فهرست مطالب

Journal of Plant Molecular Breeding
Volume:11 Issue: 2, Summer and Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Mohsen Hoseini, Ahmad Arzani * Pages 1-16

    The severe impact of drought and salinity on plant productivity presents a significant threat to worldwide food security. Plants exhibit the capacity to sense stimuli in their environment and adjust defense mechanisms through diverse regulatory networks to cope with abiotic stress. The complexities of drought and salinity tolerances can be deconstructed into contributing factors and mechanisms, classified under two categories: genetics and epigenetics. Epigenetic mechanisms play a role in partially attributing crop adaptation to the most formidable drought and salinity stresses. Plants respond to stress in part by undergoing stable alterations in gene expression, a process that involves the physical "marking" of DNA or its associated proteins, commonly called epigenetics. Plants utilize various epigenetic mechanisms to refine gene expression, vital for adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. These include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, epitranscriptomics, and gene silencing mediated by small RNAs. Notably, epigenetic modifications can be inherited or erased. Enhanced knowledge of epigenetics complements genetics and will aid in developing strategies to integrate them into crop improvement programs aimed at addressing adaptation to abiotic stress. This review highlights the latest and noteworthy findings regarding crop epigenetic responses to abiotic stress signals, particularly those pertinent to drought and salinity tolerance.

    Keywords: drought tolerance, CpG island, epigenomics, osmotic stress, Salt tolerance, Water stress
  • Haniyeh Ahmadinia, Parviz Heidari * Pages 17-30

    Plant chromosome manipulation is a powerful tool in plant breeding due to its significant impact on various genetic traits and diversity. To investigate the effect of polyploidy induction in anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), three different concentrations (0.01%, 0.5%, and 5%) of colchicine were tested. In this study, the seeds and terminal buds of five-week-old plants were treated with colchicine, and the process was repeated for three consecutive days. Subsequently, molecular, physiological, and morphological traits of both control (diploid) and induced (autotetraploid) plants were investigated. The results revealed that 0.01% colchicine had no significant effect on ploidy induction, while significant effects were observed at 0.5% and 5%.  Seedlings treated with concentrations higher than 0.5% colchicine exhibited larger stomatal size, lower stomatal density, and darker leaf color. In addition, the contents of DNA, RNA, and total protein increased in seedlings treated with concentrations of 0.5% and 5%. Karyotype observation confirmed polyploidy induction in plants treated with colchicine concentrations above 0.5%.  Overall, this study shows that  colchicine  can alter anise plants’ ploidy by 0.5% and 5% and  boostleaf size and pigments associated with photosynthesis, resulting in stronger plants.

    Keywords: Medical plants, Pigment content, Nucleic acid content, Ploidy level, Plant vigor
  • Noraddin Hosseinpour Azad * Pages 31-38

    Sustained availability of genetic resources is essential for successful plant breeding. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge is an endemic species to Iran, widely dispersed throughout the country. The rocky mountainous terrain between Asalem and Khalkhal, situated in the Ardabil province, is one of them. The current research focused on the genetic classification of 11 different ecotypes of S. bachtiarica collected from northwest Iran using RAPD molecular markers. A significant genetic diversity was observed among the ecotypes, with 64 bands displaying substantial polymorphism. These polymorphic bands served as the foundation for genetic analyses conducted using NTYSYS-pc (2.02e) software. The genetic distance between the ecotypes was determined using the Dice similarity coefficient. Subsequently, a dendrogram was constructed based on the similarity matrix data, employing the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Genetic clustering analysis of the molecular marker data from 11 studied ecotypes revealed the lowest genetic similarity among the Khoy and Ardabil ecotypes. In contrast, the Khalkhal and Meshgin Shahr ecotypes exhibited the highest similarity. After examining the dendrogram, it becomes clear that most clusters consist of ecotypes sharing entirely similar or relatively similar climatic conditions. This suggests that the molecular diversity outcomes align with the geographical diversity of the ecotypes.

