فهرست مطالب

کاوش نامه ادبیات تطبیقی - پیاپی 53 (بهار 1403)

کاوش نامه ادبیات تطبیقی
پیاپی 53 (بهار 1403)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • حمید آقاجانی*، فاطمه کریمی صفحات 1-17
    شرایط سیاسی و اجتماعی ملل مختلف همواره دو شریان مهم در انتقال فرهنگ و ادبیات به قلمرو یکدیگر بوده است. در دوره اسلامی نفوذ دستگاه های سیاسی اعراب مسلمان در مرزهای ایران، سبب شد که به صورت خودکار سیاست، فرهنگ و ادبیات دو ملل بر یکدیگر اثر بگذارد و عالمان، دانشمندان و ادیبانی فرهیخته ظهور یابند که امروزه نیز در نوع خود منحصر به فردند. از ادبای کم نظیر دو ادبیات فارسی و عربی می توان به نظامی عروضی و ابو بکر صولی اشاره کرد. نظامی از مولفان شناخته شده ادبیات فارسی کوشیده در چهار مقاله وظایف چهار طبقه مهم در دستگاه سیاسی حکومت را معرفی کند که یکی از این طبقات مختص به دبیری و شرایط و صفات آن است. همچنین ابو بکر صولی در کتاب، ادب الکتاب، کوشیده به اهمیت وظایف دبیر در دستگاه سیاسی بپردازد. وی در آموزه های خود وجوه اشتراکی با نظامی عروضی دارد که البته این بدان معنا نیست دو مولف از یکدیگر اثر پذیرفته اند؛ چه بسا نفوذ فرهنگ دو ملل در قلمرو یکدیگر سبب شده تشابهاتی در آموزه های ایشان یافت شود که در کنار وجوه افتراق این تعالیم، قابل تامل و بررسی است. بنابراین پژوهش پیش رو کوشیده در چشم اندازی تطبیقی و با هدف شناخت همگونی ها و ناهمگونی های این دو اثر، آنها را مورد نقد و تطبیق قرار دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: ادب الکتاب، ابوبکر الصولی، چهار مقاله، نظامی عروضی، ادبیات تطبیقی
  • کلثوم باقری، ناصر زارع* صفحات 19-41
    یکی از رویکردهای جدید در شخصیت شناسی، الگوی انیاگرام است که اولین بار توسط یک ارمنستانی یونانی تبار به نام ایوانویچ گورجیف (1877-1949م) مطرح شد. به نظر گورجیف، شخصیت ها به نه تیپ (اصلاح طلب، یاری رسان، موفقیت طلب، فردگرا، فکور، وفادار، خوشگذران، رهبر و صلح جو) تقسیم می شوند که هر یک دارای ابعاد اجتماعی، فکری و احساسی خاص خود است. علاوه براین، هر شخصیتی مرکب از سه جنبه سالم، متوسط و ناسالم است. احمد خالد التوفیق نویسنده مصری و محمود اعتمادزاده نویسنده ایرانی در دو رمان یوتوپیا (آرمان شهر) و دختر رعیت، با هنرمندی تمام، اوضاع آشفته جوامع خود و تاثیر آن بر شخصیت ها را به تصویر کشیده اند. براین اساس، پژوهش حاضر به تطبیق شخصیت های این دو اثر، براساس نظریه انیاگرام پرداخته است. طبق نتایج پژوهش، در رمان یوتوپیا، تیپ هفت (خوشگذران) و در رمان دختر رعیت، تیپ دو (یاری رسان) و تیپ هشت (رهبر) بیشترین بسامد را دارند؛ اما اغلب شخصیت های دو رمان در لایه های متوسط و ناسالم شخصیتی قرار دارند. آشفتگی اوضاع جامعه و عدم تعادل و حمایت اجتماعی، بی عدالتی ها و فقدان قانون و پایمال شدن حقوق انسانی از جمله عللی است که بر سلامت روان افراد تاثیر گذاشته و موجب آشفتگی روانی و اختلال در شخصیت افراد و بروز ناهنجاری در رفتار آنان گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: یوتوپیا، دختر رعیت، انیاگرام، تیپشناسی، شخصیت
  • عاطفه رحمانی*، مهین حاجی زاده، عبدالاحد غیبی صفحات 43-67

    نظریه سطوح معنایی کارکردی پی یرگیرو، وام گرفته از نظریه تواصل رومن یاکوبسن است، با این تفاوت که وی کارکردهای شش گانه زبان را تلفیقی از نشانه شناسی زیبایی شناسی، منطقی و اجتماعی می داند که در این نظریه متون،  نشانه ها، رمزگان ها و کاربرد آن ها در فضای بیرون و درون بررسی می شوند.  پژوهش حاضر که با روش تحلیلی-تطبیقی و بر اساس مکتب آمریکایی انجام شده، در پی تحلیل اشعار عزالدین میهوبی(1) و احمد شاملو بر پایه نظریه سطوح معنایی کارکردی گیرو است. یافته های این پژوهش نشان می دهد که  این سطوح در اشعار دو شاعر به طور کلی در قالب کارکردهای ارجاعی، عاطفی، زیبایی شناختی، کنایی، همدلی و فرازبانی تجلی یافته اند؛ و از وجوه تشابه و تفاوت بر پایه نظریه سطوح معنایی گیرو این است که کارکردهای عاطفی، ادبی، همدلی و ارجاعی، بیشترین بسامد را در اشعار هر دو شاعر دارند، اما ساختارهای زبانی و گزینش هنر سازه ای بیانی در شعر آن دو به دلیل تفاوت