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کاوش های مدیریت بازرگانی - پیاپی 33 (پاییز 1402)

نشریه کاوش های مدیریت بازرگانی
پیاپی 33 (پاییز 1402)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/03/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • منیژه حقیقی نسب*، فهیمه دوست حسینی صفحات 1-34
    هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی و اولویت بندی عوامل موثر بر موفقیت بازاریابی چابک در شرایط متلاطم پساکرونا براساس رویکرد ساختاری تفسیری است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع تحقیقات کیفی، از نظر ماهیت و روش از نوع توصیفی-تحلیلی و از نظر نتایج، کاربردی است. ابزار جمع آوری داده ها، مطالعات کتابخانه ای، مصاحبه و پرسشنامه است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را خبرگان دانشگاهی، صاحب نظران و کارشناسان فعال در حوزه بازاریابی و گردشگری، تشکیل دادند. حجم نمونه 10 نفر به شیوه هدف مند و گلوله برفی در هر بخش از پژوهش تعیین و انتخاب شدند. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از روش ساختاری تفسیری استفاده شد. با توجه به نتایج پژوهش، سیزده عامل بازاریابی چابک شناسایی شد که شاخص های پاسخگویی، یادگیری سازمانی مبتنی بر بازار، توسعه فروش گروهی و منطقه ای، سازگاری آمیخته بازاریابی، تغییر سریع آمیخته بازاریابی با تغییر شرایط رقابتی بازار از مهم ترین مولفه های موثر بر موفقیت بازاریابی چابک در شرایط متلاطم پساکرونا است. همچنین، تجزیه وتحلیل قدرت نفوذ-وابستگی نشان داد یادگیری سازمانی مبتنی بر بازار بیشترین قدرت نفوذ و وابستگی دارد. مطابق نتایج بازاریابی چابک می تواند تغییرات مثبتی را در صنعت گردشگری در شرایط پساکرونا به ارمغان آورد که به موجب آن می توان به گردشگری رونق بخشید. همچنین،  پایه ای برای دانشگاهیان، محققان و صنایع برای درک اهمیت بازاریابی چابک تایید می شود و به برندها و کسب وکارها کمک می کند تا بازاریابی چابک را برای عملیات بازاریابی موثر و استراتژیک در نظر بگیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: بازاریابی چابک، تلاطم محیط، کووید-19، گردشگری
  • مجتبی کریمیان، حمیدرضا ایرانی*، علی اکبر جعفری، اسدالله کردنائیج، حمیدرضا یزدانی صفحات 35-62

    در سال های اخیر، کسب و کارهای حوزه پوشاک بانوان به دلیل تغییر فرایند سفر خرید خانم ها و افزایش روزافزون تمایل آنها به استفاده از کانال ها و گزینه های تماس آنلاین و آفلاین بسیار متحول شده است. عوامل و محرک های مختلفی می توانند بر مراحل مختلف سفر خرید در نقاط تماس آنلاین و آفلاین خانم های جوان موثر باشند. به همین منظور، پژوهش حاضر با هدف  شناسایی و تحلیل محرک های توانمندساز و بازدارنده در سفر خرید پوشاک بانوان جوان انجام پذیرفت. این پژوهش از نظر ماهیت اکتشافی_ توسعه ای و از منظر روش گردآوری و تحلیل اطلاعات کیفی بوده که با استفاده از استراتژی مطالعه چند موردی انجام پذیرفت. داده ها از طریق روش میدانی و با انجام مصاحبه با 20 نفر از بانوان دهه هفتادی جمع آوری گردید. در مجموع، 33 مفهوم در قالب 12 مقوله فرعی و 4 مقوله اصلی در محرک های توانمندساز و 22 مفهوم در قالب12 مقوله فرعی و 4 مقوله اصلی در محرک های بازدارنده در مراحل مختلف سفر خرید پوشاک بانوان جوان در نقاط تماس الکترونیکی، فیزیکی و مشترک دسته بندی گردید. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که نحوه رفتار فروشنده، طراحی ویترین و محیط داخلی فروشگاه در زمان خرید حضوری پوشاک و نحوه تعامل ادمین، پست گذاری و اعتمادسازی در زمان خرید غیرحضوری و همچنین تنوع رنگ بندی و اندازه محصولات و مدل آن به همراه قیمت گذاری و کیفیت محصول در زمان خرید حضوری و غیرحضوری می توانند مهم ترین محرک های توانمندساز و بازدارنده بر ادامه و یا قطع فرایند خرید پوشاک بانوان موثر باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: سفر مشتری، مدل 5 ای، نقاط تماس، خانم های جوان
  • نرگس ادبی، حسن صبوری مقدم*، عباس بخشی پور صفحات 63-84
    بهینه سازی تجربه کاربری از مهم ترین اقدامات در مدیریت و توسعه محصولات است که با ایجاد لذت استفاده در کاربران، باعث افزایش انگیزه خرید و ارتقاء جایگاه رقابتی تولیدکنندگان می شود. از این رو، طراحان محصول، برای ایجاد ویژگی ها، عملکردهای معنایی، حسی و رفتاری در محصول، نیازمند استخراج و ارزیابی معیارهای دخیل در تجربه کاربری هستند. این پژوهش، از لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از نظر شیوه جمع آوری داده ها، توصیفی-پیمایشی است. هدف این تحقیق، استخراج معیارهای ارزیابی میزان رضایت کاربران از ویژگی های کاربردی و لذت جویانه در محصولاتی با کارکردهای عملی (ابزارهای خردکن) است و برای این منظور، از رویکرد شبکه خزانه استفاده شد. جامعه آماری، متشکل از کاربران (بانوان) ابزارهای خردکن بودند و نمونه آماری شامل 20 نفر بود. شیوه شبکه خزانه مبتنی بر مصاحبه است که بر حول عناصر شبکه صورت می گیرد، در این مطالعه، 7 ابزار از عناصر شبکه انتخاب شدند. تعداد 545 سازه شخصی در مرحله اولیه استخراج و پس از تحلیل محتوا به 42 سازه نهایی تقلیل داده شد. در مرحله بعد، اولویت سازه های نهایی نیز براساس مقیاس چند حالته برآورد شد و برتری عناصر مورد مصاحبه تعیین گردید. نتایج حاکی از آن است که رویکرد شبکه خزانه می تواند جزئیات دقیقی از تجربه کاربری از ابزارهای روزمره را استخراج نماید و لذا، می تواند ابزار مناسب استفاده مدیران، طراحان و محققان در حوزه تجربه کاربری جهت واکاوی و استخراج معیارهای دخیل در رضایت کاربران باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: ابزارهای کاربردی روزمره، تجربه کاربری، رویکرد شبکه خزانه، سازه های شخصی کاربران
  • نوید خانجان زاده کاکرودی، میثم شیرخدایی*، بهاره عابدین صفحات 85-111
    قابلیت منحصربه فرد تبلیغات اینترنتی به دلیل هزینه کم و دسترسی به تعداد بیشتری از افراد در زمان کوتاه، این نوع از تبلیغات را ابزاری موثر برای شرکت ها جهت ارسال پیام های تبلیغاتی مخاطبین تبدیل کرده است. نسل زد با فناوری هایی رشد کرده که زمان بسیاری را در طی روز در اینترنت سپری می کند. از همین جهت، اگر شرکت ها بخواهند پیام های تبلیغاتی خود را به این نسل ارسال نمایند، اینترنت گزینه مناسبی می باشد. هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی گونه های مختلف مخاطبان تبلیغات اینترنتی برای نسل زد می باشد. از این رو، روش کیو جهت انجام پژوهش انتخاب گردید که روشی آمیخته محسوب می شود؛ در بخش کیفی، به منظور شناسایی شاخص های اثرگذار بر تبلیغات اینترنتی، مبانی نظری موجود مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. علاوه برآن، از طریق مصاحبه با 20 نفر (12 نفر از اعضای نسل زد و تعداد 8 نفر از خبرگان پژوهش)، در نهایت 36 عبارت کیو جهت انجام پژوهش شناسایی گردید. جامعه آماری مطالعه حاضر، نسل زد بود که از طریق نمونه گیری قضاوتی، 17 نفر به عنوان مشارکت کنندگان پژوهش جهت مرتب سازی عبارات کیو انتخاب شدند. در بخش کمی، تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از طریق تجزیه وتحلیل کیو به وسیله SPSS20 صورت گرفت. در نهایت، 5 الگوی ذهنی منطق گرایان، جایزه جویان، احساس گرایان، نوجویان و تجربه گرایان به عنوان الگوی ذهنی اعضای نسل زد در ارتباط با تبلیغات اینترنتی شناسایی شدند. در پایان، پیشنهادهای کاربردی برای فعالین این حوزه ارائه گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی ذهنی منطق گرایان، جایزه جویان، احساس گرایان، نوجویان و تجربه گرایان
  • مسعود شکری خیادانی*، علیرضا قیمتی صفحات 112-139

