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Interdisciplinary Journal of Virtual Learning in Medical Sciences - Volume:15 Issue: 1, Mar 2024

Interdisciplinary Journal of Virtual Learning in Medical Sciences
Volume:15 Issue: 1, Mar 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/12/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zahra Zolfaghari, Zahra Karimian, Abdollah Mehrfar * Pages 1-17
    Background

    Online education allows students and instructors to participate regardless of distance or time zone. Online learning systems can be utilized to determine learners’ requirements. Learning approach principles and the student’s learning scheme should be considered for successful instruction. In this study, we aimed to review the literature on major learning approaches for online medical education. 

    Methods

    Given the fundamental role of learning theory principles in the online learning environment, specifically in medical education, and to improve online instruction, we reviewed and categorized four crucial learning theories and their implications for online medical education. We utilized the ERIC, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ProQuest databases to review the literature from 2000 to 2023 on various aspects of learning theories and their implications in online medical education. 

    Results

    This review study revealed various implications of online medical education based on the major learning schools which can be utilized in online learning situations based on the instructional design goals and objectives. This study retrieved 59 published articles that considered behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism as the major learning theories and revealed that all these learning theories are applicable in online learning environments in various aspects, specifically in the medical field. 

    Conclusion

    The fundamental ideas and structures of various schools of thought share similarities, providing an opportunity to incorporate principles from different approaches into online medical education materials. Learning theories can be utilized for selecting appropriate practice for various learning goals.

    Keywords: Distance, education, online learning, learning theories, Practice
  • Sahar Safyari, Eisa Rezaei * Pages 18-32
    Background

    The paradigm shifts from traditional face-to-face instruction towards technology-enhanced learning modalities, such as e-learning and blended learning, necessitated a concurrent evolution in both pedagogical methodologies and the requisite competencies of learners and instructors. Given the burgeoning adoption of blended learning within the contemporary higher education landscape, it is imperative to rigorously identify and update the competencies of faculty members to ensure educational efficacy and alignment with current needs. This review study aimed to identify techno-pedagogical competencies among faculty members as critical factors in the effective implementation of blended learning.

    Methods

    A qualitative content analysis was conducted for this review. Using predefined keywords, 504 articles (reviews and original research) from various databases (such as ProQuest, Scopus, and so on) were retrieved within the time frame of 2010-2022. After applying inclusion criteria, 14 articles were analyzed using MAXQDA 2020 software until achieving thematic saturation, resulting in 185 initial codes and 26 components.

    Results

    The study identified five main categories and 26 components through merging previously identified condensed meaning units. These categories encompassed EdTech competency (9 codes), professional competency (4 codes), management and consulting competency (2 codes), digital teaching competency (7 codes), and communication and cooperation competencies (4 codes). 

    Conclusion

    The resulting conceptual framework can serve as a guideline for faculty development programs, empowering them to support them in integrating blended learning practices.

