فهرست مطالب

Iranian Journal of Practice in Clinical Psychology
Volume:12 Issue: 2, Spring 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/01/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Cognitive Behavioral Techniques on Attachment Styles, Mental health and Optimism among Medical Students of Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch
    Hajar Seifi* Page 2
    Objective

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of teaching cognitive behavioral techniques on changing attachment styles and increasing mental health and increasing optimism among medical students of Islamic Azad University, Mashhad branch.

    Methods

    This quasi-experimental research adopted a pre-test and post-test with the control group. The statistical population included all all medical students of Azad University in the 2019-2020 in Mashhad, Iran. Thirty medical students were selected by purposful sampling method and then, using a random number table, they were placed in two experimental groups and a control group (n=15 in each group). Medical students in the CBT group received eleventh 70-min sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy during five weeks (two sessions a week).  The control group was considered on the waiting list. The Attachment Style Questionnaire(ASQ), The 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and The Life Orientation Test - Revised (LOT-R) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using The independent t-test and MANOVA in SPSS-25. The significance level (P-value) was considered to be less than 0.05.

    Results

    It was indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in the mean scores of attachment styles, mental health, and optimism between the two groups immediately after the intervention (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Based upon the results, it was concluded that enhanced secure attachment style, the level of mental health and optimism increased significantly th in the CBT group after the intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to take particular measures to regularly hold the sessions of CBT for medical students with insecure attachment.

    Keywords: Teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques, Attachment styles, Mental health, Optimism
  • Akram Bandehpour, Anahita Khodabakhshi-Koolaee*, Davood Taghvaei, Ahghar Ghoudsi Pages 95-108
    Objective

    Population aging creates various individual and public challenges, including physical and mental health, economic challenges, and care needs. Governments’ response to population aging is active aging. Promoting successful, active aging is an international priority for addressing the challenges of increasing life expectancy. Active aging allows individuals to overcome the challenges of an increasingly aging population. Accordingly, the present study explores the perspective, challenges, and strategies of active aging in female elderly adults who retired from the education department.

    Methods

    The present study was conducted via a qualitative grounded theory using the data collected from semi-structured interviews with 21 retired women from the Ministry of Education aged over 65 years in Tehran City, Iran, in 2023. The collected data were analyzed using the Charmaz (2012) method. 

    Results

    Data analysis revealed 49 open codes, 16 axial codes, and 4 selective codes. The four selective codes were old age challenges, achieving active aging, psycho-social retirement concern, and social neglect of older adults. The axial codes were public rejection, unavailability of facilities, interpersonal strategies, learning new skills, self-care, individual strategies, dilemmas and problems, old age concerns, unavailability of suitable urban space, and public view about old age. 

    Conclusion

    Active aging involves challenges and problems over which older adults have no control, such as the unavailability of suitable urban space for transportation, the unavailability of facilities, and restricting older adults’ activities. These problems lead to the belief in disability, inefficiency, and isolation, resulting in a vicious cycle.

    Keywords: Active aging, Challenges, Retired, Women, Qualitative research
  • Nastaran Mohajeri Aval*, Mohammad Narimani, Goodarz Sadeghi, Nader Hajloo Pages 109-121
    Objective

    This study compares the effectiveness of mindfulness meta-cognitive therapy and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on experiential avoidance, negative strategies of cognitive emotion regulation, and emotional processing in people with general anxiety disorder (GAD).

    Methods

    This was a semi-experimental research with experimental and control groups. A total of 45 patients with GAD were selected using the purposeful sampling method. One group received 8 sessions of mindfulness meta-cognitive therapy (one session per week), and another group received 15 sessions of tDCS (three sessions per week; each session was 20 min in F3/F4 with an intensity of 2 mA). All subjects in two treatment groups and one waitlist control group were evaluated before and after the treatment using an acceptance and action questionnaire, cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, and emotional processing scale. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance and the Tukey test. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software, version 19. 