    به کارگیری نوآوری های فناورانه در فعالیت های بازاریابی، همواره بر مزیت رقابتی و عملکرد کسب وکارها تاثیرگذار بوده است و بازاریابی الکترونیکی سهم مهمی را در این موضوع ایفا می کند. لذا، هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی عوامل کلیدی موفقیت بازاریابی الکترونیکی در کسب وکارهای کوچک و متوسط و کم و کیف روابط بین این عوامل می باشد. این پژوهش، نوعی پژوهش کاربردی، به لحاظ رویکردهای پژوهش، استقرایی و از نظر استراتژی های پژوهش، ترکیبی (کیفی-کمی) محسوب می شود. ابتدا، برای شناسایی عوامل کلیدی موفقیت بازاریابی الکترونیکی با 11 نفر از خبرگان این حوزه مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته انجام شد. نمونه گیری خبرگان به صورت گلوله برفی بود. سپس با استفاده از روش تحلیل مضمون، مصاحبه ها تحلیل شدند و عوامل کلیدی موفقیت بازاریابی الکترونیکی به دست آمد که عبارت اند از: میزان بازدید و تردد وب سایت، بهینه سازی موتورهای جستجو، جذب کاربر جدید یا سرنخ سازی، جذب ردیابی شبکه های اجتماعی و تبلیغات پولی. در گام دوم، برای کشف روابط بین عوامل استخراج شده، از روش نگاشت شناختی فازی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که عوامل کلیدی موفقیت در بازاریابی الکترونیکی در کسب وکارهای کوچک و متوسط، به ترتیب عبارت اند از: تبلیغات پولی (83/0)، میزان بازدید و ترافیک وب سایت (73/0)، بهینه سازی موتورهای جستجو (62/0)، جذب کاربر جدید یا سرنخ سازی (56/0) و جذب ردیابی شبکه های اجتماعی (43/0). همچنین روابط هر مولفه با زیرمولفه های آن نیز مشخص و در نهایت، پیشنهاداتی جهت استفاده از یافته های پژوهش بیان شد.

    کلیدواژگان: تبلیغات پولی، میزان بازدید و تردد وب سایت، بهینه سازی موتورهای جستجو، جذب کاربر جدید، سرنخ سازی، جذب ردیابی شبکه های اجتماعی
  • حسین نوروزی*، محمد مطهری، فاطمه زرگران خوزانی، سمیه حاج ملک صفحات 140-164

    تبلیغات درون برنامه ای نوع جدیدی از راهکارهای تبلیغاتی برندها بر روی گوشی های هوشمند کاربران است. در سال های اخیر، کمپین های تبلیغاتی زیادی با رویکرد فناوری محور و همراه با هزینه های نسبتا گزاف در تبلیغات درون برنامه ای گوشی های هوشمند در ایران انجام شده، حال آن که نگرش کاربران نسبت به تبلیغات، یک مفهوم وابسته به فرهنگ است و اثربخشی چنین تبلیغاتی در سایر کشورها به معنای اثربخشی آن در فرهنگ ایرانی نخواهد بود. پژوهش حاضر، ازنظر هدف، کاربردی و ازنظر روش، اکتشافی و توصیفی است. در این پژوهش، از روش کیو برای توسعه دانش و شناسایی نگرش های کاربران تلفن همراه نسبت به تبلیغات درون برنامه ای استفاده شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش، کلیه کاربران تلفن های همراه هوشمند در شهر تهران بودند که حتما اپلیکیشن رایگانی نصب کرده باشند. روش نمونه گیری به صورت هدفمند بود. تجزیه وتحلیل داده های حاصل از مشارکت 32 نفر از کاربران موبایل های هوشمند با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی کیو با نرم افزار SPSS22 صورت گرفت. با تحلیل 36 عبارت کیو، یافته های این پژوهش، چهار گونه نگرش نسبت به تبلیغات را شناسایی کرد که به ترتیب عبارت اند از: 1) تهدیدکننده، 2) سرگرم کننده، 3) آزاردهنده و 4) گمراه کننده. با توجه به اینکه سه نگرش منفی و یک نگرش مثبت شناسایی شد، می توان نتیجه گرفت تنها درصورتی که تبلیغات درون برنامه ای با اجازه گرفتن، مطابق با نیاز، شخصی سازی شده، بدون اجبار به دیدن و شنیدن، با تصاویر واقعی و قابل باور و متعهد به محتوا و کوشا در حفظ اطلاعات و حریم خصوصی باشند و به صورت بدافزار و دانلود خودکار ظاهر نشوند، می توانند نگرش مثبت کاربران را جلب کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: نگرش مصرف کنندگان، نگرش کاربران موبایل هوشمند، تبلیغات درون برنامه ای، برنامه های موبایلی
  • مریم ورمقانی، عظیم زارعی*، داود فیض، مرتضی ملکی مین باش رزگاه صفحات 165-195
    استفاده از هوشمندی در جنبه های مختلف کسب و کار از جمله نام و نشان سازی این امکان را به سازمان ها می دهد که در محیط پرتلاطم امروزی به جایگاه رقابتی شایسته ای دست یابند. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، ارائه مدل هوشمندی نام ونشان در فناوری های مالی خدمات پرداخت و آزمون اعتبار آن مدل است. این پژوهش از نوع پژوهش آمیخته اکتشافی است. در بخش کیفی از رویکرد نظریه داده بنیاد استفاده شد. در این بخش، با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری گلوله برفی با 6 نفر از اساتید دانشگاه و 18 نفر از مدیران نام ونشان فناوری های مالی  خدمات پرداخت مصاحبه شد. در بخش کمی، جامعه آماری شامل مدیران و کارکنان فناوری های مالی  خدمات پرداخت بودند که با استتفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای تصادفی، از 315 نفر پرسشنامه تکمیل و برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های پژوهش از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد. طبق نتایج مطالعه، عوامل ساختاری، مدیریتی و محتوایی (شرایط علی) می توانند بر هوشمندی نام ونشان تاثیرگذار باشند. یافته های پژوهش، تاثیر هوشمندی نام ونشان، عوامل زمینه ای (عوامل محیطی نزدیک و دور) و عوامل مداخله گر (عوامل فرهنگی، منابع انسانی، مالی و فناورانه) بر راهبردها (تغییر اساسی، جزئی و عدم تغییر در نام ونشان) و تاثیر این راهبردها بر پیامدهای هوشمندی نام ونشان را تایید کردند.
    کلیدواژگان: فناوری های مالی، مدیریت نام ونشان، هوشمندی نام ونشان، عوامل ساختاری، عوامل مدیریتی، عوامل محتوایی
  • سید رضا جلال زاده*، علی اکبر حسین پور صفحات 196-229

