گریزی از آن نیست و سازمان ها باید خود را برای رویارویی با آن آماده کنند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی مولفه های نرم تحول دیجیتال که بسیار مهم و حیاتی هستند و طراحی الگوی حاصل از آن-هاست. جامعه آماری این پژوهش در بخش نخست، مقالات موجود در این حوزه بود که با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب گردید؛ در بخش دوم نیز جامعه آماری را مدیران و خبرگان وزارت ارتباطات و فناوری اطلاعات تشکیل دادند که با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند و از طریق روش گلوله برفی، 14 نفر برگزیده شدند. ابزار مورداستفاده در پژوهش حاضر نرم افزار MAXQDA بود. ابتدا، بااستفاده از تحلیل مضمون پیشینه پژوهش، مولفه های موردنظر استخراج شده و در طراحی پرسش های مصاحبه نیمه ساختارمند مورداستفاده قرار گرفت. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر شناسایی 6 مضمون فراگیر، 44 مضمون سازمان دهنده و 185 مضمون پایه تحول نرم دیجیتال بود و نهایت شبکه مضامین حاصل از آن ها ترسیم شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تحول نرم دیجیتال، تحلیل مضمون، شبکه مضامین، وزارت ارتباطات و فناوری اطلاعات
  • ناصح روخنده، کیومرث احمدی*، مهدی حمزه پور، فاطمه سهرابی صفحات 81-120
    انضباط اداری یکی از مهم ترین عوامل انسجام بخش در سازمان است و نقش کلیدی در بهبود عملکرد سازمان ها دارد؛ و شناسایی عواملی که باعث تقویت (پیشران ها) آن می شود ضروری است بنابراین هدف این پژوهش شناسایی مقوله های اصلی و فرعی و شاخص های کلیدی پیشران های انضباط اداری از طریق رویکرد فراترکیب که یکی از پژوهش های کیفی و از روش های فرا مطالعه است.در این پژوهش تعداد 67 متون علمی به زبان فارسی و انگلیسی معتبر از وب سایت ها و پایگاه های اطلاعاتی علمی معتبر داخلی و خارجی در بین سال های 2003 تا 2022 میلادی و 1390 تا 1401 شمسی کشف و استخراج شد که در نهایت 28 عنوان پژوهشی با استفاده از روش مهارت های ارزیابی حیاتی (CASP)، در نظر گرفته شدند و از طریق روش تحلیل اسنادی شاخص های اصلی استخراج شدندپس از مطالعه و استخراج کدهای کلیدی در نهایت این کدها تجمیع و خوشه بندی شدند و مقوله های اصلی و فرعی تنظیم شدند. یافته ها نشان داد که دارای 12 مقوله اصلی، 28 مقوله فرعی و تعداد 120 شاخص یا کد اولیه استخراج شد نتایج این پژوهش می تواند به مدیران و سازمان ها در توسعه و بهبود عملکرد به عنوان نیروی محرکه سازمان ها کمک شایان توجهی نماید و آنها را تبدیل به سازمان های پیشرو در حوزه خود نمایید
    کلیدواژگان: انضباط، انضباط اداری، فراترکیب، منابع انسانی
  • مهدی مهذبی*، محمود مرادی صفحات 121-156
    یکی از مسایل مهم و قابل بحث در حوزه عواطف و احساسات کارکنان، بحث حسادت در محیط کار است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی پیشایندها و پیامدهای حسادت در محیط کار بر اساس نظریه مقایسه اجتماعی است. بدین منظور در ابتدا چارچوبی برای درک پیشایندها و پیامدهای حسادت در محیط کار بر اساس نظریه مقایسه اجتماعی فستینگر ایجاد گردید و در گام بعد به پیاده سازی و اجرای این مدل در شرکت ساپکو پرداخته ایم. در این راستا تعداد 158 پرسش نامه از طریق روش نمونه گیری طبقه ای نسبی بین اعضای نمونه توزیع گردید. نتایج تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که خودشیفتگی، روان رنجوری و رقابت تاثیر مثبت و معناداری بر حسادت در محیط کار دارد؛ عزت نفس و کنترل ادراک شده تاثیر منفی و معناداری بر حسادت در محیط کار دارد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد حسادت در محیط کار تاثیر منفی و معناداری بر رفتار شهروندی سازمانی و ادراکات سازمانی دارد؛ حسادت در محیط کار تاثیر مثبت و معناداری بر قصد ترک شغل، بی تفاوتی اخلاقی و رفتار کاری غیرمولد دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: حسادت در محیط کار، نظریه مقایسه اجتماعی، پیشایندهای حسادت در محیط کار، پیامدهای حسادت در محیط کار، شرکت ساپکو
  • علی شریعت نژاد*، فرناز مهدی خانی، زهرا غفوری صفحات 157-198
    یکی از خطاهای مدیریتی مدیران که حاصل اتخاذ تصمیمات غیر بهینه می باشد، پشیمانی استراتژیک است که به صورت کاهش عملکرد، کارایی و اثر بخشی مدیران سازمان های دولتی خود را نمایان ساخته و لطمات و صدمات جدی برای سازمان های دولتی به بار می آورد. از این رو پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی و تحلیل عوامل ایجاد کننده و پیامدهای پشیمانی استراتژیک در مدیران سازمان های دولتی با روش نقشه شناختی فازی انجام پذیرفت. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی از حیث گردآوری اطلاعات در زمره پژوهش های اکتشافی است. همچنین این پژوهش از نوع تحقیقات آمیخته و بر مبنای پژوهش های کیفی و کمی است که از نظر فلسفه در زمره پژوهش های قیاسی استقرایی می گنجد. جامعه آماری پژوهش مدیران سازمان های دولتی هستند که با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند و براساس اصل کفایت نظری انتخاب شده اند. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات در بخش کیفی مصاحبه و در بخش کمی پرسشنامه است که روایی و پایایی آن-ها به ترتیب با استفاده از روایی محتوایی و روایی نظری و روش پایایی سنجی درون کدگذار و میان کدگذار برای مصاحبه و روایی محتوایی و پایایی بازآزمون برای پرسشنامه مورد آزمون قرار گرفته است
    کلیدواژگان: پشیمانی، پشیمانی استراتژیک، تصمیم گیری، مدیران سازمان های دولتی
  • اسکندر شیرازی* صفحات 199-238
    هدف
    افسردگی سازمانی یکی از پچالشهای نوین سازمانهای بخش دولتی می باشد بی توهی به آن می تواند مضرات بلند مدتی برای سازمان و کارکنان آن داشته باشد و از آنجا که امروزه افراد بیشترین وقت خود را در سازمان ها سپری می کنند، بی توجهی به این مساله می تواند خسارات جبران ناپذیری بدنبال داشته باشد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی علل ایجاد افسردگی سازمانی با رویکرد داده بنیاد (مطالعه موردی: سازمانهای دولتی) انجام گرفت.
