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Adolescent and Youth Psychological Studies - Volume:5 Issue: 2, Feb 2024

Journal of adolescent and youth psychological studies
Volume:5 Issue: 2, Feb 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/01/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Atefeh. Khosravirad, Ahmad. Akbari*, Mohammad. Karimi, Moslem. Cherabin Pages 1-13
    Objective

    This study aims to design an appropriate model in the field of skill-based education based on the real needs of society using grounded theory.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The method of this research is grounded theory with a qualitative approach. Data were analyzed using MaxQDA software. The sampling method was purposive, reaching saturation after conducting 10 interviews with professors and experts in the fields of educational management and skill-based education.

    Findings

    The research results showed that the central phenomenon of skill-based education consists of three components: facilitating personal and social life; value-creating and wealth-generating skills; and human-developing skills. The causal conditions of the research that lead to the phenomenon of the skill-based education model in schools based on the real needs of society were categorized into four groups: pressures of the new age for change; societal needs pressure; poor performance of the non-skill-based educational system compared to the skill-based system; and cultural beliefs of society. Contextual conditions consisted of five main components: policy-making for modern educational systems; enhancing skill-based human resources; providing physical facilities and infrastructure; suitable environment for skill-based education completers; and cultural beliefs of society and families.

    Conclusion

    Appropriate strategies for achieving skill-based education based on the real needs of society were categorized into six groups: correcting government's wrong processes and comprehensive government support; comprehensive culture-building at all levels of society; strengthening and enriching skill-based human resources at the societal level; changing procedures and processes in education; fundamental change in educational policies; and attracting support from effective supplements in the area. The outcomes of implementing these strategies were categorized into four components: economic outcomes and benefits; positive social and cultural outcomes; positive personal outcomes; and educational outcomes.

    Keywords: Skill-based education, real needs of society, value-creating skill, human-developing skill
  • Maryam. Mirahmadi, Ali. Zarei*, Zinat. Nikaeen, Mohammad Reza. Esmaeili Pages 14-21
    Objective

    Leisure experiences play a significant role in individuals' lives. Accordingly, the current study aimed to determine the impact of physical activity application product features on improving young people's leisure experiences.

    Methods and Materials: 

    This cross-sectional study was correlational. The research population included all youths in the northern and western areas of Tehran in 2021 who used the physical activity application (Samsung Health) on their mobile phones at least twice a week. The sample consisted of 410 individuals selected through purposive sampling and responded to personal information checklists and researcher-made questionnaires on physical activity application product features and leisure experiences. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling in SPSS and SMART-PLS software.

    Findings

    Results showed that physical activity application product features and all three of its components, including perceived dynamism, usefulness features, and pleasure-seeking features, had a direct and significant effect on young people's leisure experiences (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The results indicate the effective role of physical activity application product features and all three of its components, including perceived dynamism, usefulness features, and pleasure-seeking features, in improving young people's leisure experiences.

    Keywords: Product features, physical activity application, leisure experiences, young people
  • Bahareh. Montazernia, Shirin. Kooshki*, Mohammad. Oraki, Bahram. Mirzaian Pages 22-31
    Objective

    Diabetes is a chronic, multifaceted, threatening disease with significant psychological consequences. The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training (DBT-ST) on self-care and psychological well-being in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The present study was a quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test with a control group design. The population included all patients with Type 2 diabetes visiting a medical clinic in the city of Sari, among whom 45 were conveniently selected and randomly assigned into two experimental groups (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training) and one control group. Data were collected using the Self-Care Questionnaire (Toobert et al., 2000), and the Psychological Well-being Scale (Ryff & Keyes, 1995) at three stages: pre-test, post-test, and follow-up, and were analyzed using analysis of variance with repeated measures.