    امروزه با گسترش شبکه های اجتماعی، تاثیرگذاران در زمینه های مختلف به فعالیت رسانه ای در شبکه های اجتماعی می پردازند. صاحبان نام ونشان و کسب وکارهای مختلف نیز از محبوبیت و ضریب نفوذ بالای تاثیرگذاران استفاده می کنند تا فعالیت نام ونشان سازی خود را گسترش و تقویت نمایند. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی تاثیر ویژگی های تاثیرگذاران در رسانه های اجتماعی بر نگرش و قصد خرید مشتریان، با نقش میانجی خودبیانگری نام ونشان می باشد. روش تحقیق، از نوع کاربردی و توصیفی- پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش، مصرف کنندگان لوازم آرایشی و بهداشتی ایرانی است که در حساب کاربری اینستاگرام خود حداقل یک فرد تاثیرگذار در حوزه مذکور را دنبال کرده باشند. داده های پژوهش با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه و مصاحبه با 402 نفر جمع آوری شد. روایی پرسشنامه از طریق سنجش نسبت روایی محتوا و شاخص روایی محتوا و پایایی پرسشنامه از طریق روش آلفای کرونباخ تایید شد. داده های جمع آوری شده با استفاده از نرم افزار spss و Smart pls مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد برخی از ویژگی های یک فرد تاثیرگذار منبع پیام، باعث ایجاد تاثیرات نگرشی مانند رضایت تصویری و اعتماد به تبلیغات در مصرف کننده می گردند که از این طریق بر خودبیانگری نام ونشان و قصد خرید مصرف کننده و دنبال کننده تاثیرگذار هستند. در نهایت، با تمرکز بر ویژگی های فرد تاثیرگذار مانند جذابیت، تعامل، نوآفرینی، اطمینان و اعتبار ادراک شده و شناخت تاثیرات مثبت و منفی آن ها، می توان تاثیرات نگرشی ای را در مصرف کننده ایجاد نمود که در مرحله تصمیم گیری باعث ایجاد قصد خرید می گردند.

    کلیدواژگان: خودبیانگری نام ونشان، رسانه های اجتماعی، قصد خرید، نگرش مشتریان، ویژگی های تاثیرگذاران
  • بابک رشیدی آشتیانی، سید حمید خدادادحسینی*، بیت الله اکبری مقدم صفحات 230-262

    هدف پژوهش، تبیین ویژگی های کلامی و بصری سکوهای فروشگاه های برخط بر اساس تجربه زیسته مشتریان است. این پژوهش، با رویکرد کیفی و روش پدیدارشناسی و مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته انجام شد و همزمان سه بستر وب سایت، اپ موبایل و اینستاگرام مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. جامعه هدف تحقیق، مشتریان فروشگاه های برخط به تعداد 15 نفر بود که به روش نمونه گیری هدف مند انتخاب شدند و برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روش پدیدارشناسی کلایزی و از نرم افزار «مکس کیو دی ای» استفاده شد. یافته ها در دو مقوله اصلی ویژگی های کلامی سکو (شامل مولفه های فرعی: اطلاعات، راحتی جستجوی اطلاعات، پاسخگویی و تضمین، اطلاع رسانی سکو، سهولت سفارش و خرید و ارتباطات اجتماعی) و ویژگی های بصری سکو (شامل مولفه های فرعی: آگاهی از محصول و کالاپردازی سکو) ارائه شد. با استناد به نتایج پژوهش، خرده فروشان برخط می توانند از ویژگی های کلامی و بصری که در این پژوهش شناسایی شد، با هدف جذب مشتریان بیشتر و افزایش فروش برای بهبود سکوهای شان استفاده کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: ویژگی کلامی، ویژگی بصری، پدیدارشناسی، تجربه زیسته مشتری
  • سید علی حسینی، فریدون امیدی*، قاسم رکابدار صفحات 263-295

    هدف این پژوهش تبیین کارگیری اینترنت اشیاء در کسب وکارهای صادراتی است. رویکرد پژوهش، آمیخته اکتشافی می باشد. در بخش کیفی، با هدف کشف تجربه زیسته مشارکت کنندگان، 12 نفر جهت انجام مصاحبه عمیق با نمونه گیری گلوله برفی انتخاب شدند. در تحلیل داده ها با کدگذاری و شیوه تحلیل داده های ترکیبی متوالی در نهایت 48 مضمون حاصل شد. در بخش کمی، روش، توصیفی- پیمایشی است با ابزار پرسشنامه از مدیران و کارشناسان شرکت های هدف در تهران گردآوری و با استفاده از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری تحلیل شدند. یافته های بخش کیفی شامل زیرساخت های فنی، محیط شرکت، قابلیت ها و هزینه ها، تسهیل و تسریع هزینه ها، تصمیم گیری و برنامه ریزی، آموزش و یادگیری، بازاریابی، عملکرد، در نظر گرفتن مشتریان بین المللی به دست آمد. مدل سازی نشان داد زیرساخت های فنی و محیط شرکت متغیر مستقل برون زا و متغیرهای تسهیل و تسریع فرایندها مستقل درون زا اما متغیر «در نظر گرفتن مشتریان بین المللی و عملکرد» متغیرهای وابسته می باشند و متغیرهای آموزش و یادگیری و بازاریابی نقش میانجی دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: اینترنت اشیاء، کسب و کارهای صادراتی، نظریه داده بنیاد، شرکت های صادراتی ماشین های کشاورزی
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  • MANIJEH HAGHIGHINASAB *, Fahimeh Dousthosseini Pages 1-34
    Introduction
    The impact of COVID-19 on the way we live has been unprecedented. Travel and tourism were among the leading sectors to face a catastrophic downturn as national borders were closed to contain the outbreak. Precautionary measures were taken, and social distancing became a norm. Most people had to cancel or postpone their travel plans. The current crisis requires a strong preparation from the industry for a fresh start on health and resilience. The emergence of that deadly disease has led to huge financial losses and created global health and economic crises around the world. Epidemics have a negative effect on the behavior of tourists and their mental health. As a result, they abandon their planned tours for fear of catching the disease, as it seems impossible to avoid the transmission of the virus during the trip. Globally, travel and tourism make a significant contribution to job creation as well as socio-economic and cultural development worldwide. Now, according to the existing potentials and the drivers that can lead to re-upgrading the competitive advantage of travel and tourism after the COVID-19 era in our country, it is necessary to carry out necessary investigations so as to identify the forces affecting it and invest in them. This can again improve Iran's position. Therefore, this research seeks to identify and structure the factors affecting the success of agile marketing in turbulent conditions after COVID-19.
    Methodology
    This research was conducted with a qualitative approach in terms of data collection. It is also descriptive in terms of its purpose and is in the category of applied research. The statistical population of the research consisted of the professors and senior managers and active experts in the units related to the field of marketing in Yazd City. The selection of the participants in the present research was non-random and by targeted judgmental sampling. The respondents to the questionnaires of this research were 10 professors and senior managers and active experts in the units related to marketing and tourism, of which three professors were in Yazd University, four experts in the field of tourism and three in marketing. In this research, a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect the data. To design the items of the questionnaire, first, several internal and external articles related to the research topic were reviewed, and agile marketing factors were identified in each article. These surveys to find agile marketing factors were done until saturation was reached and no new factor was encountered. The questionnaire items on agile marketing factors were found from different articles. The data obtained from the research questionnaire were analyzed through the ISM technique. In the current research, the opinions of experts were used to check the validity of the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a series of completely standard tables related to structural-interpretive modeling, so it had acceptable validity.
    Results and discussion
    According to the results of the research, thirteen factors are involved in agile marketing. The indicators of responsiveness, market-based organizational learning, group and regional sales development, marketing mix compatibility, and rapid change of marketing mix in pace with the change of market competitive conditions are among the most important factors affecting success. In many cities, regions and countries, tourism plays an important role as a strategic pillar of the economy's GDP. The tourism and leisure industry plays a vital role in economic activity and customer satisfaction, but now it has also become the most vulnerable member of the industry. The development of the tourism industry is of great importance, especially for developing countries that are faced with problems such as high unemployment, limited foreign exchange resources, and a single-product economy. In turbulent environments, industries constantly face challenges. Failure to quickly respond to these challenges may result in significant financial losses. Agile marketing is effective in the turbulent post-corona situation. The analysis of influence-dependency power showed that market-based organizational learning has the most influence and dependency power.
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings of this research, in order to increase the success of agile marketing in post-corona unbalanced conditions, it is suggested to use agile marketing to discover opportunities and align the market trends so that they may not adopt ambiguous strategies against sudden changes. Agile marketing makes it possible to make changes to any part of the program without disrupting other parts. It is recommended that there should be very clear and explicit communication and the duties of each department should be specified. Also, by holding daily meetings, important departments in this industry should be aware of the work process. Priorities are taken into account, because it enables different departments to put on the right track, thereby increasing the sale of products and services and making the business prosperous. The agile method allows dividing the goals into different and independent and yet related parts, testing each part on a daily or weekly basis, and checking the results. If it does not work, another method should be adopted. This not only avoids the waste of time and big expenses but also, in a short time, determines the result of every decision and action. It is suggested that all the departments interact and choose the best solutions together. It is also recommended to be customer-oriented because agile marketing is customer-oriented and can always involve customers' opinions in the work process. By changing the customer's behavior, different departments can be quickly organized in line with the customer's satisfaction. And finally, agile marketing allows you to work on all the parts of a big project at the same time. Therefore, it is suggested to comprehensively investigate environmental imbalance with agile marketing
    Keywords: Health, economic development, Marketing, Manufacturing, service industries, Tourism, development
  • Mojtaba Karimian, HamidReza Irani *, Aliakbar Jafari, Asadollah Kordnaeij, HamidReza Yazdani Pages 35-62
    Introduction