    Keywords: Satureja bachtiarica, RAPD molecular marker, Classification, Genetics distance
  • Samaneh Adl, Nahid Masoudian *, Bostan Roudi, Mostafa Ebadi Pages 39-54

    Drought stress is one of the limiting factors for plant growth. To evaluate the effect of drought stress (0, 150, 250 g/L of Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG)) on the physiological characteristics of two wheat cultivars (‘Gonbad’ and ‘N8720’), a hydroponic experiment was conducted. A factorial experiment was used and arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications at the Pasteur Institute of Iran (North Research Center). The experimental results showed that the main effect of cultivars was significant for all studied traits except nitrogen and phosphorus in the stems (p ≤ 0.01). The main effect of drought stress, as well as the interaction effect of drought stress and cultivars were significant for all studied traits (p ≤ 0.01). The highest content of elements in root and shoot and the chlorophyll content was observed in N8720 cultivar under control treatment. Moreover, in N8720 cultivar, the amount of glycine betaine increased due to drought stress, reaching its maximum at 250 g/L PEG. The results of correlation analysis showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between all traits (p ≤ 0.01). The result of experiment showed that N8720 cultivar exhibited superior characteristics in terms of all studied traits.

    Keywords: cluster analysis, Cultivars, Drought stress, glycine betaine, Phosphorus
  • Allelopathic effect of Rapistrum rugosum L. weed on growth, physiological and biochemical parameters of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
    Reza Kohestani, Leila Ahangar *, Mehdi Zarei, Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari, Ziba Avarseji Pages 55-65
    To study the allelopathic effect of decomposed fresh aerial parts of Rapistrum rugosum on growth, physiological and biochemical traits of Hibiscus sabdariffa, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications under greenhouse condition at the Gonbad Kavous University. Treatments were different amounts of R. rugosum residues (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 g kg-1 soil). The results showed that increasing the amount of R. rugosum residues significantly reduced the growth traits of H. sabdariffa. The lowest amount of stem and root length, fresh and dry weight of the plant was observed in 160 g kg-1 of R. rugosum residues. The content of chlorophyll b and carotenoids, as well as malondialdehyde, decreased with increasing the amount of R. rugosum. However, the trend of changes in the content of catalase enzyme, soluble sugars content, proline, total phenol, and flavonoids increased with increasing the amount of R. rugosum residues. Consequently, our findings showed that with the increasing in the amount of R. rugosum residues, all the studied traits of H. sabdariffa decreased significantly. Therefore, it can be recommended to use H. sabdariffa weed as a natural herbicide in sustainable agriculture especially in medicinal plant production.
    Keywords: Allelopathic, Physiological traits, Rapistrum rugosum, Total phenol
  • Identification of HSP100 gene family in Aeluropus littoralis
    Seyedhamidreza Hashemipetroudi *, Samira Mohammadi, Farzaneh Fatemi Pages 66-76
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), molecular chaperones with many activities, are essential to plant growth, development, and stress responses. To make crops more salt- and drought-resistant, plant breeders have considered halophytic plant. Aeluropus littoralis, a halophyte monocote grass, is one potential model species to discover new stress-response genes. Here, exon/intron structure, conserved motifs/ domains, and expression patterns of HSP100 gene family were identified in the genome of A. littoralis. This study found six unique AlHSP100 non-repetitive genes, revealing remarkable structural and physicochemical variations between the subfamilies. Phylogenetic and motif analyses revealed that proteins from the same subfamily (AlHSP100.1-4) and proteins from other subfamilies (AlHSP100.5-6) have similar types, ordering, and quantities of motifs. Finally, the expression of AlHSP100.3 gene was analyzed using RT-qPCR under dehydration, salt, cold, and phytohormone abscisic acid stress treatments, revealed that their expression patterns vary in response to abiotic stresses. The presence of stress-dependent regulation of the HSP100.3 gene, as evidenced by the early response to PEG treatment and the late response to cold stress, is likely associated with the cis-regulatory elements located upstream of this gene. This study provides more valuable information to deepen our understanding of the abiotic stress responses by HSP100 genes in A. littoralis.
    Keywords: abiotic stress, gene expression, Halophyte, heat shock proteins (HSPs), transcriptome analysis