زبانشان، متفاوت است. همچنین کارکرد ارجاعی در اشعار هریک از آن ها با شخصیت های دینی و تاریخی، نمود پیدا کرده، اما به دلیل تفاوت دین دو شاعر (یکی مسلمان و دیگری مسیحی) این کارکرد در اشعارشان متفاوت است. همچنین کارکرد زیبایی شناختی در قالب مفهوم زندان و آزادی در شعر دو شاعر متجلی است، اما به دلیل تمایز فلسفه زندگی دو شاعر که در ناخودآگاه آن ها نقش بسته است، در شعر شاملو برخلاف میهوبی خود را اسیر تقدیر و محبوس در زندان می داند. کارکرد فرازبانی نیز کم ترین بسامد را در شعر دو شاعر داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: سطوح معنایی کارکردی، پی یر گیرو، عزالدین میهوبی، احمد شاملو
  • کیامرث شاه ولی* صفحات 69-89
    دوبیتی یکی از قالب ها و گونه های شعری است که کاربرد دوبیتی در ادبیات فارسی پرکاربردتر از ادبیات عربی است. دو فرهنگ، دو زبان و دو ملیت ایرانی و عربی دارای تعاملات مشترکی در ابعاد مختلف هستند. بدون تردید سبک ها، قالب های شعری و بحور عروضی از این تعامل و به دنبال آن تاثیر و تاثر بی بهره نبوده است. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی کاربرد دوبیتی در ادبیات فارسی و ادبیات عربی با روش تحقیق تحلیل محتوا و بر اساس شیوه های پژوهشی نوین ادبیات تطبیقی و به ویژه مکتب فرانسوی ادبیات تطبیقی انجام گرفته است. یافته های این پژوهش به صورت مختصر عبارت اند از: در باب خاستگاه دوبیتی، در منابع مورد مطالعه سه دیدگاه وجود دارد: دیدگاهی که خاستگاه آن نوع قالب شعری را پیش از اسلام می داند. دیدگاهی که زایش آن را قرن سوم هجری دانسته است و دیدگاهی که منشا دوبیتی را بیرون از ادبیات فارسی و ادبیات عربی می داند. به طور قاطع پژوهشگران عرصه ادب فارسی و عربی با استدلال های منطقی و علمی اثبات کرده اند، این وزن شعری در ادب عربی وجود نداشته و برگرفته از ادبیات فارسی و تحت تاثیر آن ادبیات در ادبیات عربی رواج یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: دوبیتی، الدوبیت، ادب عربی، ادبی فارسی، ادبیات تطبیقی
  • عبدالحکیم صفرزایی، فواد عبدالله زاده*، عبدالباسط عرب یوسف آبادی صفحات 91-112
    داستان فانتزی کودک باوجود رارگرفتن در تضاد با عالم واقع، از شخصیت ها و حوادث فراواقعی ساخته می شود؛ اما اثری ژرف در فکر و روحیه کودک گذاشته و او را برای تکامل اجتماعی و رفتار بهنجار آماده می کند. چنین نگاهی به داستان های کودک در حیطه کارکرد شناختی ادبیات کودک قرار می گیرد. از آن جاکه رشد شناختی در توالی و پیشرفت سایر فرایندهای رشد کودک نقش به سزایی دارد؛ لذا شایسته است در داستان نویسی کودک به کارکرد شناختی متناسب با هر گروه سنی توجه شود. در این پژوهش با تکیه بر روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با هدف بررسی کارکرد شناختی فانتزی در پیشبرد خلاقیت کودک سعی بر آن است فرایندهای جاندارپنداری، نمادپردازی تمثیلی، خودپنداره، عزت نفس و خوداثربخشی در داستان های منتخب عادل الغضبان و محمدرضا یوسفی مورد بررسی تطبیقی قرار گیرد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که داستان های دو نویسنده نقش به سزایی در تحکیم مهارات شناختی رشد کودک داشته و باعث تقویت هویت فردی و اجتماعی وی می شود. شخصیت های فانتزی در داستان های هر دو نویسنده بیشتر با دو کارکرد مهم شناختی عزت نفس و خوداثربخشی، جنبه های خلاقیت را به مخاطب/کودک القا می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: داستان فانتزی کودک، رشدشناختی، فانتزی سازی، محمدرضا یوسفی، عادل الغضبان
  • یحیی معروف*، سمیه بختیاری، تورج زینی وند، علی سلیمی صفحات 113-135