    Findings

    The results showed that both Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy were effective on the scores of self-care and psychological well-being. However, the effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was greater than that of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training on the scores of self-care and psychological well-being.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training, through cognitive coping strategies, can lead to the improvement of psychological indicators and enhance the mental and physical health of patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Keywords: Acceptance, Commitment Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training, Self-Care, Psychological Well-being, Type 2 Diabetes
  • Parinaz Sadat. Sajadian*, Hossein. Manian Pages 32-40
    Objective

    The detrimental and excessive use of communication technologies today can have negative psychological effects on individuals. Among these negative effects is a phenomenon known as nomophobia. Nomophobia, an abbreviation for "no mobile phone phobia," is considered a 21st-century disorder that can be caused or exacerbated by various factors in an individual. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the extent to which personality traits and psychopathological symptoms play a role in predicting nomophobia in adolescents.

    Methods and Materials: 

    This study was a cross-sectional correlational research. The population consisted of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years in the city of Isfahan, who were selected through convenience sampling to a total of 250 participants. Data were collected using the Yildirim and Correia (2015) Nomophobia Questionnaire, the NEO Personality Inventory (1986), and the SCL-90-R Psychopathological Symptoms Checklist (1976). Multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis.

    Findings

    Personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) could predict nomophobia in adolescents at a significance level of less than 0.05. Likewise, psychopathological symptoms (depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, obsession, paranoid thoughts, psychosis, interpersonal sensitivity, somatization) could also predict nomophobia in adolescents at a significance level of less than 0.05.

    Conclusion

    Nomophobia is among the social problems in adolescents, where numerous personality and psychopathological factors can play a significant role in its development and progression. These factors should be considered by researchers in more extensive samples and various cultures when dealing with adolescents with nomophobia. Additionally, these predictive factors should be taken into account in the counseling process of adolescents.

    Keywords: Nomophobia, Personality Traits, Psychopathological Symptoms
  • Ahmad. Karimi Dashtaki*, Razia. Yazdanpanahi Pages 41-47
    Objective

    The school, as a formal education system, plays a decisive role in the socialization of children. The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of art therapy on shyness and social skills among male students in the city of Khormooj.

    Methods and Materials: 

    This applied research, in terms of purpose, utilized an experimental design employing a pre-test post-test with a control group. The research population included all male students of Khormooj city in the academic year 2022-2023, from which 30 students were randomly selected and assigned to two groups: experimental (15 students) and control (15 students). The experimental group received an art therapy training program over eight sessions, while the control group was on a waitlist. The research instruments were the Gresham and Elliott (1990) Social Skills Questionnaire and the Samooei (2003) Shyness Questionnaire. The data from the pre-test and post-test stages were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance and SPSS software version 22.

    Findings

    The results showed that art therapy significantly affects the shyness of students in Khormooj; it also significantly affects their social skills. All research findings were significant at the α=0.05 level.

    Conclusion

    Students with communication problems experience numerous interpersonal issues while interacting with peers in the school environment and during play, leading to the emergence of negative behaviors such as shyness; therefore, it can be concluded from the research findings that art therapy is effective in improving social skills and reducing shyness in students.

    Keywords: Art Therapy, Shyness, Social Skills
  • Seyed Alireza. Ghasemi, Iraj. Mahdizadeh*, Mahdi. Salarsadeghi, Minoo. Miri Pages 48-57
    Objective

    The current study was conducted to determine the role of school life quality in predicting the learned helplessness of adolescent students with the mediating role of assertiveness.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The research population consisted of all 8th-grade male students in Birjand city during the 2023-2024 academic year, totaling 2514 students. According to the Krejcie and Morgan table and using a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 335 students were selected as the sample. The data collection tools were the Williams and Button (1981) School Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Gambrill and Richie (1975) Assertiveness Scale, and the Quinless and Nelson (1988) Learned Helplessness Scale. Pearson correlation coefficient test and structural equation modeling approach were used for data analysis. SPSS -26 and Smart PLS-3 software were used for data analysis.