    روش
    مطالعه حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی، از نظر شیوه جمع آوری داده ها توصیفی ازنوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر اساتید و خبرگان حوزه رفتار سازمانی و روانشناسی سازمانی بوده انتخاب نمونه آماری با تکنیک گلوله برفی صورت گرفت.جهت جمع آوری داده ها 16 مصاحبه عمیق با خبرگان انجام گرفت و داده های به دست آمده با استفاده از سه مرحله کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی تحلیل گردید. و مدل نهایی بر اساس روش استراوس-کوربین طراحی گردید
    یافته ها
    طی این پژوهش 175 کد باز به دست آمد که در قالب 21 کد محوری عدم تحقق اهداف و برنامه ها،عوامل سیاسی-
    کلیدواژگان: افسردگی سازمانی، نارضایتی شغلی، فرهنگ نمایشی، مدیریت تلگرامی
  • مهدی علی زاده*، زیبا فیضی صفحات 239-263
    صلابت سازمانی، مفهوم جدیدی از روانشناسی مثبت بوده و ویژگی افراد موفق دنیا می باشد. صلابت سازمانی بیانگر شور و اشتیاق جهت تحقق اهداف بلندمدت سازمانی است. اما در حال حاضر در خصوص تجربه زیسته صلابت سازمانی فهم ناچیزی وجود دارد. در این پژوهش از روش پدیدارشناسی استفاده شده تا تجربه زیسته این پدیده توصیف گردد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش کارکنان دادگستری استان کردستان بوده است. در این پژوهش ابتدا براساس پرسشنامه سوت ویک و همکارانش، افراد با صلابت شناسایی و سپس با روش نمونه گیری غیرتصادفی-هدفمند، با 8 نفر مصاحبه عمیق انجام شد. یافته های تحلیل کیفی نشان داد جوهره تجربه صلابت سازمان از چهار مضمون اصلی تشکیل شده است که عبارتند از: 1. صلابت سازمانی به مثابه شخصیت فعال با مضامین فرعی نوآوری، صبوری، انعطاف پذیری، 2. صلابت سازمانی به مثابه معنویت کاری با مضامین فرعی رضایت خدا، رضایت خلق خدا، صداقت، تقوا، ادب3. صلابت سازمانی به مثابه استقامت کاری با مضامین فرعی پشتکار، پیگیری، تلاش گری، 4. صلابت سازمانی به مثابه حل کنندگی مساله عمومی با مضامین فرعی مساله شناسی، خبرگی، مسیولیت پذیری، خدمت محوری، می باشد. فهم تجربه زیسته صلابت سازمانی می تواند حرکت سازمان را در مسیر تحقق اهدافش تسهیل نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: صلابت سازمانی، پدیدارشناسی، شخصیت فعال، معنویت کاری، استقامت کاری و حل کنندگی مساله عمومی
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  • Mehdi Yazdanshenas *, Hamed Dehghanan, Saeid Sehhat, Forough Saghayan Pages 1-26
    This study aimed to provide a model for the career path strategies of managers in the Iranian insurance industry. The research method is qualitative in terms of the nature of the research and applied in terms of purpose. The Participants whose number was determined based on theoretical saturation are the insurance industry managers selected by systematic sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and data analysis was performed using a data-based method. The results indicate the identification of causal conditions affecting career path strategies, including career path anchorages, objective and subjective career path plateaus; The main phenomenon in career path strategies, including networking, self-presentation, and interpersonal attractions; Background conditions and environment affecting career path strategies, including clarity of career path steps, costly view of education and gender; Interfering conditions affecting career path strategies such as job-to-job fit, meritocracy system, and job fit to individual interests; Strategies and actions affecting career path strategies such as human capital, communication and technical knowledge of individuals; The consequences of career strategies were such as recognition, independence and flourishing of the talents of insurance industry managers in Iran.
    Introduction
    The career path is one of the key and important pillars of human capital because it is related to people's working lives and can play an essential role in the success of employees and organizations (Vos et al., 2021: 286). In this regard, career path management in a new approach is a tool for implementing human resources development programs to establish a balance between individual and organizational needs (Niri et al., 144:1400). In fact, career path management by providing a clear perspective creates conditions in which managers reach a balance between the formation of a psychological contract related to the development of the career path and job security in the path of agreement (Hirschi & Koen, 2021:115).
     In this regard, career path strategies are considered one of the most important topics in career path management. In recent decades, managers and employees have used career path strategies for career advancement and success. They consider themselves among their main work programs (Santos et al., 2019: 418). However, the concept of career path strategies, one of the important aspects of individual career path management, has received less attention in this industry. Based on this, it can be said that one of the research gaps in the development strategies of human resources in this industry is the examination of the strategies for the career advancement of managers with a new approach and considering today's highly competitive and challenging environment. With the investigations carried out in the existing literature in this field, it was found that no study has been conducted to explore the factors and fields affecting managers' career path strategies, and there is a theoretical and research gap in this field. The distinguishing aspect of this research from previous research is that the previous studies have either introduced different types of career path strategies or simply determined the type of strategy used and its effect on job behaviors and attitudes in a limited area. The current research seeks to explain a relatively comprehensive model of career path strategies, factors influencing their emergence, background conditions, mediators, and consequences of career path strategies in the insurance industry in Iran. Based on this, the main question of the research has been stated as follows: What is the career path strategy model of insurance industry managers?
    Research
    methodology
    According to the purpose, the current research is fundamental and applied and is based on the qualitative method of data-based analysis and the Strauss and Corbin method. It includes the three main stages of open, axial, and selective coding. The statistical population of the research includes all senior managers of the insurance industry in Iran who have five years of management experience. This research used the theoretical sampling method due to the foundation's data theorizing, and theoretical saturation was achieved after conducting the tenth interview.
    In this research, the validity and reliability were checked with the criteria of validity, transferability, reliability, and verifiability. The results of these codes showed an overall reliability equal to 89%, which indicates an acceptable reliability.
    Discussion and
    Results
    The analysis of the results showed that the causal conditions of this research included the effective factors on career path strategies. Meanwhile, the interviewees confirmed the anchors of the career path, which include the manager's preferences and interests in the field of work.