    Today, the development of the Internet and digital platforms has changed customer behavior in marketing channels and increased the number of touchpoints between customers and companies during the customer journey. However, this increase in touchpoints is not always positive for customers. Although providing additional information through different touchpoints may seem like a good idea, it can become ineffective and reduce customer attention, leading to disconnection and less engagement. Thus, analyzing customer journeys has become vital to identifying the enabling and inhibiting factors in both online and offline touchpoints. Personal characteristics such as age and gender can also affect the customer journey as well as channel and touchpoint selection, making it important to address this challenge differently among various businesses depending on their target customers. Young women in the women's clothing industry exhibit unique shopping behavior, spending a lot of time in different stores and channels to evaluate quality and brands. Therefore, this study aims to identify and analyze the enabling and inhibiting factors in the clothing shopping journey of young women.

    Methodology

    The research’s approach was a qualitative and exploratory one. The research strategy was a multi-case study, and interviews were used to collect data. The statistical population of the research consisted of the young women in the provinces of Tehran, Isfahan, Qom, Fars and Alborz who had the experience of buying clothes from multi-channel clothing stores. Non-probability judgmental snowball sampling method was used to select the sample. The participants' data were collected from the viewpoints of education level (postgraduate, under postgraduate), marital status (single, married), and income (unemployed, employed with a monthly income of less than 10 million Tomans, employed with a monthly income of more than 10 million Tomans). In this regard, interviews were conducted with 12 people, but, in order to increase the accuracy and accuracy of the data, interviews were conducted with 20 people until saturation was reached. The content analysis method was used to analyze the interviews and the obtained codes. The frequency of the analysis units (codes) served to determine their weight or importance. For this purpose, the data were first read line by line, and primary codes were extracted. As many as 398 codes regarding enabling factors and 245 codes regarding inhibiting factors were identified, and they were categorized into 33 concepts in the form of 12 sub-categories and four main categories in the enabling factors and 22 concepts in the form of 12 sub-categories and four main categories in the inhibiting factors affecting customer interactions in digital, physical and common touchpoints.

    Results and discussion

    The study revealed that women's purchasing decisions are influenced by various factors at each stage of the purchasing process. For the appeal stage, storefront attractiveness, social media posts, and clothing models were cited as the most enabling factors, while unattractive storefronts and clothing models were found to be inhibiting factors. As customers transitioned to the ask phase, a suitable store environment, appropriate seller behavior, attractive social media content, and a wide product variety were identified as the most enabling factors. Conversely, creating a sense of distrust, inappropriate seller behavior, and poor admin responses had negative impacts on women's shopping experiences.During the transition from the ask to the act stage, appropriate seller behavior, affordable products, and proper admin behavior in online stores were found to be positive factors. Conversely, inappropriate seller behavior in stores, improper interior design, and inadequate admin behavior in online stores discouraged young women from making a final purchase. In the advocate phase, economical products, appropriate seller behavior, fast and affordable shipping, and trustworthy social media pages were identified as the most common enabling factors for young women to recommend products to others. Inappropriate product shipping, lack of value for money, poor seller behavior, and inadequate admin behavior on the page were noted as the most common inhibiting factors.

    Conclusion

    The research findings indicate that young women place great emphasis on a variety of factors when making purchasing decisions, both online and offline. For physical stores, the exterior and storefront's attractiveness, as well as the ambiance of the interior environment, are important factors. Additionally, the salesperson's demeanor, provision of relevant information and guidance, and creation of a comfortable buying experience for the customer are crucial. In terms of virtual stores, responsiveness from administrators, the availability of relevant information, building trust with customers, and fast and affordable shipping options are vital considerations. Moreover, product variety, quality, color choices, attractive pricing, and store credibility are significant factors across both online and offline shopping experiences.

