فهرست مطالب

Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology
Volume:23 Issue: 2, Apr 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/01/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • Fakhry Shafiee, Afshin Sarafinejad, Nasrin Bazargan Harandi, Ali Hossininasab, Sareh Saadat Ebrahimi Pages 127-138

    The tragic COVID-19 pandemic affected many children worldwide. Among the factors that may influence the course of viral infections including COVID-19, it is still uncertain whether atopy has a protective or predisposing role. The study aims to address the knowledge gap by investigating the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 among atopic children in Kerman, in 2022. A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study on children with a history of atopy was performed in Kerman Medical University. Demographic information, type of atopy (including allergic rhinitis, Hyper-Reactive Airway Disease (HRAD) or asthma, eczema, urticaria, anaphylaxis, and food allergy), history of COVID-19 infection, and disease severity were recorded. A total of 1007 children and adolescents, (boys: 56.4%, girls: 43.6%, age:5.61±2.64 years) were included in the study. History of COVID-19 infection was positive in 53.5%, with 75.9% of the cases exhibiting mild disease severity. The frequency of atopies was HRAD or asthma (67.2%), allergic rhinitis (42.6%), and food allergy (27.4%). The frequency of COVID-19 cases was significantly higher among patients with HRAD or asthma, whereas it was significantly lower among those with food allergies, anaphylaxis, and eczema. Among atopic individuals, COVID-19 severity was significantly lower in those with allergic rhinitis, while the opposite trend was observed among food-allergic individuals. This study sheds light on the relationship between atopy and COVID-19 among pediatric patients. It seems specific types of atopies may influence the risk and severity of COVID-19 infection differently. A better understanding of these associations can inform clinical management and preventive measures for vulnerable pediatric populations.

    Keywords: Allergy, immunology, Clinical decision making, COVID-19
  • Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini, Reza Makhmali, Niloufar Amini, MohammadReza Maracy, Nikta Nouri, Tooba Momen Pages 139-148

    There are limited data on severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) associated with antiepileptic medications. The current study aims to investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of antiepileptic medication-induced SCARs in hospitalized children.

    Materials and Methods

    The current five-year retrospective study was conducted at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This study included all children with a definite diagnosis of SCARs secondary to the use of antiepileptic medications based on the world health organization (WHO) definition. In our study SCARs were categorized into three fields: Hypersensitivity syndrome, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).


    Among 259 children with SCARs induced by antiepileptic medications, 199 (76.83%), 42 (16.22%), and 18 (6.95%) had hypersensitivity syndrome, DRESS, and SJS/TEN, respectively. Phenobarbital was the most common offending drug in all types of SCARs. The multinomial logistic regression model revealed that lymphadenopathy increased the occurrence of DRESS by 35 times compared to hypersensitivity syndrome (P < 0.001). Girls were at risk of SJS/TEN approximately 6 times more than boys (P = 0.027). Age (P = 0.021), weight (P = 0.036), and mucosal involvement (P < 0.001) affected the hospitalization duration in children with SCARs related to antiepileptic medication.


    There are some similarities and differences in the clinical and epidemiological features of Iranian children suffering from antiepileptic medication-induced SCARs.

    Keywords: Adverse drug reactions, Allergy, immunology, Antiepileptic drug, Drug reaction with eosinophilia, systemic symptoms
  • Maryam Khoshkhui, Farahzad Jabbari, Fateme Shafiee Zargar, Nasrin Motavalli Haghi, Nazila Ariaee Pages 149-157

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergic disorders. Intra lymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT) is an efficacious and time-saving alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). This study aimed to evaluate the effects and safety of ILIT in patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis. In this clinical trial, patients between 18 and 65 years old with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis were enrolled. They received monthly intra-lymphatic inguinal injections of an active allergen (1000 SQ-U Salsola kali pollen). Their clinical symptoms were assessed before and four weeks after treatments. The clinical signs were also evaluated during two consecutive pollination seasons and the following non-pollination season in April. No moderate or severe reactions were recorded following ILIT treatment. Lymph node enlargement, angioedema/urticaria, and local itching were seen instantly after injection. Patients who received ILIT experienced a significant clinical improvement in self-recorded seasonal allergic symptoms after the treatments, compared to themselves before ILIT. Furthermore, their quality of life significantly improved. This study suggests ILIT with Salsola-pollen extract may decrease symptoms of allergic rhinitis. It was safe and did not cause any crucial complications.