    The first category: The main phenomenon: The main phenomenon in this research is career path strategies. According to experts, the most important strategy insurance industry managers use in their career path is networking. According to the experts, the second strategy that seemed important was to become a candidate or present yourself. The experts also agreed that a person's personality, passion, abilities, and skills can provide them with a better career path.
    The second category, Strategies: Based on this, the experts stated that in the insurance industry, people's technical knowledge and skill training are very important. Because the world has moved towards skill training, degree-oriented has no place in organizations.
    The third category, Contextual factors, and the governing platform: Experts said this category is not given much attention in the insurance industry in Iran, and the majority agreed that looking at education in this industry is a cost perspective. Therefore, on this basis, they suggested that the academic system should be strengthened in the insurance industry.
    The fourth category: In the field of job security, most of the surveyed experts stated that job security is not very important in the insurance industry because the contracts are short-term, and some experts also stated that anyone can understand and interpret job security. They also stated that the concept of balance between work and life is different from the point of view of different people, and the more a person moves to the higher side of the organization, the more this balance is disturbed.
    The fifth category, Consequences: According to experts, the more people participate in circles and expand their networking scope, the more they become known, and this knowledge provides more responsibilities for them and causes people to have a higher sense of independence and satisfaction in their career path.
    Conclusion
    According to the research findings, practical tips are suggested for insurance companies about managers' career path strategies. Since about 90% of the experts stated that each of the managers had different strategies in the context of their career path, organizations have designed their career paths according to their mission and existential philosophy. Therefore, it is suggested that the companies active in Iran's insurance industry provide an atmosphere indicating freedom and diversity in choosing a career path in their organizations to meet managers' expectations.
    Keywords: career, Career Strategies, Managers' Career, Insurance industry
  • Yasaman Modaresi *, Mir Ali Seyd Naghavi, Habib Roodsaz, Iman Raeesi Vanani Pages 27-80
    In today's digital world, organizations are looking for changes in appearance, thinking, and performance to remain competitive. Digital transformation is a tremendous transformation that cannot be avoided, and organizations must prepare themselves to face it. This research aims to identify the soft components of digital transformation that are very important and vital and to design the resulting model. The statistical population of this research in the first part was the existing articles in this field, which were selected by purposeful sampling. In the second part, the statistical population was formed by the managers and experts of the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, and 14 people were selected by the purposeful sampling method and through the snowball method. The tool used in this study was MAXQDA software. First, using the theme analysis of the background of the research, the desired components were extracted and used in the design of semi-structured interview questions. The research findings identified six overarching themes, 44 organizing themes, and 185 basic themes of soft digital transformation, and the resulting network of themes has been drawn. IntroductionOver the past few decades, global industries have faced technological changes that, in addition to creating opportunities such as greater flexibility, reactivity, and product customization, have created various challenges such as change. Fast technology has also increased complexity and changed customer expectations and legal requirements (Rachinger et al., 2018). Digital transformation injects digital technology into all aspects of an organization, including its business processes and culture (Techbeacon, 2020). Transformation in the digital age is not related to technology alone and is more related to organizational agility. This means that organizational culture plays a fundamental role in the digital transformation of businesses (Shirazi et al., 2021). In response to the question of why digital transformation has become a necessity in today's world, it is enough to mention that the implementation of digital transformation can guarantee the organization's survival or, in a better case, stabilize the organization's market share.Moreover, it can increase organizations' market share and profit margin ideally. Therefore, the issue of digital transformation is the issue of survival and life. Digital transformation is of undeniable importance for organizations in today's world. Most of the research carried out in the field of digital transformation has either dealt with the issue of digital transformation in general and especially the hard part of it, which is related to the technology and infrastructure of this transformation, or separately and not in a single research. have examined the soft components of digital transformation; Therefore, there is no comprehensive research that specifically deals with the soft part of digital transformation; The scientific gap felt by the researchers of this research was, and the purpose of the current research is to identify the soft components of digital transformation using the opinions of experts from the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology and the lack of a comprehensive framework for the soft part of digital transformation. Conceptual framework design is the result of them.Research QuestionsWhat are the soft components of digital transformation in the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology?What is the conceptual framework for the soft components of digital transformation using the opinions of experts from the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology?  Literature Review Theoretical foundations of researchDigital transformation: To avoid making a mistake in the definition of digital transformation, we must note that digital transformation should not be considered a magic bean that grows quickly and results beyond expectations in a short period (Shami Zanjani, 2017). In some cases, a superficial understanding of the nature of digital transformation reduces it to technological changes, and the deep processes of activity structure transformation are ignored (Rabinovich et al., 2020). Digital transformation is an endless change and is not similar to projects such as the electronicization an organization's processes Because these projects will end. However, digital transformation is a continuous improvement in the organization's processes, products, and services (Hosseini-Nasab et al., 2021).Soft components of digital transformation: Digital transformation consists of two complex parts (technology, infrastructure, Etc.) and soft (people, culture, Etc.). Digital transformation is not only about the implementation of information technology solutions but it should be seen in a broader context as "organizational change," "cultural transformation," and "moving towards a customer-oriented approach" (Verina. & Titko, 2019). Digitization and digitization are fundamentally related to technology, but digital transformation is not (Bloomberg, 2018). Digital transformation can be defined as a cultural, organizational, and operational change in the organization through the intelligent integration of digital technologies, processes, and competencies step by step in all functions and at every level with a strategic approach (Tonina Yaneva, 2022). Digital transformation does not mean decorating the organization with new technologies. However, digital transformation also includes people and culture, and neglecting them causes digital transformation not to be appropriately implemented and its benefits. It will not be given to organizations (Rislana Kanya, 2020). Therefore, the soft part of digital transformation includes everything related to humans. The degree of success of companies in recognizing and considering the influence of culture determines whether cultural factors act as supporting or opposing forces for the organization's digital transformation (Tuukkanen et al., 2022). Empirical foundations of researchMuch research has been conducted in the field of digital transformation. The subject of the present research, which is to identify the soft components of digital transformation and present the model resulting from them, has been investigated and analyzed, such as the research done by Shirazi et al. (2021), with the title of presenting a roadmap for the implementation of the organizational culture required for digital transformation with a hybrid approach, the findings of the research showed that the roadmap for implementing the organizational culture for digital transformation includes three layers of infrastructure. It includes four primary categories, the layer of cultural processes includes three main categories, and the layer of goals includes six main categories. The research conducted by Konopik et al. (2022), titled Mastering Digital Transformation through Organizational Capabilities: A Conceptual Framework. This research led to organizational identifications for digital transformation, including strategy and ecosystem, innovation