    Keywords: Technological pedagogical content knowledge, Teaching, Competency, Faculty Members, Distance, education, Blended Learning
  • Azita Barzekar, Nasim Salehi, Zahra Karimian *, Manoosh Mehrabi Pages 33-47
    Background
    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have had an increasing trend globally during the last two decades. They are emerging as flexible and complementary tools in open education. Nevertheless, their development demands substantial resources, and challenges persist in effectively involving faculty. This study aimed to explore the factors influencing MOOCs development based on e-learning experts’ perspectives within the Iranian universities of medical sciences.
    Methods
    This qualitative research was conducted in 2022 using the content analysis method. Purposeful sampling was used to select experts authorized in e-learning within Iranian medical sciences universities with at least two years of experience. Sampling continued until data saturation (n: 15). Data was collected using a semi-structured interview administered through online written approaches. Thematic analysis techniques were applied, involving the identification of codes. The data was analyzed at the level of open coding (items), axial coding (components), and selective coding (concepts) in a round-trip process.
    Results
    Thematic analysis resulted in 28 codes, 12 themes, and 4 categories. Influential factors on MOOCs development and engagement included: 1) structural factors (rules/regulations, clarity, structure); 2) human resources (empowerment, support, attitude, motivation); 3) cultural factors (symbols, unity); and 4) political factors (equity, participation, and negotiation, profit).
    Conclusion
    The development of successful MOOCs programs encompasses various factors, including cultural, human resource, political, and structural elements to empower and actively engage faculty members in MOOCs. Restructuring may be required regarding the multivariable changes to consider open, online education as a part of innovative educational pathways in universities.
    Keywords: E-Learning, E-Content, education, Distance, Massive Open Online Courses, Medical
  • Akram Malekzadeh *, Parisa Zare, Khatoon Pourmaveddat Pages 48-61
    Background
    Distance education is an opportunity to overcome the limitations of face-to-face education and has provided the idea of education for everyone and everywhere. The current study aimed to examine the correlation between distance education and learning styles, incorporating the mediating influence of emotional experiences among high school students.
    Methods
    The research methodology was correlation type. The statistical population comprised all the first-year high school students in Shiraz City during the academic year spanning November 2023 to 2022, with a sample size of 300 individuals selected through convenience sampling. The research tools included Kolb’s Learning Styles Questionnaire, Sekou and Samson’s Distance Space Questionnaire, and Pekrun et al.’s Emotional Experiences Questionnaire. The data analysis involved utilizing Pearson’s correlation coefficient, path analysis, and structural equation modeling through SPSS V26 and Amos V24 software.
    Results
    The results of the present study showed a significant and positive correlation between learning styles and positive emotions. The coefficients indicated a significant correlation between positive emotions with concrete experience (r=0.21, P=0.01), reflective observation (r=-0.25, P=0.01), conceptualization (r=0.18, P=0.02), and concrete experience (r=0.32), (P=0.01). Negative emotions showed a weak correlation with objective experience (r=-0.19, P=0.02) and observation of reflection (r=-0.21, P=0.01), while no significant relationship was found between negative emotions and the abstract conceptualization learning style (r=0.07, P=0.09). There was also a significant correlation between learning styles and distance education. There was a negative correlation between distance education and objective experience (r=-0.18, P=0.02), while there were positive correlations with reflective observation (r=0.35, P=0.01), abstract conceptualization (r=0.42, P=0.01), and another positive correlation with reflective observation (r=0.29, P=0.03).
    Conclusion
    The results showed that positive emotions can help improve distance education even when the student’s learning style is objective experience or active experimentation.
    Keywords: Distance, education, Learning Styles, Emotional Experiences, E-Learning, Students
  • Habibollah Barani, MohammadReza Mohammadi Soleimani, Azita Amirfakhraei *, Seyyed AbdulWahab Samavi Pages 62-75
    Background

    Online education has become more popular in recent years. Nevertheless, students may face challenges in online courses that can influence their academic self-efficacy (ASF). However, a comprehensive and localized tool for measuring ASF in online courses in Iran is needed. This study aimed to validate transcultural adaptation and psychometrically evaluate the Online Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (OLSES) among high school seniors in Bandar Abbas City.

    Methods

    This transcultural adaptation study validated the OLSES in Tehran in 2022. The sample consisted of 1080 High School Seniors living in Bandar Abbas who participated in the cluster sampling procedure. The researchers used the OLSES and the ASF Questionnaire (ASEQ), which were sent to the participants via Google Forms. The OLSES questionnaire was translated using the back-translation method, and ten experts evaluated its face and content validity. The concurrent validity of the OLSES questionnaire was examined by correlating it with ASEQ. The OLSES questionnaire’s construct validity was tested by exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using SPSS 21 and LISREL 8.80 software. The reliability of the OLSES questionnaire was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha, test-retest, and split-half methods. The confidence interval for testing the hypotheses was 0.05.

    Results

    The results showed that the OLSES questionnaire had acceptable face and content validity, concurrent validity, construct validity, and reliability. The mean Content Validity Ratio (CVR) and Content Validity Index (CVI) values for the items were 0.88 and 0.83, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the OLSES and ASEQ scores was 0.56. The OLSES questionnaire had a valid three-factor structure, measuring online learning self-efficacy (OLSE) in online learning environments, technology self-efficacy, and time management. These factors explained 63.606% of the total variance, with variances of 25.87%, 18.78%, and 13.23%, respectively. The CFA indicated that the three-factor model was better for the data than the one-factor model, with acceptable fit indices: SRMR=0.021 and CMIN/DF=2.39. The number of items in the OLSES questionnaire remained unchanged at 22 throughout the validity and reliability assessments. The overall scale had a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.95 and a test-retest reliability of 0.79.

    Conclusion

    The OLSES questionnaire was a valid and reliable measure of OLSES among high school seniors. It can be used to assess students’ confidence in online learning.