    میراث هر کشوری نشان از اصالت و هویت آن کشور دارد؛ بسیاری از شاعران با پرداختن به میراث گذشتگان، نقش ارزنده ای در جهت حفظ آن داشته اند. در این میان، شاعران زن، دوشادوش مردان به این امر توجه داشته و با آنان همنوا شده اند. سیمین بهبهانی و بشری بستانی، به دلیل شناخت فراوانی که در حوزه ادبیات و تاریخ دارند، توانسته اند در بهره گیری از میراث گذشته خویش موفق عمل کنند. آنها اگرچه از دو اقلیم متفاوت هستند اما در به کارگیری میراث ملی و دینی، اشتراکات فراوانی دارند. این پژوهش با رویکردی توصیفی-تحلیلی و بر اساس مکتب آمریکایی، به تطبیق میراث در اشعار این دو شاعر پرداخته است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که بهره گیری از مفاخر گذشته در اشعار آنها به روشنی منعکس شده است؛ به طوری که سیمین از پادشاهان ساسانی، حافظ و سعدی سخن می گوید و بشری از پادشاهان عراق، متنبی و ابوتمام نام می برد که این امر بیانگر تسلط دو شاعر به فرهنگ غنی خویش است. از آنجا که دو شاعر حوادث مشترکی همچون جنگ را تجربه کرده اند، بنابراین ظلم ستیزی، از مظاهر بارز شعر آنهاست. بشری افزون بر اسطوره های عربی از اسطوره های روم و یونان استفاده کرده است در حالی که نگاه سیمین بیشتر به اسطوره های ایرانی است.
    کلیدواژگان: سیمین بهبهانی، بشری بستانی، میراث، اسطوره، مکتب تطبیقی آمریکایی
  • فاروق نعمتی*، سهیلا کاظم علیلو، پروین خلیلی، مسعود باوان پوری صفحات 137-158
    مطالعات تطبیقی یکی از علوم روزآمد و تاثیرگذاری است که دارای رویکردهای مختلفی است؛ یکی از این رویکردها، تصویرشناسی است که به بررسی چهره خودی یا دیگری در ادبیات می پردازد. طالب عمران، یکی از نویسندگان سوری است که در کشور هند تحصیل کرده است. حاصل مدت تحصیل وی در این کشور، رمان احزان السندباد است که با دیدی عمیق و دقیق به توصیف جنبه های مختلف زندگی مردم هندوستان می پردازد. پژوهش حاضر کوشیده است با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با تکیه بر مکتب فرانسوی ادبیات تطبیقی به تصویرشناسی هندویان در این رمان بپردازد. نتایج اولیه این پژوهش بیانگر آن است که جنبه های مختلف دینی و مذهبی، فرهنگی و اعتقادی، سیاسی و اقتصادی در کنار جنبه اجتماعی و توصیف خوراک مردم هندوستان، از مهم ترین موضوعات مطرح شده در رمان است. همچنین جنبه اجتماعی بارزترین وجه ذکر شده در رمان است که بیشتر پیرامون مساله فقر و وضعیت زنان می چرخد. توصیف دقیق خوراکی های مردم هند یکی دیگر از مواردی است که با دقت خاصی صورت گرفته است. بررسی ها نشان می دهد که نویسنده، دیدگاهی خنثی و در برخی موارد، مثبت نسبت به مردم هند داشته و در مجموع، تصویر مثبت و مناسبی از آنان به نمایش گذاشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات تطبیقی، تصویرشناسی، طالب عمران، احزان السندباد
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  • Hamid Aghajani *, Fatemeh Karimi Pages 1-17
    The political and social conditions of different countries have always been referred to as the two dominant arteries in transmitting culture and literature to their respective lands. In the Islamic era, the influence of Arab-Islamic political institutions on the borders of Iran has led to the influence of politics, culture, and literature in the two addressed countries and the emergence of educated scholars and writers who were distinguished with respect to their own ways. Nezami Arouzi and Abu Bakr al-Suli can be mentioned among the distinguished writers in Persian and Arabic literature. Nezami, who is reknowned as one of the most famous writers in Persian literature, has had an attempt to present the duties of four important categories in the political apparatus of the government in an article. One of these categories is concerned with the writer, and more specifically, his conditions and characteristics. Precisely, as it has been noted out by al-suli in adab al-kotab has paid a great deal of attention to the duties of the teacher within the political system. Furthermore, multiple common features can be found in al-suli’s work with that of Nezami. However, this does not mean that the two authors have been influenced by each other. Perhaps the impact of culture of the two poets in their respective lands has given rise to similarities in their teachings, which can be studied and investigated in addition to the differences between them. Accordingly, this research attempted to criticize and compare them from a comparative perspective so as to know the similarities and differences between these two works
