فهرست مطالب

Human Environment and Health Promotion - Volume:10 Issue: 2, Spring 2024

Journal of Human Environment and Health Promotion
Volume:10 Issue: 2, Spring 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/02/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mohammad Hossein Maleki*, Milad Daneshniya, Farzaneh Abdolmaleki Pages 63-73
    Background

     Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is employed in various forms, ranging from nano to macro, in food products and packaging to prolong shelf life. However, recent research has shown potential health risks associated with its use. This review investigates the health implications of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in food packaging or additives, while also examining TiO2's antimicrobial properties and related mechanisms.

    Methods

    The research extensively explored TiO2 NPs' generation methods and antimicrobial potential, especially in the context of food packaging and cosmetics. A systematic search was conducted using Google Scholar, Pub Med, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant sources. A total of 97 sources were selected from 150, without date restrictions. These references, spanning 1972 to 2023, encompass diverse full-text English materials, including reviews, original research, conferences, handbooks, and book chapters.

    Results

    Nanotechnology, specifically TiO2 NPs, enhances food packaging for safety and sustainability. Innovations such as reinforced, active, and biodegradable packaging have emerged to address industry challenges, improving mechanical performance and extending shelf life. However, despite the benefits, concerns about the health and environmental implications of TiO2 NPs have prompted regulatory reassessment.

    Conclusion

    Addressing concerns about TiO2 NPs in food packaging is crucial due to potential health and environmental risks. The recent ban imposed by the European Union on TiO2 (E171) underscores the need for ongoing research and scrutiny to ensure the safe integration of nanotechnology in food packaging.

    Keywords: Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, Food Safety, Food Packaging, Shelf life extension, Health Risks
  • Hossein Chehre, Hadi Moradi, Parastoo Moghimi, Negar Yazdi, Sara Sattari, Hamed Rezaeejam* Pages 74-78
    Background

    The coronavirus resulted in a global pandemic and infected millions of people worldwide in 2019. The number of chest CT scans significantly increased due to the virus's effect on the upper respiratory tract. This retrospective cross-sectional analytic study aimed to investigate the COVID-19 effect on the number of chest CT scans and to estimate the probability of radiation-induced cancers as a result of the incremental number of scans in hospitals in Zanjan, Iran.

    Methods

    This study included all chest CT scans performed during a three-month period before the pandemic (2019) and the pandemic (2020). In 2020, the scans were meticulously examined for COVID-19 signs, and relevant epidemiological and dosimetric factors were recorded to calculate the risk of radiation-induced cancer using the IRCP103.

    Results

    The results reveal a four-fold increase in the number of scans in 2020, with 9095 scans compared to 2235 in 2019. Patients referred for a chest CT scan during the COVID-19 outbreak were significantly younger. Although the Dose-length Product (DLP) decreased in 2020, the anticipated number of new cases of radiation-induced cancers exhibited an approximately four-fold increase for different organs in the thorax region. Also, 55.6% of CT scans were considered normal in 2020.

    Conclusion

    The current study shows that the high probability of radiation-induced cancers should be considered the long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Keywords: Chest CT scans, Absorbed dose, Neoplasm, Coronavirus, Pandemic
  • Azam Heidari, Samad Ghodrati, Ahmadreza Mobaien, Asghar Fazaeli* Pages 79-82
    Background

    Lophomonas blattarum is a newly reported opportunistic protozoan parasite that may cause pulmonary infections. Co-morbidity of this parasite and pulmonary viral infections, such as COVID-19 may exacerbate their pathological effects. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of L. blattarum infection in patients with COVID-19 infection.

    Methods

    In this study, mini bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) samples were taken from 93 patients with acute pneumonia due to COVID-19 infection in 2021. The samples were subjected to microscopic examination for the presence of L. blattarum, following smear preparation and staining with two specific methods of Giemsa and Papanicolao.

    Results

    The patients included 49 males and 44 females with a mean age of 68.8 ± 14.8 years. Of the specimens studied after staining, only one specimen (1.08%) was positive for L. blattarum. It was found in a patient with diabetic underlying disease.

    Conclusion

    It was concluded that the infection of L. blattarum in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia was low. However, the presence of this parasite in this group of patients should not be neglected. This is the first report of pulmonary infection with this protozoan parasite in Zanjan Province.

    Keywords: Lophomonas blattarum, COVID-19, Pulmonary Infection, Co-infection, Severe pneumonia
  • Majid Aminzare, Mohammad Hashemi, Asma Afshari, Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori, Mohammadreza Rezaeigolestani* Pages 83-88
    Background

    The present study aimed to compare the impacts of incorporating four different dietary fibers, namely orange fiber (OF), wheat fiber (WF), bamboo fiber (BF), and carrot fiber (CF), on the physico-chemical properties of mortadella sausage.

    Methods

    The physical and chemical properties of the formulated mortadella sausages were assessed by measuring water activity (aw), pH, color, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) parameters.

    Results

    The presence of fibers had negative effects on the aw measurements of the products, while pH values were less influenced. The analysis of color revealed that the treated sausages exhibited higher levels of lightness and yellowness, and lower levels of redness compared to the control group. Among the various fibers, OF made more changes than other fibers on product attributes at the end of the storage period with the following scores (P≤ 0.05): pH (6.22), a* (4.84), b* (13.68), L* (67.76), whiteness Index (6.4.64), ΔE (6.24), and TBARs value (4.6 mg MDA/kg sample).

    Conclusions

    The lipid stability examinations revealed that while all of the fibers could hinder the progress of oxidation, OF was more efficient (P< 0.05). Based on the results, it can be concluded that OF has the suitable potential to be formulated in mortadella sausage.