    Results

    The results showed that tDCS and mindfulness meta-cognitive therapy are effective in experiential avoidance (F=98.53, η2=0.744), negative strategies for cognitive emotion regulation (F=102.26, η2=0.824), and emotional processing (F=121.26, η2=0.931) in people with GAD. There is no significant difference in the experiential avoidance variable (md=0.735, P=0.575) and emotional processing (md=0.731, P=0.134) between mindfulness meta-cognitive therapy and tDCS therapy; however, in the rumination subscale, only mindfulness meta-cognitive therapy treatment method has been effective in the variable of negative strategies of cognitive emotion regulation (md=4.63, P=0.008).

    Conclusion

    tDCS and mindfulness meta-cognitive therapy were both effective in improving GAD symptoms, but mindfulness meta-cognitive therapy had more effects on clients’ rumination. As a result, to control the negative strategies for cognitive emotion regulation, mindfulness meta-cognitive therapy has a better effect.

    Keywords: Meta-cognitive therapy, Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), Mindfulness, Experiential avoidance, Cognitive emotion regulation, Emotional processing, General anxiety disorder (GAD)
  • Naser Jangi Sangani, Majid Reza Razavi* Pages 123-136
    Objective

    The widespread presence of students in Telegram virtual social networks (VSNs) has provided a unique opportunity to track the effects of using this medium on their academic failure and mental health. Accordingly, this study explores whether the use of social media has a relationship with educational decline and student mental health. 

    Methods

    This correlation study was conducted in high schools in Khaf City, Iran, in the 2018-2019 academic year and included 1250 students (550 girls and 700 boys) who were selected via simple stratified random sampling. The data collection tools comprised a researcher-made questionnaire on the use of Telegram VSNs and the Keyes (2005) model of mental health. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software, version 22, and related tests. 

    Results

    We found a significant relationship between the use of the Telegram network and educational decline. There is also a significant relationship between the use of the Telegram network and mental health. As the use of Telegram VSNs increases, there is an increase in fatigue in class and a reduction in study hours. Hence, this affects students’ educational decline directly and mental health adversely. 

    Conclusion

    We recommend that information about the positive and negative effects of Telegram VSNs should be provided to users, and measures should be taken in schools to introduce and create a culture and useful and scientific use of Telegram VSNs.

    Keywords: Social networks, Telegram, Educational decline, Students, Mental health
  • Atiyeh Aghakeshmiri, AliAkbar Soleimanian*, Zeinab Golpich Pages 137-151
    Objective

    This study develops an integrative parenting program for adoptive families. 

    Methods

    Qualitative and quantitative elements were combined using a mixed-method design. The parenting program for adoptive families was developed through a common elements approach. It took three main steps: Identifying interventions with high efficacy, assessing supporting materials, and surveying experts to reach an agreement. Next, a single-subject, multiple baseline design was used to determine the effectiveness of the developed program on parenting self-efficacy and stress. The research instruments included parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF) and parental self-agency measure. The participants were two adoptive mothers and one adoptive father chosen through convenience sampling. The parents participated in nine sessions and completed the questionnaires three times before the sessions, five times during the sessions, and three times after the sessions. Visual analysis was performed at two levels, including within-condition and between-condition levels. 

    Results

    In the qualitative phase, 44 concepts and nine categories were obtained by examining 15 parenting programs. The leading nine categories were as follows: Rebuilding attachments, enhancing the spouse subsystem, rebuilding the family structure, improving parenting self-efficacy, emotional-cognitive regulation, managing children’s behavior, laying the groundwork for integrated child development, promoting the child’s social health, and improving the child’s self-esteem. The results showed that this program was highly effective in reducing the parenting stress of the first and second participants and increasing the self-efficacy of all participants.

    Conclusion

    Families with adopted children experience unique parenting circumstances due to their different structures. This study identified the common elements of the interventions proposed in previous studies and integrated them into a comprehensive protocol to improve adoptive parents’ parenting. Based on this integrated view, all cognitive processes, behavioral, emotional, and systemic in parenting are considered. This program could help adoptive parents maintain or increase their parenting competency and stress management.

    Keywords: Parenting education, Adoption, Self-efficacy, Stress
  • Parvin Mostafazadeh, Nemat Sotoudehasl*, Raheb Ghorbani Pages 153-164
    Objective

    This study compares the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy and metacognitive therapy on psychological well-being in women with generalized anxiety disorder. 