    Introduction
    In the Islamic period, the influence of Muslim-Arab political institutions in Iran's borders has led to the mutual impact of the politics, culture and literature of the two nations. Furthemore, it has led to the emergence of prominent scholars, scientists and writers who are unique in their kind, even by today’s standards. Among the prominent writers of Persian and Arabic literature, we can mention Nizami Arouzi and Abu Bakr Soli. In Chahar Maqale, Nizami Arouzi introduces the duties of four important classes in the political apparatus of the government, one of which is specific to writing and its conditions and attributes. Abu Bakr Souli also discusses the importance of secretary’s duties in the political system in Adab al-Kutab.
    Among the schools of comparative literature, the names of two schools are prominent. French school and American school. In the French school, the issue of influence is of utmost importance, and in the American school, the commonalities and differences of literary works are discussed regardless of the issue of impact and impression have been given the highest priority.This research is an attempt to identify the similarities and distinctions of these two literary works regarding the characteristics and conditions of writing, regardless of their influence and impression via examining the two works of Nizami Arouzi and Abu Bakr Souli based on the American school of thought.
    Method
    This research is based on the analytical descriptive method and the French school of thought for comparative literature. Furthermore, it reviews the characteristics and conditions of the authors in the Adab al-Kutab by Souli and Chahar Maqale by Arouzi Samarkandi and the similarities and differences of these two works.
    Results and Discussion
    The conventional and accepted methods of writing in these two works are based on the fact that both writers have common opinions in alignment with the observance of the writing principles such as observing politeness, knowing the people of the time, and respecting the elders. However, due to the existing cultural and social differences, they also have differences in the field of letter writing and writing methods. As an instance, Rouzi selects features and moral characteristics that cannot be seen in Souli’s book.
    Conclusion
    AbuBakr Souli shares common features with Nizami Arouzi, but this does not mean that the two authors were influenced by each other; Perhaps the influence of the culture of the two nations on each other's territory has caused similarities between the two, which can be considered and examined in addition to the differences in these teachings. Nizami Arouzi selects the characteristics and moral qualities that are not observed in Abu Bakr Souli and, on the other hand, he chooses characteristics that are related to his nature, innate intelligence, and moral qualities. In case a writer is not a respectable, intelligent, and thoughtful person and chooses the job of writing merely for earning money, he will not succeed in his career. From Abu Bakr Souli’s perspective, there are also principles in the art of calligraphy and writing that Arouzi did not mention. Principles such as the necessity of calligraphy and choosing a good font, selecting a good and suitable compound, paper, and pen, how to seal the letter, and last but not least, editing and revising the letter after finalizing it.