thinking, digital transformation technologies, data, operations, organizational design, and digital transformation leadership.MethodologyIn terms of its purpose, this research is considered a developmental-applied type of study. It was conducted with the qualitative thematic analysis method in both parts of the analysis (research background and interview). The software used in this research was MAXQDA2020. The statistical population of this research is divided into two parts. At first, the studies and research conducted around the research subject were collected and examined. The statistical population of the interview section of the research consisted of managers, experts, and employees of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology of Iran who were familiar with the field of digital transformation. Sampling in both sections was purposeful and judgmental. ResultsThe results of the theme analysis of the investigated research, based on the frequency of the codes, showed that the resulting soft digital transformation model consists of 4 comprehensive themes of culture, organization manager, digital leader, and skills, 21 organizing themes, and 116 basic themes. In the analysis of the theme of the background of the research, four overarching themes were identified with the names of the organization manager, digital leadership, culture, and skills, along with their organizing and basic themes. In the theme analysis section of the interviews, the results included 185 basic themes, 44 organizing themes, and six comprehensive themes, including culture, organizational manager, digital leader, human capital, digital innovation, and digital strategy.. DiscussionBy comparing the theme analysis in two parts (research background and interview with experts), it can be seen that in the interview with experts, the overarching themes of organization manager, digital leadership, and culture remained unchanged, and only the themes of the organizer and their base had changed; The overarching theme of skills was removed and replaced by the overarching theme of human capital, and finally, the overarching themes of digital innovation and digital strategy were added. ConclusionDigital transformation is not only buying new digital technologies and equipping the organization with them; digital transformation means the organization's complete transformation. In this process, they must change from the organization's thinking to the duties of individual employees. Digital transformation is not an isolated effort but a set of actions that must be appropriately managed and coordinated. One of the most important influencing parameters in the success of digital transformation is digital culture. The degree of success of companies in recognizing and considering the influence of culture determines whether cultural factors act as supporting or opposing forces for the organization's digital transformation.Along with the importance of digital culture for organizations that seek to achieve digital transformation, it is very important to pay attention to human capital. The key element in the success of digital transformation is the people who lead, accept, and implement this transformation, that is, the organization's human capital (Haydn Shaughnessy, 2018). How to carry out digital transformation is one of the challenging tasks of senior management of organizations (Mahmood et al., 2019). The turbulent and constantly changing digital environment forces managers to adopt decisions and strategies significantly faster than necessary (Nadkarni & Prügl, 2020). Several studies have also defined digital leadership as a critical skill that leaders must possess to carry out digital transformation. Digital leadership is a fast-paced, collaborative, and team-oriented approach with a strong focus on innovation, where a digital leader can use new methods and tools to solve complex problems and maintain business continuity (Oberer & Erkollar, 2018). The starting point of digital transformation is a digital business strategy that aims to create differential value using digital resources in composition and implementation (Goerzig & Bauernhansl, 2018). Therefore, digital transformation is driven by strategy, not technology (Bumann & Peter, 2019). Today's competitive world is a world of innovations that have come into existence with the help of new digital technologies. Digital transformation requires a change of focus and includes innovation in technology and modification of institutional culture to ensure the evolution of digital transformation (Abad-Segura et al., 2020). For highly digital organizations, understanding and managing digital innovations is of particular importance.
    Keywords: soft digital transformation, content analysis, network themes, Ministry of Communications, Information Technology
  • Naseh Rookhandeh, Kumars Ahmadi *, Mahdi Hamzehpoor, Fatemeh Sohrabi Pages 81-120
    Administrative discipline is one of the most important cohesive factors in the organization and plays a key role in improving the performance of organizations. It is necessary to identify the factors that strengthen it (drivers), so this research aims to identify the main and subcategories and key indicators of drivers of administrative discipline through a meta-synthesis method, one of the qualitative research and meta-study methods. In this research, some 67 scientific texts in Persian and English were discovered and extracted from reliable domestic and foreign websites and scientific databases between 2003 and 2022 AD and 1390 and 1401 AD. Finally, 28 research titles using the skills method critical assessment (CASP) were considered, and the main indicators were extracted through the document analysis method. After studying and extracting the key codes, these codes were aggregated and clustered, and the principal and subcategories were set. The findings showed that 12 main categories, 28 subcategories, and 120 indicators or primary codes were extracted. The main categories of drivers of administrative discipline included culture, trust, communication, order, empowerment, balance between life and work, spirituality, organizational participation, organizational justice, accountability, quality of work life, and motivation; the results of this research can significantly help managers and organizations develop and improve performance as the driving force of organizations and turn them into leading organizations in their field.IntroductionAdministrative discipline is one of the ways that guarantees order, efficacy, and observing regulations in the workplace (Ernest, 2021). If the staff has discipline, this will improve practical efficacy. (McCarter et al., 2022). Discipline is the key to a company's success in achieving its goals. (Astuti et al., 2020). Accordingly, during the last decade, numerous studies on administrative discipline have been done, whose common features are dispersion and lack of coherence in presenting the findings. This has caused problems for politicians and organizational administrators, as no coherent study synthesizes the past findings to present unified findings.Research questionsTherefore, the present study uses a meta-synthesis method and subsidiary indices and concepts of administrative discipline.Literature ReviewDisciplineAdministrative discipline consists of two words: discipline and administrative. In its common uses in the Oxford dictionary, discipline can mean rearing, taking care of regulations, approaching order, and even punishment. Referring to the etymology of this word and its idiomatic meaning will reveal its historical (meaning shift).The word discipline stems from the Latin discipulus, meaning follower, servant, and those around a religious agent. Also, the word discipline originates from the Indo-European’s dek or des, meaning derive, acceptance, and suitability (Tafazoli, 2014).Administrative disciplineThe issue of administrative discipline and how to tackle it is one of the responsibilities of personnel management in organizations. One responsibility of personnel management is determining administrative discipline principles, rules, and regulations to achieve organizational goals. Important issues exist in organizations, and administrative discipline is one of them. Administrative discipline is one of the prerequisites of any office and organization, and paying attention to it can be one of the main factors in organizational development (Daft, 2012).On the other hand, we witness many staff holding ideas, perspectives, and behaviors that dramatically affect the practical efficacy of various organizational units. Reforming staff behavior is among managers' main concerns and policies (Qolipour, 2019).MethodologyConcerning practical goals, this study is quality type and meta-synthesis in its strategy. This study uses the seven-stage method of Sandlooki and Burusu (2007). In this study, authentic scientific English and Persian texts have been considered. The period of this study was 2003 to 2022 and 1390 to 1401 solar years—the data analysis (previous documents). To have an organized scrutiny, the related articles and research, interior sites, Iran doc, Jahade Daneshgahi, and Civilica, and foreign sites like Emerald Inside, Scopus, and Science Direct have been used. The terms discipline, administrative discipline, and word discipline are used in the search process. Organizational discipline and staff discipline have been used. Based on the searches done, 126 articles, of which 40 (Persian) and 86 in English were found. Then, based on the acceptance criteria, 40 students for their titles, 20 for their abstracts, and 34 studies with the mentioned criteria were selected. Afterward, the texts' content was studied carefully, the main indices were derived, and the