فهرست مطالب

Language Teaching Research - Volume:12 Issue: 1, Feb 2024

Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research
Volume:12 Issue: 1, Feb 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/11/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
  • Karim Sadeghi * Page 0
  • Giang Hoang, Neomy Storch * Pages 1-20
    Research has suggested that the type of feedback learners receive can impact on whether learners understand the feedback, the extent to which they engage with it, and whether they incorporate it in their revised drafts. However, to date, only a small number of studies have investigated learner engagement with corrective feedback provided by automated writing evaluation tools, and of those few have considered in greater depth the impact of the type of automated feedback on engagement. This multiple-case study examines two EFL learners’ engagement with the two forms of corrective feedback provided by Criterion categorised as generic and specific and factors that can explain the nature of their engagement. Data were collected from learners’ first and revised drafts of multiple essays on Criterion, screencasts of students’ think-aloud procedures while revising essays, and stimulated recall interviews. Findings indicate the learners’ higher uptake rate and more successful error corrections in response to generic versus specific feedback. However, their mental effort expenditure differed when cognitively engaging with the feedback, which could be explained in terms of individual learning goals, feedback quality, and the nature of tagged errors. These findings have relevant implications for utilising automated corrective feedback in L2 writing classes.
    Keywords: automated feedback, learner engagement, specific feedback, generic feedback, case study
  • Ali Derakhshan *, Slamet Setiawan, Mohammad Ghafouri Pages 21-43
    Following the tenets of positive psychology, many researchers have explored the realm of teachers’ emotions in the past decades. However, the number of studies observing teachers’ psycho-emotional factors from a cross-cultural lens has been negligible. To fill this gap, This study examined the association among apprehension, resilience, organizational mattering, and psychological well-being of 411 Indonesian and 285 Iranian English language teachers. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses of the data obtained from four questionnaires indicated that while the language teachers’ apprehension was weakly correlated with the other factors, the other variables were strongly correlated. Furthermore, the results showed that resilience and organizational mattering were strong predictors of teachers’ overall well-being. The cross-cultural comparison of the results revealed that the Indonesian teachers enjoyed more resilience and seemed to cope better with challenging and apprehensive situations. Identifying and regulating negative emotions, like apprehension, can potentially pave the way for policymakers and teacher educators to empower teachers to survive and thrive in the stressful conditions of their profession.
    Keywords: L2 teacher resilience, organizational mattering, positive psychology, psychological well-being, teacher apprehension
  • Watcharapol Wiboolyasarin, Nattawut Jinowat * Pages 45-64
    The increasing popularity of mobile dual-language learning applications (apps) in the education industry has led to a growing interest in investigating their effectiveness. However, there is a paucity of research investigating mobile apps specifically designed for speakers learning dual languages. Accordingly, this study utilised a qualitative research method to explore the perceptions and design of such apps for bilingual teaching and learning. A cohort of 30 in-service teachers participated in individual interviews, serving as the primary source of data collection and analysis. Thematic analysis was employed to identify patterns within the transcripts and detailed field notes. The results revealed nine themes and twenty-four subthemes related to mobile dual-language learning apps. These findings provide insights into the potential benefits and challenges of using mobile apps for language learning, as well as implications for the design of dual-language learning apps. The implications of this study extend beyond the education industry and have practical implications for language educators and app designers alike. The study contributes to the current body of knowledge in the field of education by shedding light on the effectiveness of mobile dual-language learning apps for bilingual teaching and learning.
    Keywords: bilingual education, mobile applications, young learner, dual language, learning platform
  • Hossein Bozorgian *, Meysam Muhammadpour, Raheleh Qara Pages 65-82
    We conceptually replicated Kemp (2010), who investigated the effect of keeping a listening log, a journal or learner diary, on ESL students' motivation toward autonomous learning. Her research suggested that keeping a listening log can aid ESL listeners to self-monitor their performance and reflect on their listening process independently. Besides, it was found that it would raise their metacognitive awareness of the listening process and motivate them toward autonomous listening. Her study deserves replication due to its theoretical motivation, which is the explicit teaching of a group of listening skills and strategies and the success of the listening skills module designed for study-abroad ESL students. However, almost no previous studies replicated the related research with a phenomenological perspective to examine its robustness and transferability, particularly in an EFL context. Thus, our conceptual replication used Kemp's (2010) materials and procedures to highlight the possible effects of keeping a listening log on EFL learners' motivation to become autonomous listeners in an EFL context. To serve this purpose, 30 freshmen Iranian TEFL students participated in this study. The data were collected through students' listening logs in eight sessions. Results suggested that keeping a listening log can motivate and encourage EFL learners to engage with and reflect on their listening experiences in potential learning situations, thus assisting them with becoming good listeners in real-life situations. Further discussions and pedagogical implications are provided in the paper.
    Keywords: autonomy, listening log, motivation, portfolio, self-monitoring, self-reflection
  • Ender Velasco * Pages 83-105
    Reflective practice, in the shape of post-teaching self-evaluations, is a core element of many pre-service English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher training programmes such as CELTA. Most research on reflective practice has been carried out with pre-service teachers, but more evidence is needed to understand the reflective practice of in-service ESL teachers. This study employed a Corpus-Linguistics tool called LancsBox to analyse the nature of reflective discourse found in 44 post-teaching self-evaluations, written by in-service L1-English ESL teachers, in a language school in Colombia. Corpus Linguistics techniques included frequency lists, keywords, ngrams, and concordances. Results suggest that in-service teachers tend to reflect upon the area of Subject Knowledge the most. Other frequent areas of reflection include Lesson Planning and Classroom Management. Areas such as Understanding Learners and Use of Learning Technologies seem far less important. Generally, the most salient reflective discourse type they produce is Factual, followed by Prudential and Evaluative discourse. The pedagogical implications of this study are threefold. First, both pre-service and in-service ESL teachers need to be taught how to reflect and this needs to be supported by teacher trainers. Second, to guide overall reflective practices, tools employed by pre- and in-service ESL teachers to reflect on their lessons could be adapted, so they mirror specific areas of reflection such as the teaching skills and reflective discourse types being evaluated. Third, the current study suggests a self-reflection tool pre- and in-service ESL teachers can use to assess and reflect on their own teaching practices.
    Keywords: corpus linguistics, in-service ESL teachers, post-teaching self-evaluations, reflective discourse, reflective practice
  • Ghaleb Rababah *, Sane Yagi, Sharif Alghazo Pages 107-129
    This study investigated the use and functions of metadiscourse markers in English as a foreign language (EFL) virtual classroom during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study examined which metadiscourse markers—interactive or interactional—were used more frequently and how they were employed in an EFL context. It explored two interactive metadiscourse resources (code glosses and evidentials) and two interactional metadiscourse resources (attitude and engagement markers). The study utilized a mixed-method approach, using Hyland’s (2004) two-componential taxonomy, to analyze a corpus of 303,148 words from 35 online lectures (90 minutes each) delivered by three university instructors in the UAE. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to determine any significant differences in the use of these resources and their subcategories. The results revealed that the three instructors used more interactional than interactive resources. The qualitative analysis showed that code glosses and evidentials were primarily used to manage the flow of information, provide elaboration on propositional content, and provide evidence to support arguments. They were also employed to achieve cohesion and logical coherence in online classrooms. In contrast, attitude and engagement markers were used to engage students and signal the instructors’ attitudes toward their material and audience. The study concludes with pedagogical implications for EFL instructors, students, and syllabus designers to foster social justice and fairness in the online learning environment, ensuring all students feel valued and empowered in their educational journey.
    Keywords: engagement resources, fairness, interactional resources, interactive resources, metadiscourse, social justice, virtual classroom
  • Mehdi Sarkhosh, Mahsa Alinasab * Pages 131-147
    Research on organizational trust and job satisfaction is an over-researched domain within organizational settings. However, whether such a connection extends to educational or language school contexts, has been scarcely investigated in education research. In this study, we report the connection between trust and job satisfaction among English teachers across private language schools and the extent to which age, gender, and experience moderate this relationship. The participants of the present study were selected from among the English teachers of several English schools in Urmia, Iran. We adopted two main questionnaires, namely, job satisfaction and interpersonal trust scales, to collect data. In this study, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was utilized to detect multi-group relationships among the variables. The findings yielded a positive association between English teachers' interpersonal trust and their job satisfaction and illustrated that age and experience moderated the relationship between the two variables. We found that teachers with a higher degree of interpersonal trust were more satisfied with their jobs. The findings warrant taking heed of language teachers' job satisfaction at language schools and creating an educational workplace with cooperation and trust among supervisors and teachers.
    Keywords: English teachers, job satisfaction, private school, relationship, SEM, trust
  • Mark Teng * Pages 149-168
    The vast majority of Chinese universities have embraced higher education reform that emphasizes a “publish or perish” ideology. This brings challenges to the early-career academics, especially those working in language-related field. This paper employs a multiple case study to explore the identity tension of early career academics in applied linguistics. The three cases had diverse backgrounds and demonstrated different identity trajectories. Data were triangulated through narrative frames, interviews, and documents. Data analysis was conducted using an inductive approach that focused on interpreting the underlying meanings within the data, drawing upon relevant theoretical frameworks for guidance. The findings revealed an array of identity options (e.g., “temporary worker”, “blind follower”, “green pepper”, “leek”). The factors that shaped the identity construction included the shifting value of being a teacher and researcher, intensified “publish-or-perish” ideology, and changing institutional and societal systems and requirements. Implications on teacher development for early-career academics in applied linguistics were proposed based on the findings.
    Keywords: identity, discourse, identity tension, identity-in-discourse, teacher development
  • Maryam Soleimani * Pages 169-171