    Findings

    All direct path coefficients relating school life quality to assertiveness were positive and significant with learned helplessness being negative and significant (p<0.01). Moreover, the results showed that the model of the relationship between assertiveness and learned helplessness was negative and significant (p<0.01). Finally, the bootstrap test results indicate that the indirect path coefficient between school life quality and learned helplessness through the mediating variable of assertiveness is significant at the alpha level of 0.01 (p<0.01). In other words, the proposed research model has an acceptable fit at the 0.01 level of significance. The quality of school life, through the mediating variable of assertiveness, has the ability to indirectly predict the level of learned helplessness in adolescents, and improving the quality of school life, and consequently increasing the level of adolescent assertiveness, facilitates the reduction of their learned helplessness.

    Conclusion

    Based on the research findings, it is possible to predict adolescents' learned helplessness through the variables of school life quality and assertiveness. Therefore, the results of the research provide a basis for conducting extensive studies aimed at improving the quality of life in schools and strengthening adolescents' assertiveness.

    Keywords: School life quality, Assertiveness, Learned helplessness, Adolescents
  • Fariba. Farmanbar, Alireza. Maredpour*, Mohammad. Malekzadeh Pages 58-67
    Objective

    The current research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of schema therapy on self-differentiation and rejection sensitivity among patients with borderline personality disorder in Shiraz in 2022.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The research method was a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test, post-test, control group, and follow-up. The statistical population consisted of all individuals with borderline personality disorder who visited counseling centers in Shiraz, from which 50 individuals were selected through purposive sampling and randomly assigned to either the experimental group (25 individuals) or the control group (25 individuals). The experimental group underwent 12 sixty-minute sessions of schema therapy, while the control group was placed on a waiting list. The instruments used in this study included the Borderline Personality Questionnaire (Claridge & Brookes, 1984), Self-Differentiation (Skowron & Friedlander, 1998), and Rejection Sensitivity (Downey & Feldman, 1996). Data analysis was performed in two parts: descriptive and inferential (repeated measures ANOVA).

    Findings

    The results indicated that schema therapy training has an impact on self-differentiation and its components (emotional reactivity, I position, emotional cutoff, and fusion with others) in individuals with borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, the results showed that schema therapy training affects rejection sensitivity in individuals with borderline personality disorder.

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that schema therapy is an effective treatment for improving self-differentiation and rejection sensitivity in individuals with borderline personality traits. It is recommended that this therapy be used for individuals with borderline personality traits in clinical settings.

    Keywords: Self-Differentiation, Rejection Sensitivity, Schema Therapy
  • Shokofe. Shafiei Sani, Hosein. Mahoor*, Mohammad. Yamini Pages 68-74
    Objective

    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of help-seeking training and self-compassion training on the academic achievement motivation of high school girls.

    Methods and Materials: 

    This research is a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2022. To examine this study, educational packages of help-seeking strategies based on the Nelson-Le Gall (1981) model and self-compassion training based on the Neff (2013) model were used, along with the Hermans Achievement Motivation Questionnaire (1970). The study population consisted of female high school students in the city of Sabzevar. A total of 45 subjects were randomly selected and divided into three groups of 15 (two experimental groups and one control group). Initially, the research instruments were administered as a pre-test to both groups. The first experimental group received 10 sessions of help-seeking training, and the second experimental group received 10 sessions of self-compassion training, while the control group did not receive any educational intervention. After the end of the 10 training sessions, the research instruments were administered again as a post-test. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics, including the analysis of variance statistical method.

    Findings

    The results of this study showed that there is a significant difference between the impact of help-seeking training and self-compassion training on academic achievement motivation.

    Conclusion

    Thus, it can be concluded that help-seeking training and self-compassion training can be effectively used in academic and educational settings.

