فهرست مطالب

Acta Medica Iranica
Volume:61 Issue: 9, Sep 2023

  • Thematic Issue
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
  • Zahid Hussain Khan, Shahram Samadi * Pages 495-498
  • Shahram Samadi, Sepehr Samadi, Behnam Samadi, Mehrshad Samadi, Mehrdad Samadi, Mojtaba Shahbazi * Pages 499-507

    With the rising attention towards improving the quality of life and mental health, sleep hygiene and sleep quality have recently been the main topics of numerous studies. Quality of sleep not only affects our physical status but also plays a pivotal role in our psychological and emotional states. Sleep deprivation can increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases along with the risk of impaired concentration and consequent road injury and accidents. As technology has become a main figure in our daily lives, technological advances have paid a great interest in improving the quality of sleep by enhancing the detection of sleep-related disorders and sleep abnormalities, particularly in the setting of smart homesand the Internet of Things (IoT). Smartphone applications, portable wearable gadgets,and devices along with more sophisticated and precise algorithms are now endeavoringto help us improve our quality of sleep and subsequently our quality of life. Hence, this review aims to illustratea vivid picture of recent advancements in smart homes and theirrelated technologies for improving sleep quality.

    Keywords: Sleep, Smart home, Sleep hygiene, Sleep quality, Internet of things (IoT)
  • Reza Shariat Moharari, Maryam Hatam, Pardis Emami, Mohamadreza Neishaboury, Seyed Hamidreza Sharifnia, Farhad Etezadi, Mohammad Shirani, Atabak Najafi, Pejman Pourfakhr * Pages 508-512

    In craniotomy surgery, it is important to maintain hemodynamics and prevent the increase of intracranial pressure. Using semi-invasive methods such as LiDCO monitoring is a good option in this situation. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mannitol and hypertonic sodium on hemodynamic parameters in patients undergoing elective craniotomy.This randomized clinical trial was done on 40 patients of both genders. Patients whose ages were between18-65 years, who had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score I and II, and who underwent craniotomy surgery were eligible for this study.Participants were divided into two groups receiving hypertonic sodium and mannitol.Hemodynamic parameters were evaluated before surgery, 20 minutes, and 60 minutes after surgery in both groups, under Lithium dilution cardiac output (LiDCO) monitoring.The results showed that there was no difference between groups in terms of the average fluid intake, the duration of the operation, the amount of urinary output, and the primary hemodynamic characteristics. Significant differences were recorded in the evaluation of hemodynamic parameters. The results demonstrated a reduction in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure during 20 to 60 minutes after mannitol injection compared to hypertonic sodium injection. Additionally, the effectiveness of both therapies on maintaining cardiac function was similar, but the use of mannitol led to a greater decrease in arterial and peripheral vascular resistance.It can be concluded that mannitol may be more effective than hypertonic sodium during craniotomy procedures in terms of reducing blood pressure monitored with LiDCO.

    Keywords: Hemodinamic monitoring, Lithium dilution cardiac output (LiDCO), Craniotomy, Mannitol, Hypertonic sodium
  • Mohammadreza Khajavi, Leila Sadat Hosseini, Marzieh Pazoki, Seyed Hamidreza Sharifnia, Reza Shariat Moharari, Pejman Pourfakhr, Parisa Kianpour, Abbas Ostadalipour, Atabak Najafi, Farhad Etezadi * Pages 513-518

    This randomized clinical trial aimed to assess and compare patient satisfaction and sedation outcomes in bronchoscopy procedures using two distinct sedation protocols: fentanyl/chlorpheniramine (FC) and ketamine/chlorpheniramine (KC).Ninety patients undergoing simple bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were randomly assigned to receive either FC (1μg/kg fentanyl and 10 mg chlorpheniramine) or KC (0.5mg/kg ketamine and 10 mg chlorpheniramine). Lidocaine was also administered during bronchoscopy. Primary outcomes included patient satisfaction scores, while secondary outcomes encompassed sedation levels, bronchoscopist satisfaction, cough rates, lidocaine usage, and physiological parameters.Patients in the FC group exhibited significantly higher satisfaction levels compared to the KC group (P=0.002). Bronchoscopist satisfaction was also superior in the FC group (P=0.001). Although cough rates did not differ significantly, severe persistent coughs were more prevalent in the KC group. Physiological parameters such as oxygen saturation were comparable, but the KC group demonstrated higher increases in systolic blood pressure and heart rate.The use of fentanyl/chlorpheniramine resulted in higher patient and bronchoscopist satisfaction during simple bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage compared to ketamine/chlorpheniramine. This study suggests that the combination of fentanyl and chlorpheniramine may be a preferable sedation choice for bronchoscopy procedures.