    Methods

    The current study has an applied purpose and utilizes a semi-experimental research method. It follows a pre-test-post-test design with a control group and includes a two-month follow-up phase. The target population for this research consists of women with generalized anxiety disorder, who were selected using the purposeful sampling method. The study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, during the summer and autumn of 2022. Following the research design, the participants were randomly divided into a control group (n=17) and an experimental group (n=17). A 10-session therapy protocol based on acceptance and commitment was implemented for the members of the first experimental group, and a 10-session protocol of metacognitive therapy was implemented for the second experimental group individually and in person. The Ryff scales of psychological well-being were conducted in three phases: before, after intervention, and follow-up. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance with repeated measurements with the SPSS software, version 25, at the significance level of 0.05.

    Results

    The research identified a significant difference in the initial assessment results compared to the assessments conducted after the therapy in both groups (P<0.01). In other words, the findings indicated that acceptance and commitment therapy was more successful and consistent than metacognitive therapy. The disparity between the scores obtained after treatment and during the follow-up period was notable, indicating that acceptance and commitment therapy had a more powerful impact on treatment (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The results suggested that women with general anxiety disorders benefited from therapy courses in terms of psychological well-being. Thus, unlike the meta-cognitive therapy, the results suggest that acceptance and commitment therapy-based exercises would be of additional value for improving psychological well-being. As this is the first study on the topic, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these two therapies for general anxiety in individuals.

    Keywords: Acceptance, commitment therapy, Metacognitive therapy, Psychological well-being, Women, Generalized anxiety disorder
  • Sepideh Tamrchi, Mahtab Rabiee, Behrouz Dolatshahi* Pages 165-177
    Objective

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and debilitating mental disorder that can manifest in various themes. Recently, studies have identified relationship OCD (ROCD) as a subtype of OCD in which obsessions and compulsions revolve around romantic relationships comprising the relationship (relationship-centered) or the romantic partner (partner-focused). This study investigates the mediating role of alexithymia in the relationship between parenting styles and different presentations of ROCD, including relationship-centered and partner-focused. 

    Methods

    A total of 453 participants completed partner-related obsessive-compulsive Symptoms inventory, relationship obsessive-compulsive inventory, parental authority questionnaire, and Toronto alexithymia scale-20. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software, version 26, and the Amos software, version 24.

    Results

    The results demonstrated that the authoritarian parenting style has a significant positive relationship with relationship-centered and partner-focused obsession compulsion (OC) symptoms at a significance level of 0.01. Furthermore, the relationship between all three types of parenting styles, including authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive, with relationship-centered and partner-focused obsessions and compulsions symptoms, was mediated by alexithymia at the 0.05 significance level. Also, the fit indices suggested that the model has an acceptable overall fitness. 

    Conclusion

    Parenting styles are related to ROCD symptoms through the mediating role of alexithymia, and this model can facilitate the etiology of ROCD symptoms and is used to design interventions and early identification of high-risk individuals.

    Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Interpersonal relations, Alexithymia, Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Parenting style
  • Maryam Ghazaei*, Fariba Abbas Zadeh Pages 179-188
    Objective

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is an essential psychological and psychiatric construct affecting distinct aspects of a person’s life. This study investigates whether SCT affects the quality of life (QoL) and whether this effect will persist after controlling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, depression, and anxiety.

    Methods

    This descriptive correlational study was conducted on college students in Mashhad City, Iran. The participants were 279 students selected by the convenience sampling method from September 2020 to February 2021. The data collection tools included the Barkley adult ADHD rating scale-IV (Barkley, 2011), the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), and the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) (Ware & Sherbourne, 1992). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the hypotheses. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 24. The significance level of the research was considered α=0.05.

    Results

    Correlation results showed that SCT, ADHD symptoms, anxiety, and depression are negatively correlated with the physical and mental dimensions of QoL. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that SCT was negatively associated with the total QoL (F change=4.1, P<0.05) and mental dimensions of QoL (F change=3.8, P<0.05) after controlling anxiety, depression, and ADHD symptoms.

    Conclusion

    SCT is associated with low QoL among Iranian college students, and this relationship remains present after controlling ADHD, anxiety, and depression. In addition, the results of this research emphasize the importance of considering QoL in prospective research and SCT intervention.

    Keywords: Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, Anxiety, Sluggish cognitive tempo, Depression, Quality of life (QoL)