    Keywords: Dietary fiber, Sausage, Shelf life, Functional food, Physico-chemical
  • Rahim Jafari, Saeedeh Zenoozian, Khadijeh Hajimiri* Pages 89-95
    Background

    Mental health literacy (MHL) is an important determinant of mental health and influences individuals’ decisions to seek mental health services. This study aimed to investigate the level of MHL in women referring to health centers in Khodabandeh, Zanjan, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2022, involving 599 women of reproductive age in Khodabande, Zanjan. The data were collected using the Persian version of the Mental Health Literacy Scale (MHLS) and analyzed using SPSS 23 software. A significance level of less than 0.05 was considered.

    Results

    The participants' mean age was 30.47 (±7.8). The MHL mean score was 81.53 (±12.47). There was a statistically significant difference in  MHL scores based on marital status, education level, income status, and employment status (P< 0.05), but no significant difference was found based on age (P> 0.05). The main sources of information about mental health were the Internet and social networks, radio and TV programs, and mental health professionals.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that the MHL level among the women participating in the study was at a medium level. Therefore, implementing educational intervention programs can effectively improve women’s MHL and ultimately improve their access to mental health services.

    Keywords: Mental health, Health literacy, Health promotion, Women, Iran
  • Saeed Azimizadeh, Farzam Babaei, Hassan Karimzadegan*, Hooman Bahmanpour, Mohamad Reza Tabesh Pages 96-103
    Background

    Environmental performance indexes are numerical values that provide insights into the condition of the environment and human health. This study focuses on the use of the Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) as a multidimensional tool for measuring environmental performance and health in mining companies. The application of SBSC is crucial in guiding mining companies towards sustainable development and human health objectives.

    Methods

    Based on the literature and research background, 75 initial indicators were examined. Subsequently, 28 indicators were selected as final indicators. The Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) method was used for weighting and ranking the perspectives of the SBSC. Additionally, a pairwise comparison questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts.

    Results

    The research findings demonstrated that among various perspectives of the SBSC, the "growth and learning" perspective had the highest average weight of 0.48, indicating its superiority over other perspectives. The "society" perspective ranked second, with an average weight of 0.24, while the "environment and health" perspective ranked third, with an average weight of 0.22. Finally, the "economy" perspective ranked fourth with an average weight of 0.16 compared with the other perspectives.

    Conclusion

    The primary objective of the present study was to identify, prioritise, and assess the aspects that influence sustainability, and after that provide a complete framework for evaluating sustainability performance in the mining industry. To achieve this, a sophisticated theoretical framework called SBSC was introduced. This framework provides a strong means of measuring and evaluating sustainable performance in mining and related sectors.

    Keywords: Sustainable development, Balanced Scorecard, Environmental Performance Index, Fuzzy Delphi technique, Fuzzy network analysis
  • Arezou Aghapour, Mohammad Masoud Vakili*, Khadijeh Hajimiri Pages 104-110
    Background

    The advent of industrialization and the invention of the automobile have increased traffic accidents, impacting the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity of the safe driving self-efficacy tool using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to confirm the factors extracted from the exploratory factor analysis stage and also to evaluate the reliability of this tool.

    Methods

    This study involved 600 individuals residing in Tabriz, aged 20-50 years. The questionnaire utilized in this study was a researcher-made tool and evaluated for structural validity, goodness-of-fit, and internal consistency. Construct validity was tested using the first and second-order CFA using AMOS23 software. The internal reliability of the questionnaire was determined based on Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α > 0.7).

    Results

    The study analyzed 589 questionnaires from 600 participants, with a mean age of 35.04 years (SD = 8.367). The majority of respondents had a driving experience and a history of traffic accidents, primarily within urban areas. The CFA also confirmed five factors with 42 questions, which showed positive results. The value of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for all factors was more than 0.7.

    Conclusion

    Out of the 60 items in the questionnaire, 42 items were confirmed with appropriate goodness-of-fit indicators. The amalgamation of these constructs within the model effectively measures the concept of safe driving self-efficacy, thereby establishing the tool's reliability. As a result, this survey can serve as a valuable benchmark for evaluating individuals' self-efficacy concerning safe driving practices.

    Keywords: Psychometrics, Tool, Questionnaire, Self-efficacy, Driving
  • Amir Hossein Baghaie*, Amir Ghaffar Jabbari, Maedeh Nazmabadi Pages 111-117
    Background

    This research investigated the effects of various iron fertilizers and the introduction of Piriformospora indica (P. indica) fungus on the biodegradation of diesel oil in soil experiencing water deficiency.  

    Methods

    The treatments included applying pure Fe at rates of 0, 60, and 90 kg/ha, derived from Fe sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe slag (containing 58.2 % Fe2O3), in a diesel oil-contaminated soil with concentrations of 0 % and 8 % (W/W). These treatments were implemented in a corn plant cultivation system, where the plants were inoculated with P.indica fungus under conditions of drought stress. After 90 days, the plant and soil Fe concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, the extent of diesel oil bio-degradation in the soil was assessed.

    Results

    Applying 90 kg/ha pure Fe from Fe sulfate and Fe slag significantly enhanced the bio-degradation of diesel oil in the soil by 13.2 and 16.1 %, respectively. However, the efficiency of this process was lower under drought-stress conditions. In addition, Plant inoculation with P.indica significantly enhanced the diesel oil bio-degradation of the soil contaminated with 8 % (W/W) diesel oil under drought stress by 15.7 %. Moreover, the soil microbial activity was significantly increased by 14.1 %.  

    Conclusion

    The combined use of P.indica, along with iron slag and iron sulfate, markedly enhances the biodegradation process of diesel oil within the soil.

    Keywords: Iron slag, Bio-degradation, Diesel oil, Corn, Piriformospora indica Fungus