    Keywords: Bronchoscopy, Fentanyl, Ketamine, Chlorpheniramine, Sedation, Patient satisfaction
  • Majid Akrami, _ Hadiseh Hosamirudsari *, Neda Faraji, Masoomeh Nataj Majd Pages 519-525

    Given that the risk factors associated with mortality and morbidity of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) vary among age groups, this studyaimed to describe the differences in clinical characteristics and mortality-related risk factors between elderly and middle-aged COVID-19 patients.A total of 1061 patients were included in this retrospective cohort study. Patients’ radiology reports and laboratory data were extracted from the available data on the Hospital Information System (HIS), and clinical findings were added in special forms. We followed up cases until death or discharge to evaluate patients’ outcomes.Chronicobstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (95% CI, HR 2.73 (0.97-6.62)), need for antibiotics (95%CI, HR 2.26 (1.20-4.26)), and diabetes (95%CI, HR 1.77 (0.97-3.24)) were associated with a higher risk of mortality among middle-aged COVID-19 patients; while, age (95%CI, HR 1.04 (1.01-1.06)) was associated with increased mortality rate in elderly patients.We found that the need for antibiotics was associated with a worse outcome of COVID-19. Additionally, we described the differences between elderly and middle-aged COVID-19 patients regarding their comorbidities, laboratory findings, and clinical manifestation.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Aged, Middle-aged, Mortality, Survivors
  • Reza Effatdoost, Babak Eslami *, Omid Nabavian, Maziar Maghsoudloo, Khalil Pestei, Shahram Samadi, _ Mohammad Dehghan-Tazerjani Pages 526-530

    Intubating the trachea is a challenging task, especially for novice intubators. Successful intubation, in the shortest possible time, prevents hypoxia and hemodynamic disturbances. During thelast few decades, video laryngoscopy has proven to be a helpful tool for intubating patients successfully, especially in difficult cases. However, novices must be proficient with a video laryngoscopy. It is not entirely clear which method, direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy, is more successful for tracheal intubation in individuals who have recently started their airway management training. In this study, we aim to investigate this issue. 150 patients were randomly assigned to either direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy by first-year anesthesia assistants. Intubation time, intubation success rate, Cormack-Lehane score, and instances of using the Optimalexternallaryngeal manipulation (OELM) maneuver, were recorded. The rate of successful intubation was higher in the direct laryngoscopy group, and the time taken was less. The direct laryngoscopy provided a better view of the glottis than the video laryngoscopy, although this difference was not statistically significant. Direct laryngoscopy resulted in a higher frequency of OELM. Based on our study, the success rate and speed of intubation in novices werehigher with direct laryngoscopy compared to video laryngoscopy.

    Keywords: Tracheal intubation, Direct laryngoscopy, Video laryngoscopy, Airway management, Novice intubators, Anesthesia assistants
  • Asghar Hajipour, Alireza Montaseri *, Mojgan Rahimi, Amirhossein Orandi, Laila Rahmah, Shahram Samadi Pages 531-539

    This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the frequency of emergency cesarean sections with epidural analgesia and its implications on Apgar scores and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admissions among patients at Tehran University of Medical Sciences Hospitals from 2017 to 2018.Data from 7170 patients were extracted from the hospital information system (HIS) through a consensus method. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation, and logistic regression analyses were conducted using Stata v17 software.Out of 9387 patients, 62.7% underwent cesarean sections, and 37.1% had normal vaginal deliveries. Epidural analgesia was administered to 127 patients, with 98.4% achieving successful normal vaginal delivery. Nulliparous women constituted 64.29% of those receiving epidural analgesia. Apgar scores at five and ten minutes were comparable between epidural and non-epidural groups. Emergency cesarean rates with epidural analgesia were low (1.6%).Findings align with previous research indicating no significantimpact of epidural analgesia on Apgar scores. Nulliparous women predominated in the epidural group, consistent with pain pattern disparities. The study supports recent research showing epidural analgesia does not increase emergency cesarean rates, even inhigh-risk pregnancies.This study suggests that epidural analgesia does not significantly impact Apgar scores, NICU admissions, or emergency cesarean rates. While the comprehensive dataset enhances reliability, retrospective design limitations are acknowledged. Prospective studies exploring factors contributing to neonatal mortality and overall labor duration are recommended for more robust evidence.