    Keywords: Costumer Journey, 5A model, Touch Points, Young Women
  • Narges Adabi, Hassan Sabourimoghaddam *, Abbas Bakhshipour Pages 63-84
    Introduction
    Paying attention to users' emotional desires and facilitating user-product interaction have become an essential component in design, production and marketing. User experience includes user’s perceptions and feedback while using or anticipating the use of products. Optimizing user experience can increase the satisfaction of users, motivate customers to buy products and, consequently, improve the competitive position of manufacturers in the market. Product designers need to carefully identify and evaluate user’s needs in different groups of products to create different features, semantic, sensory, and behavioral functions in the product and improve the perceived user experience of the product. So far, different methods have been proposed to collect users' opinions and demands regarding different types of products. Surveying and focusing on groups are the traditional methods in market research, which have their own strengths and weaknesses. There are some integrated solutions proposed to solve problems by these methods. Designers and manufacturers face an urgent need to use the different proposed methods to accurately extract demands of users in practical examples, so that they can understand these methods and their application in real projects. This research seeks to identify the needs of users and evaluate the user experience with some types of these products.
    Methodology
    This research is based on a practical approach that applies the repertory grid technique to extract factors involved in user experience in everyday products for chopping onion. This technique is a semi-structured method to define different aspects of a phenomenon from the personal viewpoints of subjects by minimizing the possible biases of the researcher. Based on this, a case study of that technique is conducted to extract the factors involved in the user experience in everyday onion chopping tools. The implementation of the technique has three main stages including element selection, construct extraction, and identifying element relationship to constructs by using content analysis. For this purpose, by interviewing 20 users of onion chopping tools, a conceptual model was presented on the factors affecting user satisfaction in this category of products. The reason for choosing the onion chopping tool was the daily use of these tools, and the target population consisted of 20 to 40-year-old female users who did daily cooking activities. Seven elements were arranged based on the subjects' suggestions for onion chopping tools. The interview was conducted in a kitchen with the presence of the mentioned onion chopping tools, and the subjects were allowed to do onion chopping by any of the tools they wished. To discover the constructs, the elements were provided to the subjects in the form of triple comparisons, and then an in-depth interview was conducted.
    Results and discussion
    As many as 545 personal constructs were extracted in the initial stage. After the content analysis, they were reduced to 42 final constructs. The priority of the final constructs was extracted based on an online questionnaire, and the superiority of the elements was determined on the Likert scale. The obtained scores were entered and analyzed in the Idiogrid software version 2.4, and information was extracted in three stages including statistical information of structures, and statistical information of the elements and cognitive map of elements. Then, principal component analysis was done to understand the relationship between the structures and elements and their graphic expression showing the combination of the constructs and elements. In general, the range of the scores obtained in the structures was from 2.85 to 4.85, which has little dispersion according to the determined range (1 to 5). This result can indicate that the extracted structures have correctly identified the needs of users which are more or less important. Also, the results showed that the structures related to the safety criteria are the most important, and structures related to appearance and personal preferences of the subjects are the least important in this type of products. The results of the comparing the tools showed the strengths and weaknesses of each tool according to the extracted structures, the discovery of which will lead to the creation of new and optimized products.
    Conclusion
    Since there are many dimensions in evaluating user-centric products, in order to achieve user’s satisfaction, it is necessary to pay attention to all of the effective items in user experience. The number and details of the structures obtained showed that the repertory grid technique can be used as a suitable solution for extracting the demands of users about different products. By using multiple comparisons, this method, brings up various cases in the minds of users, which are not expressed in traditional interview methods. Also, comparing the users of different products creates a situation that can include a wider range of user demands. This is the strong point of this method in comparison with the focus group method because, to uncover underlying hidden needs, approaching unusual or off-target users can provide an opportunity for product development.
    Keywords: Everyday tools, Personal structures, Repertory grid technique, User experience
  • Navid Khanjanzadeh Kakeroodi, Meysam Shirkhodaie *, Bahareh Abedin Pages 85-111
    Introduction
    Advertising is one of the important tools of companies used to send their advertising messages to target audience. With the expansion of the Internet and social media, companies had to bring their activities to these media to easily reach a large audience at a lower cost. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the Internet as a means of reaching the audience, especially to target the audience that spends a lot of time on the Internet every day. Z generation refers to the generation that was born from 1995 to 2012 and is different from previous generations in many ways. In fact, they have different preferences and have been raised in an environment surrounded by technology. This is the main reason for the generation's dependence on the Internet. They also use their smartphones for an average of 9 hours a day, and, for this reason, the Z generation has been chosen as the target population. It spends a significant amount of time on the Internet and performs many of its tasks on it, including watching movies, training, shopping, etc. This generation also has a strong influence on their family preferences, which makes them an important target for businesses. Also, companies spend a lot of money on advertising every year. So, it is very important to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of advertising to achieve their goals in addition to spending appropriate money. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of internet advertising audience in the Z generation based on the Q method.
    Methodology
    The current research is applied in terms of its purpose, exploratory in terms of its nature, and qualitative and quantitative in terms of data collection and analysis. The Q method was chosen as a combined method for the present research. The Q method is a method used when there are different views on the subject under study, and the human mind is involved in it. The main purpose of this method is to identify subjective patterns. In other words, in addition to identifying people's perceptions and opinions, it categorizes people into groups based on their different perceptions. As mentioned earlier, the Q method is a combined method. The qualitative part of this study was conducted through literature review and semi-structured interviews with 12 people from the Z generation and eight experts from the advertising field. At the end of this section, 36 indicators were identified as Q expressions. Then, through judgmental sampling, 17 people from the Z generation were selected for Q sorting. The quantitative part of this research was conducted through Q analysis, so the data obtained from the Q sorting stage were analyzed by SPSS 20.
    Results and discussion
    According to the results of the Q analysis of this research, five subjective patterns were identified as the patterns for the effective indicators of Internet advertising for the Z generation. In the first subjective pattern, "providing appropriate information" and "customer confidence in maintaining information" were identified as the most important indicators. Also, "celebrity endorsement" and "use of encouraging words" were identified as the least important indicators. In the second subjective pattern, "providing appropriate information" and "using encouraging words" were identified as the most important indicators, while "titles and text font" and "Minimal website design" were the least important indicators. In the third subjective pattern, "celebrity endorsement" and "giving rewards" were identified as the most important indicators, and "using encouraging words" and "use of cartoon characters" were identified as the least important indicators. In the fourth subjective pattern, "Creativity in storytelling" and "Using viral music on the Internet" were the most important indicators, but "Sameness in action and expression" and "Placing advertisements at the top of the website" were identified as the least important indicators. In the fifth subjective pattern, "showing the expected experience of consumption" and "endorsement by a famous person" were the most important indicators, while "using a female voice to explain" and "using cartoon characters" were identified as the least important ones.
    Conclusion
    The aim of this study is to identify the types of internet advertising audience in the Z generation. For this reason, the Q method was chosen to identify subjective patterns. Through Q analysis, five subjective patterns were identified, including Rationalists, Prize Seekers, Emotionalists, Innovators, and Empiricists. In order to achieve maximum effectiveness in advertising for the Z generation, companies must consider the most important indicators in each subjective pattern. Finally, regarding each subjective pattern, suggestions are made for advertisers and companies that target the Z generation.
    Keywords: Rationalists, Prize Seekers, Emotionalists, Innovators, and Empiricists
  • Masoud Shekari Khiadani *, Alireza Gheimati Pages 112-139
    Introduction

    According to the report presented by the World Bank, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially in developing countries, have played an important role in most economies. One of the most important business issues is product marketing, which can increase sales and company growth. The use of technological innovations in marketing activities has always influenced the competitive advantage and the performance of businesses. Today, the digital revolution has affected all behaviors and lifestyles. Marketing activities have not been spared from this change, so, despite the fact that marketing processes remain constant, a sub-branch of marketing called "digital marketing" has emerged. Therefore, according to the position of small and medium businesses and the importance of digital marketing in these companies, the current research seeks to find out, firstly, what are the key success factors for digital marketing in small and medium businesses and, secondly, what are the relationships between the identified factors.

    Methodology

    In terms of its direction, the current research is considered a type of applied research, and, in terms of strategies, it is considered a combination of qualitative and quantitative ones. First, to identify the key success factors of digital marketing, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 experts in this field. The sampling of the experts was in the form of a snowball, and the criterion for their selection was to have a scientific and experimental background in the field of digital marketing. Through thematic analysis, the interviews were analyzed and the key factors of digital marketing success were obtained. In the second step, the fuzzy cognitive mapping method, which is one of the research methods in soft operations, was used to discover the relationships between the extracted factors. Fuzzy cognitive mapping, in addition to providing the possibility to identify the factors with algebraic relationships, enables the decision-maker to gain a good understanding of the causal relationships between the factors, the direction and relative strength of these relationships, and a model consisting of the main decision factors.

