فهرست مطالب

Journal of Basic Research in Medical Sciences
Volume:11 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/01/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Amirsam Heidarpour Ghiasi, Hamid Agha-Alinejad*, Maghsoud Peeri Pages 1-8
    Introduction

    Myonectin is a key player in mediating lipid and glucose metabolism, and exercise training positively influences it by upregulating this myokine. However, the impact of different exercise regimens on myonectin levels is not well understood. This study aims to investigate the effects of three weeks of circuit resistance training on serum myonectin levels and lipid profiles in young men.

    Material & Methods

    Twenty sedentary young males (average age: 23.6 ± 3.2 years) participated, randomly assigned to circuit resistance training (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. Circuit resistance training, comprising nine sessions over three weeks with nine exercises per session at 60% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), was conducted. The control group maintained their daily routine. Blood samples, collected 48 hours post-training, underwent serum myonectin and lipid profile analysis using specialized kits. SPSS software version 24, ANCOVA tests (p < 0.05), were used for data analysis.

    Results

    The study revealed a significant increase in serum myonectin levels in the trained group compared to controls (p = 0.027). Additionally, the trained group exhibited a significant reduction in cholesterol and an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels compared to controls (p < 0.05). Triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels did not significantly change in the trained group compared to controls (p > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    This study demonstrates that short-term circuit resistance training (three weeks) significantly improves the lipid profile in sedentary subjects. The positive effect is partially attributed to the upregulation of myonectin levels induced by the training regimen.

    Keywords: Exercise Training, Myokines, Lipid Profile
  • Mahsa Shapouri, Mandana Gholami*, Farshad Ghazalian Pages 9-21
    Introduction

    Exercise training and a low-carbohydrate diet have shown favorable effects on inflammatory cytokines. This study examines the combined impact of an eight-week functional exercise training program and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on adiponectin, CRP, and lipid profiles in overweight women.

    Material & Methods

    Forty-eight overweight women, aged 25-35, were randomly selected for the intervention and allocated into control (n=12), LC diet (n=12), training (n=12), and training+ LC diet (n=12) groups. Functional training, conducted three times weekly for eight weeks at 50-80 percent of maximum heart rate, was paired with an LC diet restricting carbohydrate intake to 50g/d. Blood samples collected before and 48 hours after the final session were analyzed for adiponectin and CRP levels using the ELISA method. Data were analyzed using SPSS software with analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post hoc tests.

    Results

    Adiponectin levels did not significantly change following the eight-week interventions (p=0.135). However, CRP levels significantly decreased in the LC diet group compared to the control group (p=0.003). Cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels significantly decreased in all experimental groups compared to the control group (p<0.05), while HDL levels significantly increased in the LC diet (p=0.009) and training+ LC diet (p=0.001) groups compared to the control group.

    Conclusion

    The study underscores the positive impact of LC diet and functional training, either alone or in combination, on improving lipid profiles. However, there seems to be no synergistic effect of LC diet with functional training on changing CRP and adiponectin levels.

    Keywords: Exercise Therapy, Adiponectin, C Reactive Protein, Overweight
  • Tahereh Vahdati, Rahman Soori*, Ali Akbarnezhad, Parisa Pournemati Pages 22-33
    Introduction

    Hepatokines secreted by the liver play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, directly influencing glucose and lipid metabolism. Exercise training is recognized as an effective treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. This study aims to investigate the impact of moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on the levels of Fetuin-A and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Material & Methods

    Fifteen male Wistar rats aged between 8 and 10 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups (5 rats in each group): healthy control, diabetic, and training diabetic. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin (STZ). The MICT protocol involved eight weeks of continuous running, five days per week, at 55-60% of maximal oxygen consumption. Blood samples were collected 48 hours after the last training session, and serum levels of TNF-α and Fetuin-A were measured.

    Results

    The observed reductions in Fetuin-A, TNF-α, and glucose levels were not statistically significant in the trained group compared to the diabetic group. However, a significant decrease in insulin levels (p=0.002) and insulin resistance (p=0.01) was observed in the trained group compared to the diabetic group.