information was categorized. Then, all the determined components were derived based on meaning and summing up the given concepts. The researcher has tried to classify the concepts so that some were summarized into one component.Finally, to control the study's quality, the Kohen test and content validity have been used.ResultsFinally, the results showed that the issues of official regulations have five subsidiary titles consisting of centralized regulations (code 3), fair laws (code 6), supervision of laws (code 6), obeying the laws (code 4), and promoting the laws (code 5). The official control category has two subcategories: controlling efficacy (code 6) and preventive measures (code 4). The category behavior control has three subcategories: behavior evaluation (code 6), standardizing behavior (code 5), and self-control (code 2). The harmony category consists of two subcategories: internal harmony (code 5) and external harmony of behavior (code 2). Obedience has two subcategories: following the routines (code 5) and obeying orders (code 4). The responsibility category has two subcategories: responsibility toward the organization (code 4) and responsibility of duty (code 6). The category promotion has two subcategories: financial (code 5) and spiritual (code 5). Punishment has two subcategories: financial (code 5) and nonfinancial (code 3). Discipline routines have two subcategories: reconciliation (code 8) and forcible (code 4); self-discipline also has two subcategories: individual (code 3) and organizational (code 4). Guidance has two subcategories: giving directions (code 4) and attitude change (code 4). In order to control the study's quality, the Kohen test and content validity have been used.DiscussionThe main categories of administrative discipline were regulations and rules, official monitoring, harmony, obedience responsibility, promotions, punishments, discipline approaches, self-discipline, and official guidance.ConclusionBased on a comprehensive pattern that was attained from the meta-synthesis method and observing the commonalities of different ideas about administrative discipline, one can take more effective and purposeful actions to establish administrative systems, determine the laws of trial and discipline committees, moral manifesto, and finally unity of procedure and word. This comprehensive pattern can give managers and staff a more complete and more accurate definition of administrative discipline.AcknowledgementsHereby, we fully appreciate the efforts of all those who gave us a hand in doing this study.
    Keywords: discipline, Administrative Discipline, Meta synthesis, human resources
  • Mehdi Mohazabi *, Mahmoud Moradi Pages 121-156
    One of the most important and debatable issues in the field of employees' emotions is the issue of envy in the workplace. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the antecedents and consequences of envy in the workplace based on social comparison theory. To this end, a framework for understanding the antecedents and consequences of envy in the workplace was first developed based on Festinger's social comparison theory. In the next step, we implemented this model in Sapco. In this regard, 158 questionnaires were distributed among the sample members through the Relative stratified sampling method. The results of data analysis showed that narcissism, neuroticism, and competition have a positive and significant effect on envy in the workplace; Self-esteem and perceived control have a significant adverse effect on envy in the workplace. The results also showed that envy in the workplace has a negative and significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior and organizational perceptions; envy in the workplace has a positive and significant effect on turnover intentions, moral dysfunction, and counterproductive work behaviors.IntroductionThe antecedents and consequences of envy in the work environment have been studied from different perspectives (Crusius, 2020; Ganegoda & Bordia, 2019; Puranik et al., 2019), but there are few empirical analyses of envy. There is no consensus about the conceptualization of envy and its antecedents and consequences, and the results of previous studies are often contradictory and scattered (Li et al., 2021). Previous studies focus on antecedents and consequences as subsets of workplace envy and lack a broad conceptual perspective. To address this gap, we use social comparison theory to identify the antecedents and consequences of employees' envy. Because envy is a product of upward social comparison (Smith, 2000), it occurs when people compare themselves upward with others who are better off (Li et al., 2021).  Literature Review Social comparison as a basis for envyThe conceptual foundation of the envy model in the work environment is the social comparison theory or, more appropriately, social comparison theories (Gerber et al., 2018). Social comparison means "the process of thinking about (or comparing) information about one or more people who are related to the person" (Smith et al., 2017). Workplace envyEnvy is an unpleasant negative emotion that has received less attention. Envy occurs when a person lacks another superior quality, achievement, or possession and either wants or wishes the other person did not have it. In the management literature, envy is usually considered detrimental to organizational health, as the envious person often engages in counterproductive workplace behaviors, including social attrition, sabotage, abuse, taking pleasure in another's misery, and demeaning the person being envied. (Mohd. Shamsudin et al., 2022). MethodologyThe current research is applied in terms of its purpose Because the research findings can be used to solve the executive issues of Sapco. In terms of the data collection method, it is considered a part of descriptive research and a branch of survey studies. In order to determine the minimum sample size, the test-based method and G-Power version 3.1 software were used (Faul et al., 2009). The number of 158 questionnaires has been distributed among people through the stratified sampling method. ResultsThe results of hypothesis 1 show that the narcissism of Sapco employees has a positive and significant effect on their workplace envy. The results of hypothesis 2 show that the neuroticism of Sapco employees has a positive and significant effect on their workplace envy. The results of hypothesis 3 show that the self-esteem of Sapco employees negatively and significantly affects their workplace envy. The results of hypothesis 4 show that the perceived control of Sapco employees negatively and significantly affects their workplace envy. The results of hypothesis 5 show that the competition factor between Sapco employees positively and significantly affects their workplace envy. The results of hypothesis 6 show that the envy of Sapco employees in the workplace negatively and significantly affects their organizational citizenship behavior. The results of hypothesis 7 show that workplace envy of Sapco employees has a negative and significant effect on their organizational perceptions (identification, job enthusiasm, and satisfaction). The results of hypothesis 8 also show that workplace envy of Sapco employees has a positive and significant effect on their intention to leave their jobs. The results of hypothesis 9 show that workplace envy of Sapco employees has a positive and significant effect on their moral indifference. The results of hypothesis 10 show that workplace envy of Sapco employees has a positive and significant effect on their unproductive work behavior. DiscussionWhat is seen more than ever in organizations is the issues related to mental and psychological pressures and their proper management so that organizations can grow and develop quickly and show off their ability against all these changes and environmental developments. In the workplace, a key factor in determining whether a manager will be in a better position is improving the management of employee emotions. One of the important and debatable issues in the field of employees' emotions is the discussion of workplace envy. The model of workplace envy presented in this research follows the social comparison theory. When employees make upward social comparisons in their work situations, they will experience workplace envy. ConclusionDue to the imbalance in personality traits, narcissistic employees show various deviant behaviors that cause problems for themselves and colleagues. Neurotic employees react to physical and emotional situations and are vulnerable. Self-esteem significantly predicts workplace envy so social comparison may be based on self-evaluations of abilities and opinions. Perceived control refers to people making a positive adjustment in the environmental conditions they were influenced. Perceived control can be a factor that reduces dissatisfaction and incompatibility. Creating a competitive atmosphere for scarce resources and promotions in the organization (for example, if an employee gets an advantage and a promotion will not reach another employee) increases the competition between employees to obtain these scarce resources and ultimately makes employees envy each other—employees who are envious of what other employees have usually refrained from performing organizational citizenship behaviors. Workplace envy leads to more negative emotions and organizational perceptions (i.e., identification, job passion, and satisfaction) and increases the tendency to change jobs. Social desirability can reduce real or symbolic workplace envy, and workplace envy can facilitate moral indifference. Upward social comparison (and the resulting destructive envy) is destructive to the organization's and work group's effectiveness.