    Conducting Genre‑Based Research in Applied Linguistics: A Methodological Guide edited by Matt Kessler and Charlene Polio is a comprehensive resource on conducting research in applied linguistics involving written genres and is distinctive in its coverage of a multiplicity of interdisciplinary perspectives. The book’s major bonus is its focus on the central approaches, methodologies, analyses, and tools used in conducting genre-based research, extending the traditional focus on a single framework for defining genres by explicating the major approaches that have been invoked in applied linguistics. Chapters address a mix of commonly used methodologies (e.g., case studies, ethnographic approaches), types of analyses (e.g., metadiscourse, rhetorical move-step analysis, multidimensional analysis, lexical bundles and phrase frames, complexity, accuracy, lexis and fluency (CALF) measures, multimodal analysis), and studies that focus on other areas of second language (L2) teaching and learning such as multilingualism.

    Keywords: genre based research, Applied Linguistics, methodological
  • Adib Alfalah *, Sri Dewi Priwarti Siregar Pages 172-174

    Language-Sensitive Teaching and Learning: A Resource Book for Teachers and Teacher Educators, edited by Richard Rossner and Rod Bolitho, provides an in-depth understanding of language use in both classroom settings and online teaching and learning. The book also offers a range of practical ideas and activities, which are designed to be applied to teacher education courses and professional development programs for teachers in practice. Furthermore, the book includes a dedicated chapter (chapter 5) that focuses on those working in teacher education, encompassing curriculum development and in-service training. The concept of language-sensitive teaching helps teachers become more aware of the importance of language and communication in facilitating students’ academic success.

    Keywords: language-sensitive teaching, teachers, teacher educators