    Keywords: Help-Seeking Training, Self-Compassion, Academic Achievement Motivation
  • Masoud. Rezaee Kochaksaraei, Abdollah. Mafakheri*, Mahmoud. Jajarmi Pages 75-83
    Objective

    The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on substance craving control and rumination in methamphetamine-dependent patients.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The present study, in terms of its objective, was applied research, utilizing a pre-test post-test design within a quasi-experimental research framework. The statistical population included all male patients dependent on methamphetamine who visited the Gam Addiction Treatment Clinic in Ghaemshahr city in the year 2020, from whom 45 individuals were selected through convenience sampling and randomly divided into three groups of 15 (two experimental and one control group). Participants in all three groups responded to the Drug Desire Questionnaire (DDQ) (2002) and the Hocksmann-Nolen Marw Rumination Questionnaire (1991) in three stages: pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. For the first experimental group, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) was applied with a maximum current intensity of 2 milliamperes, and for the second experimental group, twelve sessions of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy were conducted based on the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy protocol (Bayling, McCabe, Antony, 2011), while the control group received no treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software.

    Findings

    The results showed that both treatments were effective. However, the effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS) on craving control and the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on rumination were greater.

    Conclusion

    Both treatments can be used to reduce psychological problems in methamphetamine-dependent patients.

    Keywords: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS), Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Substance Craving Control, Rumination, Methamphetamine
  • Fataneh. Kheiripour, Maryam. Bahrami Hidaji*, Fatemeh. Mohammadi Shirmahaleh, Zohreh. Rafezi, Mania. Asgharpour Pages 84-93
    Objective

    The present research aimed to develop an emotion regulation training protocol and to examine its effectiveness on internet addiction among female students.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The methodology of this study was quasi-experimental, utilizing a pre-test-post-test design with a control group and a follow-up period. The population consisted of all internet-using female high school students in Islamshahr in the year 2021 (ages 15 to 18). The sample size was 100 individuals, randomly assigned to either the experimental or control groups. The General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1972) and the Sensitivity to Reinforcement Questionnaires (Gray, Jackson, 2009) were administered before and after the training sessions to the respective groups. The analysis of findings was conducted using a mixed-methods approach.

    Findings

    The analysis indicated that emotion regulation training led to a reduction in internet addiction (P = 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Consequently, it can be stated that employing an emotion regulation approach can be effective in reducing internet addiction among students.

    Keywords: Internet addiction, Emotion regulation, Students
  • Edris. Ahmadi, Mohammad. Hatami*, Hadi. Hashemi Razni, Mozhgan. Sepahmansour Pages 94-104
    Objective

    Considering the necessity to identify effective interventions to improve stress and rumination in students, the current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based stress reduction program with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on stress and rumination in adolescents with cancer.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The research method was a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test with a control group design. The research population included all adolescents with cancer at Mahak Hospital in Tehran, from which 40 individuals were selected through purposive sampling and randomly assigned to three groups (1- Mindfulness-based stress reduction training; 2- Transcranial direct current stimulation intervention; 3- A combined method of mindfulness-based stress reduction with transcranial direct current stimulation) and one control group. The instruments for data collection included the Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Ruminative Response Scale about an interpersonal upset (2008). For data analysis, one-way analysis of covariance, repeated measures analysis of variance, and the least significant difference post-hoc test were used.

    Findings

    The results of the covariance analysis along with the post-hoc tests showed that there is no significant difference between the mindfulness-based stress reduction method and tDCS in reducing stress levels (P>0.05), and only the difference between these methods compared to the control group was significant (P<0.05). In terms of the effectiveness of the interventions under study on stress levels, the combined method was more effective than using each method separately. Regarding the rumination variable, there was no significant difference between the mindfulness-based stress reduction method and the tDCS method in reducing the level of rumination (P>0.05), and only the difference of this mindfulness method compared to the control group was significant (P<0.05). The results of the repeated measures analysis of variance along with the post-hoc tests indicated that there were no significant differences between the post-test and follow-up stages for stress and rumination variables (P>0.05); hence, the results were stable.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of the current study, counseling and psychology units established in hospitals and oncology clinics need to be more aware of the mental health of adolescents with cancer and should use the combined method of mindfulness-based stress reduction with tDCS to improve stress and rumination in adolescents with cancer.