    Keywords: workplace envy, social comparison theory, The antecedents of envy in the workplace, Consequences of envy in the workplace, Sapco
  • Ali Shariatnejad *, Farnaz Mehdikhani, Zahra Ghafoori Pages 157-198
    One of the management errors of managers, which is the result of making non-optimal decisions, is strategic regret, which shows itself in the form of a Weakening of the performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of government organizations managers and causes severe damage to government organizations'. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify and analyze the antecedents and consequences of strategic regret in the managers of government organizations using the fuzzy cognitive mapping method. The current research is exploratory in terms of the practical purpose of gathering information. Also, this research is a mixed type of research and is based on qualitative and quantitative research. The statistical population of this research includes managers of government organizations who were selected by purposive sampling and based on the principle of theoretical adequacy. The data collection tool is an interview in the qualitative part and a questionnaire in the quantitative part. The validity and reliability of which were evaluated using content validity and theoretical validity and intra-coder and inter-coder reliability methods for the interview and content validity and retest reliability for the questionnaire, respectively. Qualitative data were analyzed with "Atlas T" software and content analysis and coding method, and quantitative data were analyzed with the fuzzy cognitive mapping method. This research indicates that not having a strategic approach and thinking, being in conditions of high uncertainty, and lack of vision and short-term vision are the most important factors that cause strategic regret in the managers of government organizations. Also, increasing the atmosphere of lack of trust in managers, reducing the credibility of the organization and managers, and increasing the atmosphere of organizational pessimism were identified as the most important consequences of strategic regret in the managers of government organizations. Therefore, as a general conclusion, it should be stated that according to the findings based on the results section, the strategic regret of managers is a risky phenomenon for the organization. According to the antecedents identified in this research, managers should take into account the approach and strategic thinking so as not to fall into the trap of this phenomenon.Introduction In today's turbulent world where managers are faced with difficult ups and downs, depending on their position, they react differently to conditions of ambiguity and uncertainty; there have not been few managers who, by making wrong decisions, have caused irreparable damage to their respective organizations and caused severe regrets. Regardless of which school of thought managers follow, sometimes there are situations when managers experience strategic regret when they look at the actions they have taken and the decisions they have made. This regret can be caused by using or not using a strategy or excessive allocation of resources to realize a strategy. Therefore, based on what was said, managers of government organizations may be in a situation of strategic regret for various reasons (Mintzberg et al.,2005). It is certain that the organization's choice among several options, which is naturally influenced by the mental patterns and analyses of their top managers, will be accompanied by an opportunity cost (caused by choosing other options) for the organization. Examining this opportunity cost and looking for ways to reduce it can lead to the improvement of the strategic management process in future periods. According to the discussed topics, it is clear that between the "stages before and during strategy selection" and "stages of action, control and evaluation" in the minds of managers, events and processes occur that ultimately lead to selecting an option among the available options. It provides the context for the phenomenon of strategic regret for the organization (Azizi et al.,2015). Therefore, based on what was said, managers of government organizations may be in a situation of strategic regret for various reasons.Literature ReviewKazimieh and Malmir (2021), in research titled "Evaluating the effect of strategic regret on organizational performance with the mediating role of managers' experience, showed that strategic regret has a significant and negative effect on organizational performance and managers' experience." Shalini and Gray (2020) did an article titled Manager's Strategic Regret, Organizational Performance and the Role of Firm Adaptation. This research aims to investigate the relationship between the manager's strategic regret, the organization's performance, and the role of the company's adaptability. By examining three studies on companies, the results showed that the manager's regret has a negative effect on the organization's performance. Diecidue & Somasundaram (2017), In a research entitled Theory of Regret: A New Foundation, presented a new behavioral foundation for the theory of regret based on continuous exchange. In this theory, for the first time, regret has been seen continuously and separated from desirability.MethodologyIn terms of method, this research is mixed and based on qualitative and quantitative research. Therefore, the current research is applied in terms of purpose and terms of method; it is among exploratory research. The statistical population of the current research consists of experts, consisting managers of government organizations in Lorestan province, and 27 of them were selected as sample members using the purposeful sampling method and based on the principle of theoretical saturation. The data collection tool is in the qualitative part of the interview, whose validity and reliability were measured using content validity and theoretical validity, and intra-coder and inter-coder reliability methods. Also, the data collection tool in the quantitative section is a questionnaire whose validity and reliability have been confirmed through the content validity and retest reliability of the test. Qualitative data were analyzed with "Atlas T" software and content analysis and coding method, and quantitative data were analyzed with the fuzzy cognitive mapping method. The fuzzy cognitive map method is a method that identifies the most important dimensions of a concept by analyzing the centrality indicators and then examines the set of relationships of variables with each other through causal relationships. ResultsIn addition, the research results can be presented in quantitative and qualitative sections. The results of the qualitative part show the antecedents and consequences related to strategic regret in managers of public organizations. Based on this, the factors that cause strategic regret in the managers of government organizations are lack of strategic thinking and approach, lack of vision and short-term horizon, suffering from intellectual arthritis syndrome, use of microscopic management style and myopic management, suffering from analysis paralysis syndrome, placement In the state of cognitive fatigue and decision fatigue; they are placed in conditions of high uncertainty, delusional idea of genius and personal knowledge, use of ineffective models of decision-making, and managerial short-sightedness. Also, the consequences or consequential factors of the occurrence of strategic regret, loss of intellectual and material capital of the organization, organizational blockage and strategic impasse, increasing the atmosphere of lack of trust in the managers of the organization, the phenomenon of intellectual and mental imbalance of managers, increasing the atmosphere of organizational pessimism, inability to implement plans and The organization's strategies are jeopardizing the organizational goals, reducing the credibility of the organization and managers, the emergence of the rumination state of managers and weakening the mental well-being of managers. In addition, the results of the quantitative part of the research include the prioritization of antecedents and consequences related to strategic regret in the managers of government organizations.Discussion In today's highly dynamic, turbulent, and ambiguous environment, managers are involved in complex challenges that make decision-making a complex process for them (Boalhari et al., 2022). So they have to solve them in a short time, and this causes that sometimes their decisions are based on bias or innovative options. One of the consequences of making such decisions is the manager's regret. The issue of strategic regret in government organizations is very important in comparison with non-governmental sector organizations due to having a broad and diverse range of stakeholders. Therefore, in this research, an attempt has been made to study the factors that lead to the occurrence of strategic regret in government managers, as well as the resulting consequences.ConclusionAccording to the research, the most important antecedents of strategic regret in managers are, respectively, not having a strategic approach and thinking, being placed in conditions of high uncertainty, and lack of short-term perspective and horizon. Also, increasing the atmosphere of lack of trust in the organization's managers, decreasing the organization's and managers' credibility, and increasing the atmosphere of organizational skepticism were identified as the most important consequences of strategic regret in managers.