    Keywords: Epidural analgesia, Emergency cesarean section rate, Neonatal outcomes, Apgar scores
  • Saeideh Sadat Mousavi, _ Morteza Karami *, Seyed Mohammad Mireskandari, Shahram Samadi Pages 539-546

    The use of educational technology is considered a necessity due totheincreasing changes in medical education. This study aimed to design a novel blended virtual reality and clinical learning environment(CLE) and to investigate its effectiveness in the learning transfer of anesthesiology residents duringspinal anesthesia procedures.In this experimental study, 25 residents (academic year 2020/2021) were randomly divided into blended (n=11) and clinical (n=14) groups.Spinal anesthesia training for the blended group was performed in the virtual training laboratory (week 1) and the operating room (from week 2 to week 4), while for the CLEgroup, it was only performed in the operating room. Training, based on task-centered learning, was provided for both groups, and then, a 360-degree assessment of learning transfer was conducted by professors, patients, co-workers, and self-assessments using a standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed using non-parametric tests.There was a significant difference in the learning transfer of residents between the blended and CLE groups (U=39, P=0.03<0.05).There was also a significant difference in the subcategories of learning transfer according to the professors and co-workers; however, there was no significant difference according to the patients and self-assessments. The blended VR/CLE learning environment was more effective than CLE in improving residents’ learning transfer. Besides, an increase in scores indicated an improvement in professional competence.

    Keywords: Learning transfer, Virtual reality, Spinal anesthesia, Blended learning environment
  • Fariba Mansouri, Majid Akrami *, Neda Faraji, MasoomehNataj Majd Pages 547-554

    Early commencement of enteral nutrition (EEN) in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation may improve outcomes. But there is a lack of enough data regarding EEN effects on COPD exacerbation patients’ outcomes.This retrospective study involved 129 COPD exacerbation patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation in ICU. The clinical outcomes were compared based on the timing of enteral nutrition (<48h vs >48h) during 60 days of ICU stay. We surveyed and analyzed mortality, pleural effusion, ventilator-associated pneumonia, weaning failure, cardiac arrhythmias, GI bleeding, electrolyte imbalances, renal dysfunction and length of ICU stay. All analyses were performed using SPSS software version 22.0. 129 COPD-exacerbated patients (EEN group n=66; DEN group n=63) who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. EEN group had a lower death rate (39% vs 44.4%) than the DEN group, but no significant difference was found in the overall mortality during the 60-day follow-up (P0.561). The EEN group also had lower ICU stay and pleural effusion rate than the DEN group (P:0.006 and 0.020 respectively). No significant differences were found in other outcomes.Early enteral nutrition might be associated with shorter ICU stay and lower odd ratio of acquisition of pleural effusion in COPD patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. EEN could not decrease mortality rate compared with DEN in the current study.

    Keywords: Nutrition, Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseenteral feeding, Critical illness, Patient outcome
  • Zahra Khazaeipour, Niloufar Khoshnam-Rad, Khalil Pestei *, Shahram Samadi Pages 555-559

    Propofol is an advantageous agent for anesthesia induction. It can cause dose-related hemodynamic adverse effects. The bispectral index (BIS) is a brain function monitor utilized to assess the depth of anesthesia. This study aimed to compare the adverse hemodynamic effects of BIS-guided response dosing with conventional weight-based dosing of Propofol.In this clinical trial, patients were anesthetized with propofol in two different orthopedic operating rooms. In one operating room, patients received propofol with dose-response method (group A), and the other received weight-based dosing (group B). For both groups, BIS was used as an index of anesthesia depth. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded at baseline, during induction, and at different time points.A total of 73 patients were included in the final analysis. The meandose of propofol for induction was higher in the control group than in the response-guided group (1.94±1.65 vs. 1.09±0.32, respectively, P=0.006). There wereno reported significant adverse hemodynamic effects in patients of the two groups.Response-guided propofol dosing can be used to decrease propofol dose during anesthesia induction. Further studies are needed to investigate the clinical benefit of this dosing strategy.

    Keywords: Bispectral index, Propofol, Hemodynamic adverse effects
  • Masoomeh Nataj Majd, Asma Tahery, Raziyeh Erfani * Pages 560-566

    The present study evaluates the association between epidural analgesia and the duration of the active phase of labor and pregnancy outcomes in mothers with high body mass index (BMI).All term pregnant women undergoing epidural analgesia for pain-free labor entered the study from September 2016 to March 2020. After recruiting 300 subjects into the study, mothers were categorized into six groups based on their BMI levels. Each BMI sub-group was analyzed regarding the duration of the active phase of labor and delivery mode. In addition, the relationship between BMI and labor outcome and characteristics was studied. Overall, 300 laboring women with epidural analgesia were included. 79.3% had a vaginal delivery, and 20.7% undergo cesarean section. Different BMI sub-groups showed no significant difference regarding the duration of the active phase of labor under epidural analgesia. Cox regression analysis revealed that BMI had no significant effect on the length of the active phase of labor (P=0.787). No significant association was found between BMI and the cesarean delivery rate, uterine atony, maternal pyrexia, neonatal Apgar score, and NICU hospitalization rate. However, BMI was significantly associated with the incidence of dystocia and headache. labor with dystocia exhibited a significantly higher Mother’s BMI (P<0.05). The results suggest no significant association between epidural analgesia and the active phase of labor duration in mothers with high BMI.