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, moderate intensity continuous training, as a non-pharmacological intervention, appears to play an effective role in the management of type 2 diabetes by improving insulin resistance and reducing insulin levels.

    Keywords: Moderate Intensity Continuous Training (MICT), Fetuin-A, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α)
  • Fatemeh Poodineh, Abbas Salehikia*, Maryam Banparvari, Zahra Raghi Pages 34-44
    Introduction

    Osteoporosis, characterized by diminished bone mass and increased fracture susceptibility, prompts the investigation into the impact of a four-month TRX training regimen on femur neck bone mineral density (BMD) and its correlation with serum leptin levels in women with osteopenia.

    Material & Methods

    In this quasi-experimental study, 30 women with osteopenia were purposefully selected and randomly assigned to TRX training (n = 15) or control (n = 15) groups. The intervention group underwent TRX exercises thrice weekly for 45-60 minutes per session for four months. Blood samples collected at baseline and post-intervention measured serum leptin levels via ELISA kit (Bio vendor, Czech Republic), while Dexa Lexxos Digital (2D model, USA) determined femur neck BMD. SPSS 20 software, dependent/independent samples t-tests, and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis.

    Results

    TRX training significantly increased femur neck BMD, reducing serum adiponectin levels versus the control group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01, respectively). Compared to baseline, TRX training raised femur neck BMD and lowered serum leptin levels (P = 0.000 and P = 0.01, respectively). A significant inverse correlation emerged between femoral neck BMD and serum leptin levels in women with osteopenia (P = 0.00).

    Conclusion

    Findings suggest that TRX resistance training holds promise for enhancing the rehabilitation of women with osteopenia

    Keywords: Osteopenia, TRX Exercise, Femur Neck Bone Mineral Density, Leptin
  • Sara Assadiasl, Mohsen Nassiri Toosi, Narjes Soleimanifar, Bahareh Mohebbi, Bita Ansaripour, Maryam Sadr, Hanieh Mojtahedi, Banafsheh Mosharmovahed, Fatemeh Fazeli, MohammadHossein Nicknam* Pages 45-57
    Introduction

    Immune monitoring in transplant recipients, examining lymphocyte subsets and cytokine levels, is pivotal for advancing individualized medicine in transplantation. This study aims to assess T helper 1 and 2 cells in acute liver transplant rejection.

    Material & Methods

    Thirty liver transplantation candidates were enrolled pre- and six months post-transplantation under stable condition. Additionally, fifteen recipients with acute rejection, matched for age and transplantation duration, were included. Flow cytometry and ELISA assessed TCD4+CXCR3+IFN-γ (T helper 1) and TCD4+CCR4+IL-4+ (Th2) cell frequencies, as well as serum IFN-γ and IL-10 levels.

    Results

    Stable recipients showed significant decreases in Th1 and Th2 cell percentages six months post-transplant (both p < 0.0001), maintaining a comparable Th1/Th2 ratio. Serum IFN-γ levels also decreased. Conversely, the rejection group exhibited higher Th1 cell proportions and increased IFN-γ concentration compared to stable recipients (P = 0.03 and 0.001, respectively). IL-10 levels slightly decreased in both groups. Consequently, the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio significantly increased during acute rejection (p < 0.0001). Th1 cell frequency and IFN-γ levels negatively correlated with allograft function.

    Conclusion

    Six months post-transplant, stable recipients experienced decreased Th1 and Th2 cell percentages, maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. The IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio significantly increased during acute rejection, indicating an immunological imbalance. Elevated Th1 frequency and IFN-γ levels were negatively correlated with allograft function, emphasizing their potential role in rejection dynamics.

    Keywords: Liver Transplantation, Graft Rejection, T-Lymphocytes, Interleukin-10, Interferon-gamma
  • Elahe Haghighat-Manesh, Ebrahim Alinia-Ahandani, Naeeme Dorri-Mashhadhi, Mohsen Hajihoseini* Pages 58-67
    Introduction

    Pandemics and subsequent lockdowns can profoundly impact the mental well-being of college students. This study aimed to assess the extent of mental health challenges among college students during the initial COVID-19 lockdown in Iran, while also identifying associated factors.