    Keywords: Regret, Strategic regret, Decision making, Managers of government organization
  • Sksndar Shirazi * Pages 199-238
    Organizational depression is one of the new challenges of public sector organizations; ignoring it can have long-term harm to the organization and its employees, and since people spend most of their time in organizations today, neglecting this issue can cause damage. Seek irreparability. The present study aimed to investigate the causes of organizational depression with the foundational data approach (case study: government organizations). The current study is qualitative research, and its statistical population consists of professors and experts in organizational behavior and organizational psychology. The statistical sample was selected using a targeted method. In order to collect data, 16 in-depth interviews were conducted with experts, and the obtained data were analyzed using three stages of open, central, and selective coding. The final model was designed based on the Strauss-Corbin method. During this research, 175 open codes were obtained in the form of 21 core codes, non-fulfillment of goals and plans, weak political-legal factors, toxic organizational atmosphere, inappropriate physical space and equipment, telegram management, behavioral problems, personality problems, problems Family, physical disability, job burnout, conflicting relationships with colleagues, negative working conditions, lack of welfare system, financial disability, lack of justice, ineffective communication and unconventional control systems were categorized as sub-categories of this research. All extracted concepts were categorized into six selective codes from the paradigm model. Positive entropy was categorized as the causal conditions of organizational depression, individual factors as contextual factors, job dissatisfaction as a central category, poor financial performance as intervening factors, culture as a strategy, and organizational decline as a consequence of organizational depression.IntroductionObserving society's current situation and the existing problems and issues shows that many government organizations are weak, and inefficient, and in organizational psychology, they are sick and considered neurotic organizations. The existence of sick organizations also causes damage and problems to the whole body of society, just as the combination of multiple symptoms indicates the emergence of a disorder in humans. Similar patterns of strategic and structural defects also indicate the existence of specific organizational damage in the organization. A neurotic organization is, above all, an anxious organization. Such organizations have doubts about their abilities to achieve compatibility and success. For this reason, instead of spending their energy on achieving success, They often spend time, resources, and effort to avoid failure. In recent years, show behaviors have increased at all government organizations. Non-fulfillment of managers' promises due to severe reduction of resources and inability to provide them, weak performance of managers and, as a result, distrust of managers, failure to make correct and timely decisions, and lack of basic plans to deal with problems, reduction of citizen's rights in organizations and the lack of proper implementation of programs, etc., it is evident that all of these cases within organizations have reduced organizational commitment, reduced motivation in human resources, disturbed personal-work life balance, and in general indifference of employees to organizations. In the long term, the phenomenon of organizational depression appears. And seek to design a paradigmatic model of organizational depression in government organizations.Materials and methodsThis research seeks to develop a model of organizational depression in public sector organizations using the foundation data method; therefore, this research is considered qualitative research. To do it, the foundation data method and the Strauss-Corbin approach have been used in the model's design. In this research, theoretical data from background studies and literature related to the research, which is necessary for expanding the topic and interview questions, have been used. Also, to collect field data, interviewing experts have been used to develop categories. Three stages of coding were used to analyze the data obtained from the interviews: open coding, axial coding, and selective coding.Discussion and resultsThe researcher identified 175 open codes during the interviews and classified them into 21 core codes. The results indicated that The subcategories of behavioral problems, personality problems, family problems, and physical disability were categorized under the main category of individual factors. The subcategories of job burnout, conflicting relations with colleagues, and negative working conditions were categorized in the main category of job dissatisfaction. Lack of welfare system and financial inability are subcategories that were categorized in the organization's main category of poor financial performance. The subcategories of lack of justice, ineffective communication, and unconventional control systems were grouped in the main category of dramatic culture. Finally, the subcategories of inability to pursue goals and plans, vague goals and plans, reduction in organizational performance, inefficient leadership, and management were grouped in the main category of organizational decline.ConclusionIndividual factors are factors related to people's personal behavior and were categorized in the model of organizational depression, behavioral problems, personality problems, family problems, and physical disability under the title of individual factors in the form of underlying factors that cause organizational depression. These factors can be the severity of depression. It affects the organization, and it differs among the employees of the organization. In this research, "job dissatisfaction" has been chosen as the core category. The core category is the category that has the most repetition among the received codes. In this research, job dissatisfaction was the category repeated in all the interviews and hence has been selected as the central category. The subcategories of job burnout, conflicting relationships between colleagues, and negative working conditions were grouped in the main category of job dissatisfaction. Lack of welfare system and financial disability are subcategories categorized as poor financial performance of the organization and selected as intervening factors in the organizational depression model. Lack of justice, ineffective communication, and unconventional control systems were selected as subcategories of dramatic culture, and dramatic culture was chosen as a strategy in the organizational depression model. In the above research, organizational decline is the consequence of organizational depression, poor organizational performance, unclear goals and plans, inefficient leadership, and management were categorized as organizational decline subcategories.