    Results and discussion

    Using the thematic analysis method, the interviews were analyzed and the key factors were extracted. There were five factors including a) the number of visits and website traffic (the number of new visitors, the number of referrals versus new visitors, unique visitors, visits to each channel, average time spent on the page, hits, sessions, bounce rate, monthly website traffic, website conversion rate, ratio of customer purchases to total visitors, display frequency in Google results, referral traffic, customer acquisition cost, and page value, b) search engine optimization (site traffic source, ranking of website/company page position in search engine results for a keyword, organic search, incoming links, Alexa rank, keyword performance, conversion rate of each keyword, keyword rank, and traffic volume from video), c) new user acquisition or lead generation (lead generation, lead volume, lead quality, revenue per lead, monthly new leads, traffic or website visitor to lead conversion rate, cost per converted lead, rate sales lead conversion, user retention rate, and customer conversion rate), d) inclusion of social network tracking (social page visits, shares, comments, mentions, likes, number of followers, number of unique users who viewed, number of times viewed, average engagement of each post, and share brand voice), and e) paid advertising (digital marketing ROI, customer lifetime value, and cost per activity). Next, the MentalModeler software served to model the factors and form the initial decision matrix. After that, while holding expert meetings, the fuzzy values of causal arcs were recorded in the interviews with the research experts. Finally, a fuzzy cognitive mapping model was obtained for the key factors of digital marketing success in small and medium businesses.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that the key success factors in digital marketing in small and medium businesses are, paid advertising (0.83), the number of visits and website traffic (0.73), search engine optimization (0.62), attracting new users or generating leads (0.56), and attracting social network tracking (0.43). Also, the relationships of each component with its subcomponents are determined. According to these results, business owners were advised to pay attention to targeted paid advertisements in digital marketing. Of course, along with these advertisements, they should seek to increase the number of visits to the website through unique and valuable content. Also, learn new algorithms of search engines and apply them in the content and structure of digital marketing. Another suggestion is to conduct behavioral studies and research in this field to create clues for new contacts. It is further suggested to conduct research with such titles as analysis of the importance weights of the key success factors of small and medium businesses in a specific industry, modeling of paid advertising in digital marketing, identification of the key success factors in digital marketing as compared with the present research.

    Keywords: Paid advertising, The number of visits, Website traffic, Search engine optimization, Attracting new users, Generating leads, Attracting social network tracking
  • Hossein Norouzi *, Mohammad Motahhari, Fatemeh Zargaran Khouzani, Somayeh Hajmalek Pages 140-164
    Introduction

    Advertisers are interested in the emergence of new marketing channels, including online and Internet-based platforms, and they consider it as an opportunity to increase brand awareness and run advertising campaigns. The attitude toward advertisements has always been the subject of researchers' attention. As the results indicate, in recent years, the general attitude towards advertisements has become negative. Nevertheless, researchers in different countries have reached different results. As a result, the attitude towards mobile advertising should be scrutinized. Also, conducting research and presenting literature from studies native to Iran will be useful for preparing and relying on mobile advertising.

    Methodology

    In this research, the Q methodology has been used to identify customers' attitudes toward mobile ads. The statistical population of the study was people in Tehran who had set up three free apps on their smartphones. The sampling method was convenience sampling. The data obtained from the participation of 32 people were analyzed using the Q factor analysis by the SPSS 22.0 software. The Q method is known as the link between qualitative and quantitative methods. Following the steps of the Q method, after determining the subject with the title of customer attitude towards advertising and reviewing the literature on the subject, the discourse space was evaluated and summarized. In addition to evaluating research articles and the literature (second-hand sources), professors in the field of marketing and advertising were consulted (first-hand sources). Finally, i36 Q expressions were created. The reliability of the Q classes was evaluated by test-retest. After the creation of a Q table, three participants completed the table again. The correlation between the responses was 0.812. This number indicates the reliability of the Q expressions.

    Results and discussion

    Threatening as the first attitude type: Based on the obtained results, terms 7, 21, 28, 26, 22 and 2 were positive views, and 34, 20, 30, 25, 17 and 10 were the negative views of this group members. The members had a negative overall attitude toward in-app advertising. The people in this category believed that in-app ads are likely to be malware, and opening them will risk the security of phones. They install spy applications on phones automatically, which is a threat to the performance of the mobile phone.Entertaining as the second attitude type: Based on the obtained results, terms 22, 26, 11, 16, 6 and 8 were positive views, and 9, 1, 4, 7, 2 and 10 were the negative views of this group members, so the members had a positive overall attitude towards in-app advertising. The people in this category believed that in-app advertising shows users amazing offers that are often entertaining. They are credible, visually attractive, and informative. Privacy in these advertisements is important to them. However, they felt that the possibility of lying, spying, and hacking is low, and ultimately they are not annoying.Annoying as the third attitude type: Based on the obtained results, terms 10, 14, 33, 31, 9 and 26 were positive views, and 27, 32, 6, 16, 8 and 11 were the negative views of this group members, so the members had a negative overall attitude towards in-app advertising. The people in this category believed that in-app ads are annoying, do not consider user privacy, and must be removed immediately. Moreover, they are time-consuming. These people would not allow the app creators to show ads as a cost of using free apps, and they would not enjoy entertainment and trust information in such ads.Misleading as the fourth attitude: Based on the obtained results, terms 5, 6, 13, 16, 19 and 18 were positive views and 8, 20, 9, 11, 17 and 36 were the negative views of this group members. The members had a negative or neutral overall attitude. They believed that in-app ads are liars, and link to inappropriate sites. They also believed that, although ads are visually attractive and exciting, they are doubtful. This group also does not want to see ads to access free apps and does not find these advertisements entertaining, informative, and valuable. However, they did not feel so annoyed by these ads, and they just skipped them.

    Conclusion

    According to the classification of the attitude of Iranian users towards in-app advertising of smartphones, the following suggestions are provided for the successful implementation of advertising campaigns on mobile applications:1) Ask for permission before showing ads.2) Stop showing more ads after the user closes an ad.3) Show ads in the form of entertainment or game to make them more likely to be opened.4) Use beautiful but real (believable) graphic images and avoid 18+ images that create a sense of threat in the mind of the audience.5) Ads should be related to the installed program or similar applications, and unrelated ads should be avoided.6) Offer ads only on applications whose owners are careful in showing related ads; otherwise, the audience will group your advertisement with some inappropriate ads.7) Ads should be small and closeable because the compulsion to see, hear and play an ad will gradually reduce the value of the brand in the eyes of the customers.8) If advertisements offer gifts or discounts, you must be committed to it and avoid fraudulent advertisements.9) Although personalization and the use of artificial intelligence are recommended, revealing detailed information about customers like marital status, age, place of residence, etc. leads to a feeling of fear and threat, and he will uninstall the application.10) Being entertaining is more effective than being informative. As a result, it is suggested to pay attention to being attractive in a way the customers like.11) Advertising campaigns should try to choose related applications as their ad channel. Mass advertisement is not going to work.Finally, researchers are suggested to investigate the difference between the generations of respondents and their attitudes towards other advertisement channels. It will also be interesting to conduct research that categorizes the paradigms of attitude towards advertisements in Iran.