    Keywords: Adab al-Kuttab, Abu Bakr al-Souli, Chahar Maqala, Nezami Arouzi, Comparative Literature
  • Kolsom Bagheri, Naser Zare * Pages 19-41
    One of the new approaches in the study of characters is the Enneagram pattern which was initially proposed by the Greek-Armenian "Ivanovich Gurdjieff" (1877-1949). As declared by Gurdjieff, the characters are subdivided into nine types (i.e., reformer, helper, success seeker, individualist, thoughtful, loyal, fun-love, leader, and pacifist), and each of thess characters carry their specified features, and their own social, intellectual and emotional dimensions. Furthermore, any personality comprises three different aspects: fair, moderate, and unfair. Egyptian writer Ahmad Khalid al-Tawfiq and Iranian writer Mahmoud Etemadzadeh had artistically portrayed all the turbulent situations in their societies and their impacts on the characters in two novels, Utopia and peasant’s daughter. Accordingly, this study adjusts the characters of these two works, based on Enneagram theory. As the result have indicated, in Utopia novel, the seventh type (fun-love) and in the peasant’s daughter novel, the second (i.e., helpers) and eighth (i.e., leader) types have the highest frequency. However, most of the characters of both novels are grouped as focused and possess an unfair character. The social turmoil, the imbalance and social support, injustices and lack of law and violation of human rights are among the causes that impact the character's mental health and lead to the psychological turmoil, personality disorders and abnormal behavior. 
    Introduction
    The notion of "character" is one of the pivotal elements in the framework of any story, and the structure of the story is built upon this element. Precisely, the presence of a character in any literary work is essential considering the fact that a story cannot take shape without the presence of a character. There are numerous theories and patterns regarding the understanding of personalities and various character types, each of which describes and categorizes characters based on different patterns. One of these theories is the Enneagram. The Enneagram is a ninefold pattern of personalities aimed at familiarizing individuals with the dimensions of human character, as well as promoting further growth and self-awareness. This theory was initially introduced by George Ivanovich Gurdjieff, a Russian mystic.
    Method
    This research employs a descriptive-analytical methodology and the process of data collection is conducted in a library style, and its theoretical framework has also been based on the American school of comparative literature.
    Results and Discussion
    Gurdjieff has based his teachings on the coordination of the three centers of human consciousness (the thinking center, the emotional center, and the moving center). He believd that these three centers must function in harmony for what is learned to have real value. According to Gurdjieff's viewpoint, the Enneagram model is a nine-pointed, nine-sided figure, where each personality type falls within a group. Furthermore, each personality owns its social, intellectual, and emotional dimensions. The personality types which are presented in these two novels include types Two, Three, Six, Seven, Eight, and Nine. The characteristics and levels of mental health of the main personalities (Safiye, Morad, Alaa, Serjani, Jaber, and Soghra; Haj Ahmad, Ahmad Gol, Mahdi, Balqis) have been examined, and the secondary personalities (Nargis, Khadija, Abbas-e-Mar, Moshti Aghdokht, Ibrahim, Rostam Ali, Germaine, Larraine, Rasam, Saleh, Ezzat, Mohtaram, Sarwar, Rabaabeh, Alijan) have been assessed. In the novel Utopia, types one, four, five, and six are not pointed out, while in the novel Peasant Daughter, types one, four, five, and nine are absent.
    Conclusion
    As implied by Enneagram personality model, most of these characters are at an average and unsound level of personality. The authors have depicted a social condition in these two works in which the majority of their personalities, whether rich or poor, have lost their equilibrium of personality. In Utopia, social turmoil, the greed and avarice of individuals in accumulating wealth and losing a sense of community, as well as the abundance of blessings and their improper use, have led the characters towards negative qualities of an unhealthy hedonistic type, such as depression, isolation, aggression, excessive indulgence in sexual pleasures, drug addiction, callousness, and dragging them towards behaviors that include a lack of empathy and compassion. In a way, youths see their escape from the perspective of facing dangers and killing poor individuals. In the novel Peasant’s Daughter, the confrontation between the landlords and the peasants, the economic crises caused by war and the emergence of new movements on the lower classes of society, and the economic situation of the people have greatly affected them and led individuals to lean towards average and unhealthy levels in the face of unresolved problems. What has led to commonality between the two novels, in addition to employing more unhealthy personalities against healthy personalities, is a societal condition that both authors have described. In both communities, a mental security that individuals' psychological well-being is dependent on has been disturbed, and a form of anxiety in personalities has been created, bringing them closer to average and unhealthy levels of personalityt.