    Keywords: Allergic rhinitis, Allergen immunotherapy, Intra-lymphatic injection
  • Mahshid Movahedi, Masoud Movahedi, Nima Parvaneh, Hassan Abolhassani, Mohadese Mahdavi, Mohadese Mosavikhorshidi, Fatemeh Alizadeh, Mehdi Shokri, Arash Kalantari Pages 158-167

    Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are among the high-risk groups regarding COVID-19. Receiving booster doses (third and fourth) in addition to the standard doses is recommended in these patients. This study investigated the antibody response before and after a booster dose of Sinopharm vaccine in IEI patients.  Thirty patients (>12 years) with antibody deficiencies, referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital and Children's Medical Center in Tehran, were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. All patients were fully vaccinated with the BBIBP-CorV vaccine (2 doses of Sinopharm). Initial measurements of anti-receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD) and anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) IgG antibody responses were conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, all patients received a booster dose of the vaccine. Four to six weeks after booster injection, the levels of antibodies were re-evaluated.  Twenty patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 7 cases with agammaglobulinemia and 3 patients with hyper IgM syndrome were studied. Anti-RBD IgG and anti-N IgG antibodies increased in all patients after the booster. Our results indicated the need of receiving booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine in patients with antibody deficiencies, even for enhancing humoral immune response specially in patients with CVID.

    Keywords: Antibody deficiency, Booster, COVID-19, Inborn errors of immunity, Primary immunodeficiency, Sinopharm vaccine, Vaccination
  • Katarzyna Napiórkowska-Baran, Grzegorz Grześk, Jan Błażejewski, Marcin Ziętkiewicz, Ewa Więsik-Szewczyk, Aleksandra Matyja-Bednarczyk, Marta Tykwińska, Elżbieta Grześk, Jakub Lubański, Oskar Schmidt, Bartłomiej Szymczak, Robert Zacniewski, Ewa Szynkiewicz, Michał Owsiany, Zbigniew Bartuzi Pages 168-181

    The life expectancy and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in patients with inborn errors of immunity are systematically increasing. The aim of the study was to assess cardiovascular risk factors and to evaluate the heart in echocardiography in patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). Cardiac echography and selected cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index, sedentary lifestyle, nicotine, glucose, C-reactive protein, lipid profile, uric acid level, certain chronic diseases, and glucocorticoid use, were analyzed in 94 patients >18 years of age with PAD. Of the patients,25.5% had a cardiovascular disease (mostly hypertension, 18%), 10.5% smoked, 17% were overweight, 14% were obese, and 15% were underweight. Abnormal blood pressure was found in 6.5% of the patients. Lipid metabolism disorders were found in 72.5% of in the studied cohort, increased total cholesterol (45.5%), non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (51%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (47%), and triglycerides (32%) were observed. Furthermore, 28.5% had a decrease in HDL and 9.5% had a history of hyperuricemia. The average number of risk factors was 5 ± 3 for the entire population and 4 ± 2 for those under 40 years of age. Elevated uric acid levels were found de novo in 4% of participants. In particular, 74.5% of the patients had never undergone an echocardiogram with a successful completion rate of 87% among those tested. Among them, 30% showed parameters within normal limits, primarily regurgitation (92.5%). New pathologies were identified in 28% of patients. Prevention in patients with PAD, aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk, should be a priority.