    Keywords: Mindfulness intervention, Transcranial electrical stimulation, Stress, Rumination, Cancer, Adolescents
  • Elahe. Ahmadi, Pantea. Jahangir*, Mojgan. Niknam Pages 105-113
    Objective

    The current study aimed to predict emotional divorce based on differentiation with the mediation of communication patterns among women attending counseling and psychology centers.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The present study quantitative research. The research design is descriptive-correlational, conducted using path analysis method. The study population consisted of women experiencing emotional divorce visiting counseling and psychology centers (both private and public) in District 2 of Tehran in the year 2020. A total of 368 individuals were selected using convenience sampling method and responded to the Gottman Emotional Divorce questionnaire (2008), the Skowron and Friedlander Differentiation Scale (1998), and the Christensen and Sullaway Communication Patterns Questionnaire (1984). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

    Findings

    According to the results, the direct path coefficients of differentiation and communication patterns to the emotional divorce of married women are significant (p < 0.05). The direct path coefficients from differentiation to constructive reciprocal communication and avoidant reciprocal communication are significant (p < 0.05). The results of the bootstrap test indicate the significance of the indirect pathways between these variables. This result indicates the significance of the mediating role of communication patterns in the relationship between differentiation and emotional divorce (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The results showed that constructive reciprocal communication, avoidant reciprocal communication, and expectation/withdrawal communication mediate the relationship between differentiation and emotional divorce.

    Keywords: Emotional divorce, Differentiation, Communication patterns
  • Faezeh. Ebrahimi, Maryam. Moghadasin*, Gholamali. Afrooz, Samira. Vakili Pages 114-122
    Objective

    Following the publication of a report on sustainable development issues, the United Nations identified creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship as key elements to address sustainable development challenges. The primary objective of this study was to present an appropriate conceptual model for entrepreneurial competence based on cognitive components and personality traits with an emphasis on creativity. In this context, to achieve a comprehensive and hypothetical understanding of the psychological factors' impact on entrepreneurship, an integration of both the creativity and entrepreneurship domains was utilized.

    Methods and Materials: 

    This study employed a qualitative meta-synthesis approach. According to the qualitative meta-synthesis method, the research population included all Persian and English scientific documents (research articles, theses, and books) published in the field of entrepreneurship from 2010 to 2022. To assess the quality of the found articles, the impact factor of a scientific journal was examined, and 90 articles were approved. Then, the relevant data from each article were extracted and entered into MAXQDA software. After reaching saturation, content analysis in this software was a systematic and continuous process of data comparison, conducted in three stages: open coding, axial coding, and selective coding, based on Strauss and Corbin's approach.

    Findings

    The results showed that the conceptual model of entrepreneurial competence based on cognitive components and personality traits with regard to creativity includes the following: Personality traits (dynamism and restlessness, lively interaction and humor combined with personal discipline, thoughtful extraversion, ambition with altruism, simultaneous femininity and masculinity, rebellious and independent, passionate yet realistic and goal-oriented, suffering and pain along with much pleasure, determined and serious yet flexible, internal control source, openness and the expansiveness of fantasy rooted in realities, emotional stability with emotional steadiness, hardworking and perseverance combined with responsibility). Cognitive components (intelligence quotient above 120, active memory, attention and concentration, convergent and divergent thinking), Contextual conditions (planning ability, organizational ability, time management and control, reasoning power, judgment ability, decision-making power, problem-solving ability, impulse control), Intermediate conditions (cognitive flexibility, ambiguity and conditions of uncertainty and certainty, being active, experience-seeking and risk-taking).

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that a multidimensional empirical approach of cognitive components and personality traits provides more information.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Creativity, Cognitive Components, Personality Traits
  • Mahshid. Khavari, Kobra. Haji Alizadeh*, Eghbal. Zarei, Fariborz. Dortaj Pages 123-131
    Objective

    The current research was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on psychological distress syndromes, rumination, and self-compassion in students experiencing psychological distress.