    Keywords: Utopia, Peasant’s Daughter, enneagram, typology, personality
  • Atefeh Rahmani *, Mahin Hajizadeh, Abdolahad Gheibi Pages 43-67

    Pierre Guiraud's theory of semantic functional levels is originated in Roman Jakobson's communication theory. The distinction lies in his interpretation of the six functions of language, which he views as a blend of semiology, aesthetics, logic, and sociology. This theory is meant to examine the texts, signs, codes, and their uses in both external and internal contexts. The current study, employing the analytical-comparative method and drawing upon the American school of linguistics, aims at investigating the poems of Azzedine Mihoubi and Ahmad Shamlou through the lens of Guiraud’s theory of semantic functional levels. As indicated by the results of this study, these levels are typically manifested in referential, emotive, aesthetic, injunctive, pathic, and metalinguistic functions in poems of these two poets. Points of similarity and difference, according to Guiraud’s theory of semantic levels, include the observation that emotive, literary, empathetic, and referential functions are more prevalent in their poems. However, distinct linguistic structures and diverse constructive and expressive forms are employed which signify the differences in their languages. Moreover, the referential function in their poems is exemplified through religious and historical characters. Considering their distinct religious backgrounds—one being Muslim and the other Christian—the manifestation of this function varies in their respective poems and the aesthetic function is exemplified in their poems through the concepts of prison and freedom. However, due to their distinct philosophies of life embedded in their subconscious, Shamlou perceives himself as a prisoner of fate and confined within the prison. Finally, the least frequently observed function in their poems is the metalinguistic function. 

    Introduction

    Pierre Guiraud holds the idea that semiotics is the science devoted to the study of all cultural phenomena within semiotic systems. His theory can be considered a continuation of semiotic theory, focusing on the examination of texts, signs, codes, and their utilization in both internal and external contexts.Guiraud has categorized codes into three groups: logical, aesthetic, and social. However, before delving into these codes, he examines two functional levels of a message: meaning and signification. Guiraud explores the two semantic functional levels of a message and two contrasting forms of signification. He contends that one of these two forms of signification is originated in logical and technical signs, while the other arises from the function of sensory and aesthetic signs. The function of a sign is to communicate or convey a thought through a message. This implies the presence of elements such as the means of communication, sender, and receiver. Roman Jakobson utilized a schema borrowed from communication theory to delineate six functions of language. According to Guiraud’s functional semiotic theory, Jakobson’s analysis is applicable to all forms of communication. This implies that he views referential and metalinguistic functions as components of logical semiotics, and attributes a dual linguistic function to the emotive function. If the function is objective, it falls within logical semiotics and in case it is sensory, it becomes part of aesthetic semiotics. Guiraud regards aesthetic and empathetic functions as aesthetic and social codes. Additionally, he posits that the issue of functions is linked to another phenomenon, namely the means of communication, the intermediary of the message, or, in modern terms, media. In the current research, the components of Guiraud’s functional semantic levels will be examined within the framework of the three poles (sender, text, receiver) in the poems of Azzedine Mihoubi and Ahmad Shamlou.

    Method

    The American school of linguistics addresses emerging topics like semiotics and explores the connections between literature and various sciences, including social science. A fundamental tenet of this school is found to be the affinity between subject and literature. Contemporary American scholars have also asserted that comparative literature embodies a literature of difference in a broad sense. In light of these aspects, it can be argued that these two Algerian and Iranian poets were not influenced by each other in the creation of their poetic works. However, notwithstanding their political differences, there are similarities in the subject matters and contents of their poems, suggesting a shared spirit. Thus, a research method based on Guiraud’s functional semantic levels and the American school of linguistics is to be employed and as the result of which, the question of mutual influence becomes inconsequential.