    Keywords: User Attitude, Smart Mobile Users, In-App Advertising, Mobile Apps
  • Maryam Varmaghani, Azim Zarei *, Davood Feiz, Morteza Maleki Minbashrazgah Pages 165-195
    Introduction
    In order to get the best results from their brands, organizations should audit their brand capabilities, evaluate external issues affecting their brand, and then create a brand plan that defines the brand's true goals and the strategy to achieve them. Researchers have developed a new method to analyze brand importance, called the Brand Intelligence Brand Semantic Score program. They have introduced brand intelligence as a method of brand analysis and brand positioning evaluation. However, according to the literature, no model for brand intelligence has been provided yet. The fin-tech industry in Iran is an emerging industry, but the studies in this field lag behind the current developments in the financial sector. One of the challenges facing fin-tech is branding and weak brand strength. However, there is very little research on brand management and intelligence in fin-tech, especially in Iran. Therefore, to fill the gaps, this study seeks to provide a comprehensive model for brand intelligence in fin-tech payment services and identify and test the factors related to brand intelligence with a mixed approach.
    Methodology
    This research is of a mixed exploratory type. The qualitative part was based on the grounded theory approach, and the quantitative part was done through structural equation modeling. In the first stage, a model was designed for brand intelligence, and the validity of the presented model was tested in the second stage. In the qualitative section, six university professors and 18 fin-tech brand managers of payment services were interviewed using the snowball sampling method. In the quantitative part, the statistical population included the managers and employees of payment service fin-techs. The sample size was determined to be 315 people using Cochran's formula. A simple cluster sampling method was used for this purpose. A questionnaire based on the Likert scale was used to collect the data, and structural equation modeling was done to analyze the data.
    Results and discussion
    The qualitative data analysis showed that structural factors (existing organizational structure, flexibility of organizational structure, strong role of brand manager in organizational decisions), managerial factors (support and skill of top manager, resistance to change, manager's understanding of the benefits of brand intelligence, up-to-date views of top manager), and content factors (understanding the data, understanding the brand and understanding the product) are the causal factors that directly affect brand intelligence. Basic brand changes (brand name change, brand slogan change, brand promise change, brand identity change), minor brand changes (changing some brand elements, changing some brand management measures, continuing to move toward brand identity), and no-brand change (continuing to move towards brand identity, strengthening brand position by overseeing brand actions and tracking the factors affecting brand) were identified as brand intelligence strategies. According to the results, brand intelligence can have consequences for the brand and, thus, the whole organization. The consequences of brand intelligence for the brand are brand agility, brand health, brand equity, brand performance, and brand position. The organizational consequences of brand intelligence include organizational agility, organizational performance, satisfaction/loyalty, and sustainable and temporary competitive advantage. In this research, cultural factors, the factors related to human resources, financial resources and technological resources are intervening factors. Close environmental factors (market understanding, competitive understanding, and customer understanding) and far environmental factors (economic awareness, socio-cultural awareness, and political awareness) were also identified as contextual factors. According to quantitative research findings, structural, managerial, and content factors (causal conditions) can influence brand intelligence. The findings confirmed the effect of brand intelligence, contextual factors, and intervening factors on strategies and the effect of these strategies on the consequences of brand intelligence.
    Conclusion
    As a response to new-age brand management trends, this study aimed to increase our understanding of brand intelligence and provide a valid model for brand intelligence of payment services fin-tech. The findings of the study pave the way to creating an intelligent brand. This is because this model uses the grounded theory method to consider all the aspects of making a brand intelligence confirmed by SEM. Now, marketing and brand researchers have a comprehensive model of brand intelligence from an organizational point of view, which significantly helps to delineate the brand management process of intelligence and provide a useful research tool for future studies. Brand Intelligence is the future of brand management, making companies equipped with an ongoing diagnostic tool to more accurately track and evaluate their brand performance. Brand managers can thus first consider a standard for the important criteria of the brand, monitor the criteria continuously, and make new decisions to take corrective measures if a criterion deviates from its standard value. The use of intelligence in various aspects of business, including branding, allows organizations to achieve a competitive advantage in today's turbulent environment.
    Keywords: Brand intelligence, Brand management, Fin-tech, Grounded theory, Structural factors, Management factors, Content factors
  • Seyyed Reza Jalalzadeh *, AliAkbar Hoseynpur Pages 196-229
    Introduction

    Due to the growth and spread of the Internet, the creation of Internet-based social media, and the commercialization capabilities of social media for businesses and brands, these social media are considered as a meeting point for customers and businesses. Meanwhile, the owners of brands and businesses prefer to use social media influencers so that the message of their products can reach the customers as quickly and effectively as possible. Social media influencers, depending on their characteristics, are usually active in a specific field, attract many users to their accounts and deliver product messages to customers using their unique and necessary characteristics. Therefore, this research seeks to determine the impact of social media influencers as a source of messages on the attitudes and purchase intentions of customers with the mediating role of self-brand connection.

    Methodology

    The current research is an applied and descriptive survey. The statistical population is the Iranian cosmetics consumers who have followed at least one influential person in the field of cosmetics on their Instagram accounts. The research data were collected using a questionnaire. The respondents who took the research questionnaire were 402 people. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by measuring the content validity or CVR and the content validity index or CVI. The reliability of the questionnaire was also evaluated through Cronbach's alpha method. At the end, the collected data were analyzed using the SPSS and Smart Pls software programs.

    Results and discussion

    The demographic investigation in this research was based on four questions about gender, age, marital status, and the amount of money the respondents spent on buying cosmetics per month. More than half of the research population was males, most of them were single, and they were from 20 to 30 years of age. Also, the highest amount spent on cosmetics by the respondents was 200 thousand Tomans per month. The testing of the hypotheses showed the influence of influencer characteristics (attractiveness, expertise, originality, homophily, interaction, trust, and perceived credibility) in social media on the attitudes (image satisfaction and advertising trust) and purchase intention of customers. In the end, we found that the attractiveness (beauty, stylishness, and being fashionable and sexual attractiveness) of the influencer does not affect image satisfaction (the audience's happiness from receiving, collecting, and viewing information about influencers and also interacting with them) and advertising trust. (based on the influencers' information and customers' trust in them) has effects. Expertise (experience, sufficient knowledge, and product recommendation skills of influencers) as another characteristic of an influencer affects image satisfaction but does not affect advertising trust. Originality (being original and creative of the influential person) does not affect image satisfaction and advertising trust. Homophily (having commonalities and similar values with an influential person) affects image satisfaction and does not affect advertising trust. Interaction (easy and quick communication with an influential person) does not affect image satisfaction and advertising trust. Trust (reliability and honesty) does not affect image satisfaction but affects advertising trust. Perceived credibility (that the influential person is reliable and can convince) affects image satisfaction and advertising trust. Also, customers' attitudes mean image satisfaction and advertising trust have effects on the self-brand connection (establishing a close relationship by customers with the brand included in the content sent by the influential person) and customers' purchase intention, and self-brand connection has an effect on purchase intention. Finally, the mediating role of self-brand connection between attitudinal effects and purchase intention was confirmed.

    Conclusion

    Influencers must always manage their image because the characteristics of their source affect consumer satisfaction and trust. In the contents that they publish, influencers should pay attention to the attractiveness of the image, the professionalism of the show, the needs of consumers, and the salience of possible similarities with consumers. This research confirmed that consumers' satisfaction with influencers and advertising trust can increase marketing efficiency. Influencers should consider the balance between personal content related to image building and marketing content related to promoting the brand. Too much advertising leads to a decrease in consumers' understanding of the influencer's image, which may lead to consumer loss. For brand managers, this study confirmed the role of influencers in brand marketing. Followers' trust in the influencer's brand content plays an important role in brand relationships and purchase intention. Therefore, brand managers can also consider increasing investment in influencer marketing. Specifically, brands can select influencers by assessing consumers' perceptions of the influencers' attractiveness, expertise, originality, homophily, interaction, trust, and perceived credibility This study also emphasized the importance of self-brand connection by consumers during the marketing process. In collaborating with influencers, brands should choose influencers that match the brand concept and require them to use realistic display methods and scenarios to highlight products or services. The research helps consumers to make better purchases in line with the correct understanding of advertising in social networks and knowing the characteristics of advertisers and their characteristics. This research serves as a reference on influencer management for social media platforms. According to the seven main characteristics of the source of influencers, social media companies can improve the quality of influencers on their platforms and lead and limit the behavior of influencers. As a result, the tendency of social media users to the operating system increases and companies can invest in potential influencers with a perspective to achieve sustainable influencer marketing development.