    Material & Methods

    Conducted as an online cross-sectional study, data were gathered during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Iran (between March 21, 2020, and April 21, 2020). A total of 330 college students participated in an online survey, addressing questions across two parts. The first part encompassed demographic information such as age, gender, marital status, residency status, field of study, academic year, history of COVID-19 infection, presence of COVID-19-infected relatives, and adherence to a regular study schedule. In the second part, students completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Descriptive and linear regression analyses were employed for data analysis.

    Results

    Among participants, 38.6% reported probable somatic symptoms, 41.8% reported probable anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbances, 91% indicated potential issues with social functioning, and 23.9% reported probable depressive symptoms. Overall, 57.9% experienced potential psychological distress. Notably, adherence to a regular study routine (β = -0.396) emerged as a negative predictor for potential psychological distress, whereas having COVID-19-infected loved ones (β = 0.159) was identified as a positive predictor.

    Conclusion

     The prevalence of probable somatic symptoms, anxiety, sleep problems, social functioning issues, depressive symptoms, and overall psychological distress was notably high among college students during the initial COVID-19 lockdown. However, maintaining a consistent study schedule, being married, and older age were associated with lower levels of potential psychological distress. Additionally, having loved ones infected with COVID-19 emerged as a risk factor for probable mental health challenges.

    Keywords: Students, Mental Health, COVID-19, Lockdown, Study Schedule
  • Fariba Rasannezhad, Asieh Abbassi-Daloii*, Seyyed Javad Ziaolhagh, Ahmad Abdi Pages 68-78
    Introduction

    Methamphetamine addiction is one of the most prevalent substance use disorders. Augmenting traditional drug treatments with non-pharmacological interventions can enhance treatment efficacy and sustainability. This study aims to investigate the impact of aerobic exercise and psilocybin on histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex of methamphetamine-induced rats.

    Material & Methods

    This experimental research involved 30 female rats randomly allocated into five groups: control, methamphetamine, methamphetamine + aerobic exercise, methamphetamine + psilocybin, and methamphetamine + psilocybin + aerobic exercise. Rats received 15 mg of methamphetamine intraperitoneally every 12 hours for four days. Aerobic exercise was conducted on a treadmill with an 8-week program of escalating intensity, reaching a maximum running time of 30 minutes and speed of 25 m/min, with a 5% slope introduced in the fourth week. Psilocybin was administered intraperitoneally at a microdose of 0.025 mg/kg over 24 sessions. Histopathological changes were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and descriptive analysis with images was employed to interpret cortical brain tissue samples.

    Results

    Histological examination revealed tissue and cellular disorganization, altered morphology of pyramidal neurons, and reduced microglial cell counts in methamphetamine-induced rats compared to controls. Endurance training, psilocybin supplementation, and their combination exhibited improvements in tissue and cellular alterations in the cerebral cortex of addicted rats.

    Conclusion

     This study demonstrates that exercise training and psilocybin administration in methamphetamine-exposed rats ameliorate cortical histopathology, with the combined intervention yielding the most significant effects. This synergistic effect may reduce the risk of relapse in methamphetamine users by positively modulating brain and central nervous system functions.

    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Aerobic Exercise, Psilocybin, cerebral Cortex, Rats
  • Behrooz Sadeghi Kalani, Parisa Asadollahi* Pages 79-85
    Introduction

    Looking into the literature, many articles accuse bacterial persister cells as important causes of infection relapse/recalcitrance. This opinion paper, highlights the knowledge gaps and scientific misconceptions in experimental procedures regarding the role of persisters in relapse/recalcitrance of infections and recommends a roadmap for investigations in this field.

    Conclusion

     It is debated in this paper, that unless the queries and missing points are addressed clearly, persisters cannot be stigmatized as the culprit of infection relapse/recalcitrance.

    Keywords: Persister cells, Bacteria, Relapse, Recalcitrance, Infection