    Keywords: organizational depression, job dissatisfaction, drama culture, Telegramism management
  • Mahdi Alizadeh *, Ziba Feizy Pages 239-263
    Organizational Grit is a new concept of positive psychology and characteristic of successful people worldwide. Organizational Grit expresses enthusiasm to achieve long-term organizational goals. However, there needs to be more understanding about the lived experience of Organizational Grit. In this research, the phenomenological method was used to describe the lived experience of this phenomenon. The statistical population of this research was the judicial staff of Kurdistan Province. In this research, first, based on the questionnaire of Southwick and his colleagues, people with Grit were identified. Then, with the non-random-targeted sampling method, an in-depth interview was conducted with eight people. The findings of the qualitative analysis showed that the essence of the experience of organizational strength consists of four main themes: Organizational Grit as an active personality with sub-themes of innovation, patience, flexibility, learning, optimism, self-confidence, and risk-taking. Moreover, healthy thinking; Two: Organizational Grit as work spirituality with the sub-themes of God's satisfaction, God's people's satisfaction, honesty, piety, politeness, ethics, fairness and work conscience; Three: Organizational Grit as work endurance with the sub-themes of perseverance, pursuit, effort courage, decisiveness, being committed, accuracy, authority and foresight, Four: Organizational Grit as a general problem solver with the sub-themes of problem analysis, expertise, responsibility, service-oriented, realization of justice, citizen rights, result-oriented and solving judicial cases. Understanding the lived experience of organizational Grit can facilitate the organization's movement toward achieving its goals.IntroductionGoal pursuit is ubiquitous in our everyday life. Goals can keep us going and provide something to aim at; they guide our actions, big and small. Indeed, goal pursuit can be considered the cornerstone of human behavior (Milyavskaya& Werner, 2021). In connection with this subject, A newly defined personality trait called “grit” has been attracting the interest of scholars in recent years. Duckworth et al. defined grit as a personality trait of perseverance of effort and consistency of interest for long-term goals and suggested Grit as a valid predictor of long-term success shared by the most prominent leaders in every field (Suzuki et al., 2015).People adopt different behavior patterns in the way of motivating their long-term goals. Some people are steadfast and continue their efforts despite various issues and challenges (Arco Tirado et al., 2018). High-performance people have special attitudes and behaviors that differentiate them from others, and this capability has been proposed as organizational strength (Fernandez-Martin et al., 2020). Considering the importance of organizational Grit and the research gap in this field, this research investigates the lived experience of people with Grit in the judiciary using the phenomenological method. It seeks to answer the following main question:What does organizational Grit mean from the point of view of judicial staff? Literature ReviewThe studies of Duckworth and his colleagues in 2005 also showed that a large part of people's success is explained by their ability to be Grit in addition to intelligence (Guerrero et al., 2016). In other words, pursuit, effort, and interest, which indicate Grit, are distinguished from intelligence and talent and are equally critical in achieving success (Duckworth et al., 2015). Grit is in the intra-individual field and expresses the necessary capacity to regulate individual behavior and emotions to achieve goals (Shechtman et al., 2013). Duckworth and his colleagues define Grit as a non-cognitive parameter of individual abilities to pursue long-term goals without changing interests or goals along the path that leads to desirable outcomes (Duckworth et al., 2012).People with high and low Grit are distinguished only in situations of failure or difficulty. Difficulty is necessary for the distinction of having or not having Grit. (Lucas et al., 2015). People with Grit have a positive view of the work environment, see failure as a success for learning, and have long-term goals (Wagner & Ruch, 2015). When faced with difficult problems, these people do not give up easily and have perseverance and stability in the face of changing directions (Duckworth et al., 2007). Because they have positive emotions and expectations, they have more continuity and continuity in doing their work (Ginti, Brindle, 2015). People with Grit are conscientious and highly motivated (Meriac et al., 2015). They are conscientious, reliable, organized, diligent, and self-controlled (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005). People with Grit have the capacity and ability to self-regulate and enjoy doing the task until the end of the work - not for the reward - (Kohen, 2014). In addition, people with Grit are self-efficacious and optimistic (Kraft & Duckworth, 2015). MethodologyIn this research, the philosophy of interpretive research, inductive research approach, phenomenological research strategy and qualitative research method were used, and the data collection method was interview. The phenomenon of organizational Grit is an individual variable, and in its investigation and analysis, it should be addressed from an individual lens. In this regard, first, in the Kurdistan Province Justice Research Society, the Organizational Grit Questionnaire of Sutwick and his colleagues (the attached questionnaire) was distributed, then the people who had an average score of 4 or higher (out of 5 points) were identified as people with Grit and then with Non-random-targeted sampling method, in-depth interviews were conducted with 8 people (according to Table 1). The phenomenological approach is to study how the phenomenon is described by humans and their experience through the senses. The experience and interpretation of the phenomenon is the focus of phenomenological research (Mohammadpour, 2017). In order to deeply understand and understand the phenomenon of organizational Grit, this research deals with the lived experience of people with Grit. Discussion and ResultsQualitative data analysis showed that the lived experience of organizational Grit includes four main themes and thirty-two sub-themes as follows:Organizational Grit as an active personality with sub-themes of innovation, patience, flexibility, learning, optimism, self-confidence, risk-taking and healthy thinking.Organizational Grit as work spirituality with the sub-themes of God's satisfaction, God's people's satisfaction, honesty, piety, politeness, ethics, righteousness and work conscience.Organizational Grit as work endurance with the sub-themes of perseverance, follow-up, hard work, decisiveness, being committed, accuracy, authority and foresight.Organizational Grit as a general problem solver with the sub-themes of problem analysis, expertise, responsibility, service-oriented, realization of justice, citizen rights, result-oriented and solving court cases. ConclusionThe results of the research showed that the lived experience of organizational Grit indicates having four main themes, and according to these four themes, organizational Grit can be described as follows:Organizational Grit means having the characteristics of an active judicial personality (innovative, flexible, learning, optimistic, self-confident, risk-taking, patient and healthy thinking), which with the approach of work spirituality and righteousness (pleasure of God, satisfaction of God's people, honesty, piety, politeness, ethics, right-mindedness and work conscience) and the presence of work perseverance (persistence, follow-up, effort, decisiveness, commitment, accuracy, authority and foresight) in order to solve public issues and litigation (problems, expertise, responsibility) acceptable, service-oriented, realization of justice, citizenship rights, result-oriented and solving court cases).In general, the phenomenon of organizational Grit is common in some dimensions such as personality traits, having work endurance and problem solving (result realization), but in this research, work spirituality makes it different from other definitions and is proposed as an innovation in the definition of organizational Grit. AcknowledgmentsThe researchers consider it necessary to express their appreciation and gratitude to all the judicial staff of Kurdistan province who helped them in conducting this research.
    Keywords: Organizational Grit, Phenomenology, active personality, work spirituality, work perseverance, general problem solving