    Keywords: Epidural analgesia, Labor, Body mass index (BMI)
  • Shervin Shahinpour, Mohsen Amirsabotki, Nader Ali Nazemian Yazdi * Pages 567-571

    Osteoarthritis is one of the major causes of disability and a source of social cost in the elderly. Its prevalence is increasing due to ageing and increasing obese population. The knee is one of the most common joints to be affected by osteoarthritis and it can lead to serious effects on one’s mobility, quality of life and livelihood. One ofnon-surgical treatments is intra-articular injection. Injection of both ozone and hyaluronic acid into knee joint are common methods for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate reduction of pain and improvement of function in patients who received combination of intra-articular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid and ozone.In this retrospective case series study data of patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent intra-articular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid with ozone were evaluated. Participants had fulfilled Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) short form questionnaire before, three days, one month and six months after the intra-articular injection. Painreduction and function improvement factors were assessed according to the WOMAC short form questionnaire. A total of 65 patients were evaluated in this study. There was significant decrease in the total score of WOMAC SF (stiffness and function) in all three follow-ups (P<0.001). Also, patients who had more severe pain before the injection benefited more from the intra-articular injection.Our study showed that the effectiveness of intra-articular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid with ozone does not depend on the age, sex and BMI of patients.Injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid and ozone into the joint causetosignificant improvement in patient’s knee pain and function. It is recommended that the combination of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid and ozone be considered as an effective treatment in the process of these patients.

    Keywords: Pain, High molecular weight hyaluronic acid, Osteoarthritis, Intra-articular injection, Ozone
  • Nader Ali Nazemian Yazdi *, Abolghasem Yoosefi Pages 572-577

    Hemodynamic changes is of great concern during awake intubation, particularly in patients with underlying medical conditions. As heterogeneities exist in regard to the best anesthesia drugs and techniques, herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of Lidocaine 10% spray compared to trans tracheal glossopharyngeal nerve block in hemodynamic stability in patients undergoing awake intubation. A total of 62 patients were included in this randomized clinical trial. Using a longitudinal interventional design, hemodynamic measures were statistically compared before intubation, one minute after intubation, and five minutes after intubation. The first group underwent topical anesthesia with Lidocaine 10% sprayed on the base of tongue and tonsillar pillar while the second groupunderwent trans tracheal and glossopharyngeal nerve block with simultaneous injection of Lidocaine 2%. Our results indicated that all hemodynamic parameters except for the pulse rate in both groups were significantly reduced after the intubation, which indicates the effectiveness of the interventions. However, the reduction in SBP, DBP, and MAP was significantly lower in the nerve block group compared to the Lidocaine spray group. Regarding the pulse rate, despite the significant decrease in the group of patients undergoing nerve block, those undergoing anesthesia with Lidocaine spray experienced a significant increase in the heart rate in the first minute after the operation. Finally, our research provides substantiation that employing a glossopharyngeal nerve block and trans tracheal block constitutes an efficacious method for local anesthetic during conscious intubation and can be a promising technique.

    Keywords: Hemodynamic changes, Lidocaine spray, Tracheal intubation
  • Saman Sheikhhosseini, Nader Ali Nazemian Yazdi * Pages 578-581

    Trigeminal neuralgia hasan incidence of 4-13 per100000 people per year. The incidence of this disease increases in the elderly, and itis known to causesevere shock-like pain. Pharmacological therapy is the first-line treatmentof trigeminal neuralgia. If pharmacological therapy fails, thendifferent procedures are available. Pulse-dose radiofrequency is one suchprocedure.In this study, we evaluatedPulse dose radiofrequency's efficacy as a method in which pulse amplitude and width are considered essential variables.This research was conductedas a cross-sectionalstudy on trigeminal neuralgia patients referred to the pain clinic of Amir A’lam Hospital in 2020.Conservative therapy has failed; therefore, the clinician decided to use pulse dose radiofrequency to reduce their pain.Amongthe29 patients registered duringthis period, 15 (51.8%) were women and 14 (48.3%) were men. The mean (±SD) age of the patient was 57.07(±14.26) years. The tow route was interrupted in7 (24.1%) patients. A significant difference was observedbetween the pain scoresbefore and after the operation (P<0.001). Pulse-dose radiofrequency is a safe and effective therapy for treating trigeminal neuralgia andcan be considered a new way to develop the pulse radiofrequencymethod.

    Keywords: Trigeminal neuralgia, Pulse doseradiofrequency
  • Shahram Samadi, _ Ebrahim Espahbodi, _ Zahid Hussain Khan, Melika Arab Bafrani * Pages 582-583