    Keywords: Cultural Characteristics, Psychometrics, Online Systems, Self-efficacy, Students
  • Oday Khalid Lazim AL-Tameemi, MohammadAli Nadi *, Raed Rasim Younus Aljbara, Zahra Yazdani Pages 76-94
    Background

    Virtual education has provided higher-quality teaching and learning. The current study examines secondary school education experts’ lived experiences and the impact of virtual education networks on students’ scientific, personality, cultural, and religious concepts.

    Methods

    This is a qualitative study using a phenomenological method. All educational experts in the selected countries were interviewed in 2022, and 24 were selected using purposeful and snowball sampling. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the Colaizzi method. Finally, the validity and reliability of the tool were assessed.

    Results

    A total of 21 components were created from 131 open codes. The scientific concepts included more prosperous and sustainable learning, the boredom of students, development of learners’ technological skills, acquiring informal skills, fast feedback, and reducing the quality of education (6 components and 41 open codes); the personality concepts included increasing individual-educational efficiency, increasing psychological-social problems, addiction to cyberspace, changes in the student’s social perspective (4 components and 33 open codes); the cultural concepts included changes in the thought pattern, social interactions and lifestyle, fashionism, moral deviation, and development of interpersonal communication (6 components and 33 open codes); and the belief concepts included ambivalence, access to inappropriate content, better understanding of religious facts, tendency to deviant thoughts, and acceptance of opposing patterns (5 components and 24 open codes).

    Conclusion

    The research findings show that despite some unfavorable outcomes, the positive ones stand out and highlight the significance of parental and school supervision, as it can help students follow this path with the most excellent effectiveness and the slightest vulnerability.

    Keywords: Virtual Education, Secondary Level, Education Experts, lived experiences, Phenomenology
  • Najnin Akhter *, Khondker Manzare Shamim Pages 95-106
    Background
    In the field of Anatomy, it often becomes necessary to remember any part of information by memorization, and later retrieve it. However, finding appropriate anatomical mnemonics and organizing them in a practical and universally acceptable system can be challenging for learners, teachers, and researchers. This research aimed to develop a subcategorization format for four selected categories of anatomical mnemonics according to different identified characteristics and to determine the frequencies of each category and subcategory.
    Methods
    This content analysis research was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Bangabandhu Sheikh-Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from 2017 to 2018. Anatomical mnemonics were collected from various sources including books, websites, and social media. A qualitative and quantitative content analysis was used for data analysis. Each 272 extracted anatomical mnemonics was categorized according to any of the four selected mnemonic techniques (Acronym, Acrostic, Rhyme, and Storytelling). A subcategorization format was then devised based on seven characteristics considered to be identifiable in these mnemonics (Meaningfulness, Meaningful relationship, Humor, Eroticism, Absurdity, Anatomical aspect dealt with, and Language). Each mnemonic was then subcategorized, and the frequency of each of those techniques and characteristics was finally calculated.
    Results
    More than 70% of the 272 mnemonics used the Acrostic technique. Among the 59 identifiable options under the seven subcategories, 36 options were identified in the mnemonics, and the frequencies were finally reported. An eight-symbol formula was also devised to express the techniques used and the characteristics identifiable in individual mnemonics.
    Conclusion
    The findings can be used to develop a database of anatomical mnemonics, which could be useful in identifying and selecting appropriate mnemonics for teaching, learning, and research as well as attaching specific tags when adding new mnemonics to the database.
    Keywords: Anatomical Mnemonics, techniques, Methods, Characteristics, Subcategorization
  • Dareush Rezaei *, Fatemeh Mohseni Pages 107-115
    Today, with increasing access to the internet and portable computing tools, the possibility of utilizing these tools in education has significantly expanded. Consequently, various tools have been introduced for creating and developing content and designing mobile-based educational courses. One of the essential and widely used tools for content creation and mobile-based course development is the MIT App Inventor tool, developed by a group of researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It requires guidance on using this technology tool for content production in designing and implementing practical educational courses in health-related domains. This article aims to introduce the App Inventor software and its utilization in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). The tool is particularly beneficial for individuals outside the tech industry who seek to incorporate educational applications into teaching and learning processes.
    Keywords: MIT App Inventor, Technological pedagogical content knowledge, TPACK, Mobile Learning, Educational Applications, Visual Programming