    Keywords: Echocardiography, Heart disease risk factors, Primary immune deficiency, Primary prevention, Primary antibody deficiency
  • Shirin Jalili, Hadi Shirzad, Seyed Amin Mousavi Nezhad Pages 182-196

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disease and has adverse implications. The exact mechanism of its pathogenesis is not fully understood and remains to be elucidated. In the current study we aimed to identify key genes that can serve as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for MS and shed light on pathogenesis mechanisms involved in MS. We analyzed a gene expression dataset (GES21942) and found 266 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 183 upregulated and 83 downregulated genes in MS patients compared to controls. Then we conducted pathway enrichment on DEGs and selected the top enriched pathway i.e., B cell receptor signaling pathway, and 5 genes of this pathway (CR2, BLK, BLNK, RASGRP3, and KRAS) for further investigation in our clinical samples. We recruited 50 MS patients and 50 controls and assessed the expression of selected genes in the circulation of patients versus controls. Expression of CR2, BLK, BLNK, and RASGRP3 were significantly higher in MS cases compared with controls. There was no significant difference in expression of KRAS between patients and controls. All of the selected genes with differential expression had noticeable diagnostic power and CR2 was the most robust gene in differentiating MS cases from controls. Additionally, a combination of genes resulted in enhanced diagnostic power. Collectively our results suggest that the B cell receptor signaling pathway and the selected genes from this pathway may be implicated in the pathogenesis of MS and each of these genes can be considered as potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

    Keywords: B cell, B cell receptor signaling pathway, Geneexpression, Multiple sclerosis
  • Mohsen Rokni, Elham Farhadi, Hoda Kavosi, Maryam Akhtari, Elham Madreseh, Samaneh Enayati, Mina Sadeghi Shaker, Shayan Mostafaei, Farhad Gharibdoost, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Mohammad Vodjgani Pages 197-220

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune systemic disease that is characterized by immune dysregulation, inflammation, vasculopathy, and fibrosis. Tissue fibrosis plays an important role in SSc and can affect several organs such as the dermis, lungs, and heart. Dysregulation of interferon (IFN) signaling contributes to the SSc pathogenesis and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) has been indicated as the main regulator of type I IFN. This study aimed to clarify the effect of IFN-gamma (-γ) and dexamethasone (DEX) on the IRF1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in myofibroblasts and genes involved in the inflammation and fibrosis processes in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). A total of 10 early dcSSc patients (diffuse cutaneous form) and 10 unaffected control dermis biopsies were obtained to determine IFNγ and DEX effects on inflammation and fibrosis. Fibroblasts were treated with IFNγ and DEX at optimum time and dose. The expression level of genes and proteins involved in the fibrosis and inflammation processes have been quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot, respectively. IFNγ could up-regulate some of the inflammation-related genes (Interleukin-6; IL6) and down-regulate some of the fibrosis-related genes (COL1A1) in cultured fibroblasts of patients with early dcSSc compared to the untreated group. Besides, it has been revealed that IFNγ can induce fibroblast differentiation to the myofibroblast that expresses α-SMA. Concerning the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on some fibrotic genes and its positive effect on the inflammatory genes and myofibroblast differentiation, it seems that IFNγ may play a dual role in SSc.

    Keywords: Dexamethasone, Fibrosis, Inflammation, Interferon-gamma, IRF1, Systemic scleros
  • Xiang Fan, Chen Wei, Yongguang Han Pages 211-219

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that is characterized by airway inflammation, excessive mucus production, and airway remodeling. Prevention and treatment for asthma is an urgent issue in clinical studies. In recent years, N6-methyladenosine methylation (m6A) has emerged as a promising regulatory approach involved in multiple diseases. ALKBH5 (alkB homolog 5) is a demethylase widely studied in disease pathologies. This work aimed to explore the regulatory mechanisms underlying the ALKBH5-regulated asthma. We established an interleukin-13 (IL-13)-stimulated cell model to mimic the in vitro inflammatory environment of asthma. ALKBH5 knockdown in bronchial epithelial cells was performed using siRNAs, and the knockdown efficacy was analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Cell viability and proliferation were measured by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assay. The ferroptosis was assessed by measuring the total iron, Fe2+, lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. The enrichment of N6-methyladenosine methylation (m6A) modification was detected by the MeRIP assay. Knockdown of ALKBH5 significantly elevated the survival and colony formation ability of bronchial epithelial cells in the IL-13 induction model. The levels of total iron, Fe2+, lipid ROS, and MDA were remarkedly elevated, and the SOD level was reduced in IL-13-induced bronchial epithelial cells, and depletion of ALKBH5 reversed these effects. Knockdown of ALKBH5 elevated the enrichment of m6A modification and expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Knockdown of GPX4 abolished the pro-proliferation and anti-ferroptosis effects of siALKBH5. Knockdown of ALKBH5 improved the proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells and alleviated cell ferroptosis.

