فهرست مطالب

Journal of Chemical Reviews
Volume:6 Issue: 2, Spring 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/11/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
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  • Nandhini Dhanavel, Meenakshi Nandakrishnan * Pages 115-137

    Animal fats have the potential to be a valuable resource in various fields due to their abundance and renewability. This review is aimed to highlight the potential of animal fats for industrial applications. Despite their versatility, the high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and instability have limited their usage. Chemical modification processes such as epoxidation, esterification, and acetylation are used to enhance stability and expand their applicability in various fields. These modified animal fats offer a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based products with a positive impact on the environment. The usage of animal fats in other industries provides more benefits, including reduced dependence on fossil fuels, savings in foreign currency, and an improved rural economy with increased job opportunities. In addition, the utilization of animal fats in the chemical industry can lead to the development of biodegradable products, which have a positive impact on the environment.

    Keywords: Animal fats, Chemically-modified fat, Fatty Acid composition, Biodegradable, Industrial Products
  • Abdul Razak Mohamed Sikkander *, Hazarathaiah Yadav, Manoharan Meena, Nitin Wahi, Krishan Kumar Pages 138-180

    The development of diagnostic nanostents, which blend stent design with nanotechnology to offer multipurpose capabilities, has greatly revolutionized medical diagnostics. Blood vessels can receive structural support and we have real-time diagnosis data from these state-of-art devices. To enhance the precision and efficacy of cardiovascular therapy, diagnostic nanostents are devices that incorporate imaging and diagnostic-oriented nanoparticles. Imaging agents, such as nanoparticles that respond to various imaging modalities, are included in medical imaging procedures to improve the visualization of blood vessels and surrounding tissues. Better diagnostic accuracy and early problem discovery are made possible for greater visibility. This review explores the potential benefits of diagnostic nanostents, including their dual ability to provide structural support and diagnostic skills. The use of nanomaterials that can enhance contrast makes real-time imaging during medical procedures possible and provides immediate feedback to healthcare professionals. Moreover, diagnostic nanostents advance the ideas of personalized medicine. Preclinical research, clinical trials, and more studies are required to verify the safety, efficacy, and utility of these diagnostic nanostents in medicine, despite their many potential advantages. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of research and the dynamic character of nanomedicine, diagnostic nanostents are positioned as a transformative technology that could completely change medical diagnostics in cardiovascular therapy.

    Keywords: Diagnostic nanostents, Stent design intherapeutic approaches, Medical imaging procedures, Long-term safety, Non-invasive imaging techniques
  • Tomnah Ali Mohammed Alamodi, Hatem A. M. Saleh, Fahd Mohammed Abdullah Makhsham, Rasha Kadoun, Yong Feng Chen * Pages 181-201

    Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, has been increasingly associated with diabetes mellitus (DM), suggesting shared pathophysiological mechanisms between the two conditions. Apremilast, a novel phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, has emerged as a promising treatment option for psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis, and recent studies have explored its potential benefits in patients with diabetes. This review provides a thorough investigation of the current literature on apremilast's mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic potential, and safety in psoriasis management, particularly in patients with diabetes. Studies have shown that apremilast's PDE4 inhibition leads to increased cAMP levels, which may improve metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Observational studies have also indicated the potential benefits of apremilast in managing insulin resistance among psoriasis patients. In addition, drug interaction studies have shed light on the effects of co-administering apremilast with other substances, emphasizing the importance of cautious prescribing. In conclusion, apremilast holds promise as a powerful and secure treatment option for psoriasis patients, with potential benefits in managing insulin resistance in patients with diabetes. Further research and larger clinical trials are needed to validate and expand upon these findings, paving the way for more personalized and effective therapeutic approaches.

    Keywords: Psoriasis, Diabetes Mellitus, Apremilast, comorbidity, pharmacokinetics, safety
  • Narendra D. Badgujar, Melwin D. Dsouza, Ganpat R. Nagargoje, Prasad D. Kadam, Kalimoddin I. Momin, Abhay S. Bondge, Sharad P. Panchgalle, Vijaykumar Shivdas More * Pages 202-236

    Among the many natural ingredients and pharmacological drugs that contain heterocyclic compounds, benzothiazole (BTA), and its derivatives stand out as particularly significant. BTA analogs provide a great deal of structural diversity, which has been helpful in the quest for new therapeutic drugs, and BTA itself displays a variety of pharmacological features. Because each BTA derivative has its own unique set of pharmacological effects, it is clear that this class of chemicals is intriguing. Medicinal chemistry based on BTAs is a hot subject right now, with lots of new research and discoveries happening in the field. In particular, there are a plethora of BTA-based compounds that have found widespread clinical use as highly effective medications for a wide range of disorders. Current developments of BTA-based compounds in medicinal chemistry as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-HIV, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, antihistaminic, antimalarial, and other medicinal agents are presented in this work systematically and thoroughly. More effective diagnostic agents, pathologic probes, and BTA-based medications that are both active and less toxic, can be rationally designed, according to the authors of this review study.

    Keywords: Benzothiazole, Heterocyclic compounds, medicinal chemistry, Therapeutic drugs
  • Aduloju Emmanuel Ibukun *, Muhammad Ariffuddin Bin Abd Hamid, Ahmad Husaini Mohamed, Nur Nadhirah Mohamad Zain, Mohammad Anuar Kamaruddin, Saw Hong Loh, Sazlinda Kamaruzaman, Noorfatimah Yahaya Pages 237-303

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been extensively used in agriculture to boost crop yields, creating a significant and enduring global contaminant with adverse effects on the environment and human well-being. These pesticides are characterized by their bioaccumulative and persistent nature, capable of long-distance dispersion. To address this challenge, efforts are ongoing to develop advanced technologies for effectively removing OCPs from the environment, thereby mitigating their impact through appropriate treatment methods in soil and other environmental matrices. Specifically, extensive research has been conducted on the utilization of nanomaterials, including TiO2, Fe2O3, graphene, and graphene oxide, as sorbents in sample preparation and degradation techniques. Graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) exhibit unique combination of outstanding characteristics derived from carbon materials (such as exceptional physical, chemical properties, mechanical, and electronic features), deep eutectic solvents (DES) (acting as a functionalization agent), and nanomaterials (including an ultrahigh surface area, abundant functional groups, and a nanometer-scale structure). This review focuses on the adsorption and degradation of OCPS and their metabolites using the remarkable attributes of a mixed graphene-based sorbent, deep eutectic solvents (DES) and MNPs. The combination of these materials, with features such as an expansive surface area (2630 m² g-¹), hydrophilicity, inherent adsorption sites on both sides for molecules, hydrophobicity, double-sided polyaromatic scaffold, adaptable surface modification, hydrogen-bonding, and extensive π-electron structure, positions them as excellent advanced adsorbents and efficient photocatalysts for Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction (MSPE) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). These characteristics make them suitable for extracting OCPs from different environmental matrices such as food, environment water, medicine, and biological samples.

    Keywords: Magnetic graphene oxide, Functionalization, Deep eutectic solvent, Solid phase extraction, Physicochemical properties, Sample preparation, Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)