    Keywords: Self-brand connection, Social Media, customer attitude, Purchase intention, Influencers’ characteristics
  • Babak Rashidi Ashtiani, Seyyed Hamid Khodadad Hosseini *, Beytollah Akbari Moghaddam Pages 230-262
    Introduction

    Creating effective online customer experiences through well-designed product web pages is critical to success in online retailing. How such web pages should look specifically, however, remains unclear (Bleier et al., 2018). Unlike traditional retail, customers evaluate products online not through physical interaction but through verbal and visual stimuli (design elements) on product web pages (Lemon & Verhoef, 2016). Kovikaite et al. (2009) stated that the detailed evaluation of verbal and visual package elements and their impacts on consumer’s purchase decision, taking into consideration involvement level, time pressure or individual characteristics of consumers, is necessary in order to implement efficient packaging decisions. Also, Blair et al. (2018) focused on product web pages, but a design perspective could also improve the understanding of other domains in which verbal and visual stimuli build customer experiences, such as mobile apps. Previous research has examined only a few design factors individually, with a quantitative method and only in the web environment. It has hardly examined the various dimensions of customer experience based on the verbal and visual characteristics of online store platforms. Elaborating on the importance of online store platforms such as website, Instagram and mobile application, in online selling products, this research will investigate the verbal and visual characteristics that play a pivotal role in the design of online store platforms and product introduction based on the lived experience of customers who buy online from stores.

    Methodology

    Phenomenology is a form of qualitative research that focuses on the study of an individual’s lived experiences in his daily life and his social interaction with other people. In this research, the phenomenology method has been chosen to answer the research questions that are about the conventional experiences and behaviors in people's daily life. The participants were selected from the customers of online store platforms (Websites, Instagram, and Mobile applications) who have made their online purchases during the time of this research. It was important that they have the required knowledge in this field; therefore, valid results could be extracted. The sampling method was non-probable purposive. In terms of gender, 60% of the participants were female, and 40% were male. The theoretical saturation was achieved after 15 semi-structured interviews. Collazzi method was used for the data analysis by the aid of the Max QDA software.

    Results and discussion

    In this research, the online experience of the customers and the verbal and visual characteristics of the online platforms (Websites, Instagram and Mobile applications) were identified. The findings show that online shopping experience includes a number of themes. They are product experience, privacy and security, return and exchange, delivery experience and being user friendly for the customer. The verbal characteristics of the platform include the themes of information, the ease of searching for information, responsiveness and guarantee, the platform announcing, the ease of ordering and purchasing and social communication. The themes of the visual characteristics of the platform include related extra information about product and visual product introducing in platform.

    Conclusion

    Previous research has generally dealt with the topic of verbal and visual characteristics but no study has investigated verbal and visual characteristics with a phenomenological method. The careful and accurate investigation of the verbal and visual characteristics of the online platform, based on customers’ lived experiences, adds novelty to this research and enriches the literature in the field.  In this research, the main and secondary themes of the verbal and visual characteristics of online store platforms (Website, Instagram, and Mobile applications) in product introduction were determined through the lived experience of customers, which can be used for the marketers and designers of online store platforms to increase both the purchase intentions and uncertainty of customers. With the practical suggestions provided in this research, platform designers have better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the visual and verbal factors of their platforms and can increase the desirability of the platforms. These suggestions are divided into three categories of features. Verbal and visual characteristics and suggestions were presented to increase the desired customer experience.There are some limitations in this research. The results of the research cannot be generalized to physical stores, and one must be careful in generalizing them to all type of online store. This research was only conducted on the verbal and visual characteristics of online store platforms and did not investigate which platform creates a better experience. The variables of customer purchase history and age are not controlled, nor is the number of visits by customers from different platforms (Websites, Instagram and Mobile applications).For further research, this study can be replicated among Y & Z Generations separately. There can also be a study of which platforms are most influential in creating a favorable customer experience. In addition, the history of purchasing can be controlled for each participant.

    Keywords: Verbal, visual characteristics of platforms, Online stores, Customers’ lived experience, Phenomenology
  • Sayed Ali Hosseini, Fereydoun Omidi *, Ghasem Rekabdar Pages 263-295
    Introduction

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has only recently found applications in export businesses; hence, there is still a lack of a comprehensive and elaborate view to propose with integration and cohesion on various applications of the IoT technology in export businesses. The present study aims to use grounded theory to investigate the adoption of IoT in export businesses. In the qualitative section of the research, the strategy involves grounded theory and the data gathered from research experts. The qualitative part includes interviews with experts. The corresponding statistical population consists of experts with knowledge of the research subject. In this part, sampling is conducted through the snowball technique, and interviews are continued until theoretical saturation is ensured. All the managers and experts of agricultural machinery export companies in Tehran, Iran, comprise the statistical population of the quantitative part of the research, where the Cochran formula is applied to calculate the sample size. The study uses structural equation modeling and the Smart PLS Software to test the model. The results of the grounded theory-assisted analysis show that some indicators can best be selected to design a model for the application of IoT in export businesses. They include technical infrastructure and the company's environment as categories of context, capabilities & costs as categories of causal conditions, decision-making & planning and process facilitation & acceleration as the core phenomenon categories, learning & training and marketing as categories of actions/interaction strategies, international customer inclusion as categories of intervening conditions, and performance in export businesses as categories of consequences.

    Methodology

    The study takes a mixed explanatory approach. In the qualitative part of the research, hermeneutic phenomenology is applied to explore the participants' lived experiences. To conduct in-depth interviews, a total number of twelve individuals were selected using the snowball sampling technique. The data analysis was performed through coding using the MAXQDA software. The descriptive-survey method is used in the quantitative part of the research. The study uses structural equation modeling and the Smart PLS Software to test the model.

    Findings

    As the results of the secondary coding imply, the indicators selected in designing a model for the application of IoT in export businesses include technical infrastructure and the company's environment as categories of context, capabilities & costs as categories of causal conditions, decision-making & planning and process facilitation & acceleration as the core phenomenon categories, learning & training and marketing as categories of actions/interaction strategies, international customer inclusion as categories of intervening conditions, and performance in export businesses as categories of consequences. The computations in the inter-operative structural modeling suggest that technical infrastructure and the company's environment are exogenous independent variables unaffected by any other variable in the model. The endogenous independent variable is the process facilitation and acceleration, and "international customer inclusion" and "performance" are the dependent variables. Furthermore, learning & training, and marketing are the variables that play a mediating role. The findings also demonstrate that, in agricultural machinery export companies, the desirable components are technical infrastructure, the company's environment, capabilities & costs, process facilitation and acceleration, decision-making & planning, learning & training, marketing, performance, and international customer inclusion.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, the indicators selected in designing a model for the application of IoT in export businesses are technical infrastructure and the company's environment as categories of context, capabilities & costs as categories of causal conditions, decision-making & planning and process facilitation & acceleration as the core phenomenon categories, learning & training and marketing as categories of actions/interaction strategies, international customer inclusion as categories of intervening conditions, and performance in export businesses as categories of consequences. The subject of capabilities & costs precisely refers to the degree of efficiency in the application of IoT in export businesses; that is, how much it costs to gain what extent of capabilities. In the case of indicators such as decision-making & planning and process facilitation and acceleration, the latter being a management indicator, if applied properly, IoT can essentially facilitate the processes, provided that careful planning is carried out and the right decisions are made regarding its adoption. Learning & training are the indicators with a potentially significant role in improved efficiency and the achievement of IoT capabilities. The proper training of managers and employers can be crucial in the technology's acceptance and operation. In this process, marketing such a technology can inspire a different feeling in customers, leading to a host of advantages in a practical sense. International customer inclusion refers to handling and facilitating customer affairs via new technologies such as IoT. Performance can undoubtedly be enhanced if all the indicators are aptly accomplished. The computations in the inter-operative structural modeling indicate that technical infrastructure and the company's environment are exogenous independent variables unaffected by any other variable in the model. The endogenous independent variable is the process facilitation and acceleration, and "international customer inclusion" and "performance" are the dependent variables. Furthermore, learning & training, and marketing are the variables that play a mediating role.

    Keywords: Internet of things, Exporting businesses, Agricultural machinery, Exporter companies