    Results and Discussion

    Considering the three poles of sender, text, and receiver, Guiraud’s functional semantic levels encompass the following functions.Referential FunctionThe referential function serves as the bedrock of any communication, establishing the connections between the message and the subject it refers to. Guiraud holds the idea that the fundamental challenge lies in formulating authentic, objective, observable, and verifiable information. This is the goal of logical semiotics, encompassing epistemological codes and the codes of various sciences. Among these are codes designed to prevent any merging of the sign and the object and to impede the blending of the message and the encoded fact. This function conveys a meaning that is neither the sender's emotion nor the receiver's. Furthermore, it is not necessarily exquisite. All methodologies that offer content criticisms of artistic work lie under the realm of referential functions. This function is evident in the representation of religious and historical characters in the poems of these two poets.Emotive FunctionThis function conveys the relationships between the message and the sender. When we utilize language or any other method of signification to initiate communication, we articulate ideas about the significance of the message's referent. However, we can also express our attitudes toward the subject, for example, by stating our view that the phenomenon is good or bad, ugly or beautiful. Nevertheless, it is important not to conflate the spontaneous manifestation of feelings, character, and social status—natural indicators—with their use for the purpose of communication. For Guiraud, the referential and emotive functions simultaneously complement and compete with each other in the realm of communication. This frequently gives rise to the dual function of language: an epistemological and objective function (logical coding) and an emotive, subjective function (aesthetic coding). These two functions involve two different types of encoding, with the latter arising from stylistic varieties and implicatures. This function is evident in the shared subjects of a dedication to friends and a reinterpretation of Christ’s character.Injunctive FunctionThe major duty of this function is to determine the relationships between the message and the receiver, as the aim of every communication is to evoke a response from the receiver. According to Guiraud, an injunction can target either the cognition or the emotion of the receiver. Thus, at this level as well, we can discern objective-subjective and cognitive-emotive distinctions, highlighting the contrast between the referential and emotive functions. This function plays a vital role in advertisements and propagations, where the referential content of the message takes a back seat to signs intended to evoke emotions from the audience. This is achieved either through conditioning by repetition or by eliciting subconscious emotive responses. The use of this function is evident in the poems of these two poets, particularly in the context of patriotism.Aesthetic FunctionA notable example of the aesthetic function can be observed in works of art, where the referent of the message is the message itself. In this case, the message ceases to be merely a means of communication and becomes its own subject. According to Guiraud, art and literature generate subjects that, beyond the immediate signs related to the subject, possess their own significations within a specific semiotic system, such as the stylistic semiotic system, sign circulation, symbolism, and aesthetic semiology. This function is evidently employed in the works of these two poets concerning the use of religious symbols and the theme of freedom and imprisonment.Pathic FunctionThe purpose of this function is to establish, maintain, or terminate relationships through aesthetic semiology. Signs with this function are those whose role is to initiate, sustain, or conclude relationships, ensuring their continuity, capturing the audience's attention, or guaranteeing their attention and vigilance. In Guiraud’s view, the pathic function plays a pivotal role in all forms of communication and relationships. Examples of this function are evident in the poems of Shamlou and Mihoubi through conversations or questions and answers.Metalinguistic FunctionThe metalinguistic function aims to elucidate the meanings of signs that receivers may not understand. To achieve this, a word is enclosed in quotation marks or explained. For Guiraud, the selection of a medium pertains to the metalinguistic function. A work of art often refers back to the chosen codes, rather than the content of the message. Consequently, the metalinguistic function returns the sign to the codes from which the sign derived its meaning. This is how this function is evident in the poems of these two poets (the logic of the people of their respective homelands).

    Conclusion

    Emotive, literary, pathic, and referential functions are the most frequently employed functions in the poems of Mihoubi and Shamlou, as these functions are well-suited to literary texts, aligning with various poetic forms. Furthermore, they bring out the best in poems that exhibit linguistic creativity and imaginative creation, as well as literary and poetic functions. In this regard, various instances from the works of these two poets have been encountered. The emotive function is evident in their poems through the interplay of objective and emotional functions, employing logical and aesthetic semiology, such as a rereading of the character of Christ and a letter to friends. Furthermore, owing to the alignment of poetic language with the poet's personal imagination and emotion, and the representation of the world from the unique poetic perspective of each poet, this function is prominent in the works of these two poets. However, they employ this function differently, which reflects their unique and even divergent perspectives on the surrounding world. The pathic function is also prominent in the poems composed by these two poets. Both employ imaginative codes, falling under aesthetic semiology, to express empathy with people in their poems, as seen in a hypothetical dialogue with a passerby in an alley in Palestinian neighborhoods. Given the intricate structure of contemporary poems, which interconnect various historical, cultural, and other intertextual elements, the referential function is also abundant in their poems. In this context, allusions to historical and religious figures serve as significant examples of the referential function of language. The reader's cognitive knowledge of these figures plays a crucial role in comprehending the hidden layers of this function in their poems. This function takes the form of logical semiology (epistemological coding), wherein readers' awareness and knowledge of these characters play a vital role in understanding the hidden layers of this function in the works of these two poets. It is essential to note that, for various reasons, including differences in the religious background of these two poets, those characters are manifested differently in their poems. Given Mihoubi's Christian faith, his depiction of Mary is as a symbol of alleviating pains and suffering, while Shamlou, with his Islamic background, is primarily focused on Mary's virginity. The least frequently used function is the metalinguistic function, as it primarily appears in dictionaries and books of terminology due to its characteristic of describing language with language. Consequently, it rarely appears in poems, including those of these two poets. This function is elucidated in the poetry of Mihoubi and Shamlou as reverse values encompassing people in society.