    Methods and Materials: 

    This study was applied in nature and employed a quasi-experimental design, specifically a pretest-posttest control group design with a three-month follow-up period. The statistical population consisted of all female medical science students in Tehran during the academic year 2020-2021, from which 30 individuals were selected through purposive sampling and randomly assigned into two groups of 15 (15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group). Data were collected using the Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales, the Nolen-Hoeksema and Morrow (1993) Rumination Scale, and the Neff (2003) Self-Compassion Scale. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy sessions were conducted in 8 weekly 90-minute group sessions. Data were analyzed through analysis of variance.

    Findings

    The results of the data analysis indicated that Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy was effective in reducing rumination, psychological distress syndromes, and in increasing self-compassion among students in the experimental group experiencing psychological distress, compared to the control group students who also experienced psychological distress.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study, health professionals can use Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy to improve rumination, psychological distress syndromes, and self-compassion among students experiencing psychological distress.

    Keywords: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, psychological distress syndromes, rumination, self-compassion
  • Maryam. Hussein Obeid Al-Soltani, Ali. Mehdad*, Emad. Hussein Obeid Al-Marshidi, Asghar. Aghaee Jeshvaghani Pages 132-139
    Objective

    The present research aimed to determine the moderating role of conscientiousness and gender in the relationship between perceived family atmosphere and academic performance.

    Methods and Materials: 

    The research method was correlational, utilizing hierarchical regression analysis, with the population comprising all students from the University of Babylon in Iraq, among whom 258 were conveniently selected. Data were collected using the Family Atmosphere Perception Questionnaire (Grolnick et al., 1997), the Conscientiousness Questionnaire (Costa & McCrae, 2008), and students' academic averages and were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and hierarchical regression analysis through SPSS software version 26.

    Findings

    Results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between perceived family atmosphere in both dimensions of parent-child and mother-child relationships with conscientiousness and academic performance, and between conscientiousness and academic performance (p<0.01). Furthermore, the results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated that conscientiousness and gender moderate the relationship between perceived family atmosphere and academic performance (p<0.01).

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of the current study, it can be concluded that perceived family atmosphere is an important variable for enhancing academic performance, considering the role of conscientiousness and gender in Iraqi students.

    Keywords: Perceived family atmosphere, academic performance, conscientiousness, students
  • Khadijeh. Gholami Gharahchenagh, Seyed Abbas. Haghayegh*, Sheyda. Jabalameli, Zohreh. Raeisi Pages 140-148
    Objective

    This study aimed to model the structure of psychological maladjustment based on resilience with the mediating role of ego strength in patients suffering from chronic pain.

    Methods and Materials: 

    Given its purpose, this research is applied in nature, quantitative in its data collection method, and descriptive in its analysis, employing correlational design and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques. The study population comprised all patients with chronic pain who visited specialized pain clinics in Tehran from February 2021 to May 2022. Using the Tabachnick and Fidell (2007) formula, a sample size of 330 was determined and selected via convenience sampling. The research instruments included the Psychological Adjustment Questionnaire (Rohner & Khaleque, 2005), the Resilience Scale (Connor-Davidson, 2003), and the Psychological Ego Strength Questionnaire (Marcia et al., 1997). Data analysis was performed in two stages: descriptive (central tendency and dispersion indices, skewness, and kurtosis) and inferential (structural equation modeling), using SPSS-V23 and LISREL-V8.8 software.

    Findings

    The results showed that the model fits well. Additionally, the results indicated a significant direct and indirect (through the mediating role of ego strength) relationship between resilience and psychological maladjustment in patients with chronic pain. The impact of resilience on psychological maladjustment, mediated by ego strength, was negatively significant at a rate of 0.95.

    Conclusion

    Considering the findings of this study, it can be concluded that ego strength, as a psychological capacity, and resilience are effective on social interactions and functioning. It is suggested that to improve the psychological adjustment of patients with chronic pain, efforts should be made to foster ego strength and resilience training.

    Keywords: Psychological maladjustment, Resilience, Ego strength, Chronic pain