    Keywords: Asthma, ALKBH5, Ferroptosis, N6-methyladenosine methylation
  • Zohreh Mehmandoostli, Mahmood Dehghani Ashkezari, Seyed Morteza Seifati, Vida Sadeghi, Reza Falak, GholamAli Kardar Pages 220-230

    During epithelial to mesenchymal transition, the ability of cancer cells to transform and metastasize is primarily determined by N-cadherin-mediated migration and invasion. This study aimed to evaluate whether the N-cadherin promoter can induce diphtheria toxin expression as a suicide gene in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-induced cancer cells and whether this can be used as potential gene therapy. To investigate the expression of diphtheria toxin under the N-cadherin promoter, the promoter was synthesized, and was cloned upstream of diphtheria toxin in a pGL3-Basic vector. The A-549 cells was transfected by electroporation. After induction of EMT by TGF-β and hypoxia treatment, the relative expression of diphtheria toxin, mesenchymal genes such as N-cadherin and Vimentin, and epithelial genes such as E-cadherin and β-catenin were measured by real-time PCR. MTT assay was also performed to measure cytotoxicity. Finally, cell motility was assessed by the Scratch test. After induction of EMT in transfected cells, the expression of mesenchymal markers such as Vimentin and N-cadherin significantly decreased, and the expression of β-catenin increased. In addition, the MTT assay showed promising toxicity results after induction of EMT with TGF-β in transfected cells, but toxicity was less effective in hypoxia. The scratch test results also showed that cell movement was successfully prevented in EMT-transfected cells and thus confirmed EMT occlusion. Our findings indicate that by using structures containing diphtheria toxin downstream of a specific EMT promoter such as the N-cadherin promoter, the introduced toxin can kill specifically and block EMT in cancer cells.

    Keywords: Cancer, Diphtheria toxin, Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, N-cadherin, Promoter
  • Homa Sadri, MohammadReza Fazlollahi Pages 231-234

    The static charge on the plastic body of spacers attracts drug aerosols, reducing the drug available for inhalation from plastic spacers. Some instructions exist to decrease the electric charge on plastic spacers, such as priming them with salbutamol (20 puffs) before use. This study investigates whether priming plastic spacer devices with this method can improve the bronchodilator test result. This study included children with stable mild to moderate asthma. All subjects underwent two pulmonary function tests to evaluate their bronchodilator response on separate days at 24-48 hours intervals. On each day, spirometry was performed at the baseline and 15 min after inhalation of four puffs of salbutamol (100 μg/puff) through either a primed or a new spacer. The change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) after inhaling salbutamol was the primary outcome measure. When the patients used a new spacer, the mean baseline FEV1 (% predicted) and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) were 89.56±11.95 and 86.17±6.87, respectively. However, the mean increase in FEV1 from the baseline was 10.87±8.99 in this group. On the other hand, with the primed spacer, the respective mean baseline FEV1 and FEV1/FVC values were 89.41±12.14 and 85.49±6.76, while it increased by 12.1±11.01 after salbutamol inhalation. There were no significant differences between the techniques regarding the variation in FEV1 before and after bronchodilator use via a new spacer or primed spacer. Priming new plastic spacers with 20 puffs of salbutamol did not cause additional bronchodilation in asthmatic children, suggesting this practice is inefficient in clinics

    Keywords: Bronchodilatorresponse, Paediatricasthma, Plastic spacers, Salbutamol