    Keywords: Semantic functional levels, Pierre Guiraud, Azzedine Mihoubi, Ahmad Shamlou
  • Kiamars Shahvali * Pages 69-89
    Couplets are considered as one of the most extensively used poetic forms in the Persian language and less commonly used in Arabic. The Iranian and Arabic cultures, languages, and nationalities carry a long history of interaction, which has undoubtedly influenced their styles, poetic forms, and prosody. This research aims to investigate the influence of two-couplets in Persian and Arabic literature using content analysis and modern research methods in comparative literature. The results of this research can be summarized as follows, there exists three views on the origin of couplets according to the studied sources. As suggested by the first view, this poetic form has existed prior to Islam. The other perspective suggests that it originated in the third century of Hijri, however, a third view considers its origin outside Persian and Arab literature. Researchers in the field of Persian and Arabic literature have conclusively proven, with logical and scientific arguments, that this poetic form does not exist in the Arabic language and was adopted from Persian literature, spreading under its influence into Arabic. 
    Introduction
    Couplets are counted as one of the most widely used poetic forms in the Persian language and less commonly used in Arabic. The Iranian and Arabic cultures, languages, and nationalities have a long history of interaction, which has undoubtedly influenced their styles, poetic forms, and prosody.
    Method
    This research aims to investigate the impact of Couplets in Persian and Arabic literature using content analysis and modern research methods in comparative literature.
    Results and Discussion
    Regarding the origin of the couplet, there are three different views in the esisting literature.  The view that considers the origin of that type of poetic form before Islam. Poets like Kikavos, Malek al-Shoara, Shafi'i Kodkani, Jalaluddin Homai and Orientalists such as Ripka and his colleagues insist on this view. A point of view that considers its birth to be in the 3rd century of Hijri, and Zarin Koob, Razi, and Shamisa emphasize on this point of view. The final point of view is the one that considers the origin of the quartet outside the Persian and Arabic literature, and orientalists such as Alul Satin follow this viewpoint. Although in Persian literature, couplets and quatrains, despite the closeness of the structure, are different in prosody and purposes, in Arabic literature, the term "Al-dubite" is used for quatrains and couplets.Two cultures, two languages, and two nationalities, Iranian and Arab, have a historical interaction in different dimensions, and without a doubt, styles, poetic forms, and prosodic style have not been spared from this interaction and its influence. The first conclusive result that is documented and justified and can be deduced from these findings is that the literary relations between Persians and Arabs, like other cultural and social symbols of those two peoples, were mutual. That's why most of the Persian and Arabic literary masters firmly believe that couplets have Iranian and Persian origins or at least they were formed under the influence of the Persian version (Al-dubite). In addition to Persian writers and literary scholars whose names were mentioned in this result, Arab writers and literary scholars such as: Asad Abdul Hadi Qandil, Amil Badie Yaqoub, Ahmad Hashemi, Ibrahim Anis, Muhammad bin Hasan bin Othman, etc. are also of Iranian origin and acknowledge and emphasize the influence of Arab literature from Persian literature in this type of poetry.
    Conclusion
    The results of this research have been summarized in what follows. There are three views on the origin of couplets according to the studied sources. One view suggests that this poetic form existed before Islam, another suggests that it originated in the third century of Hijri, while a third view considers its origin outside the Persian and Arab literature. Researchers in the field of Persian and Arabic literature have conclusively proven, with logical and scientific arguments, that this poetic form does not exist in the Arabic language and was adopted from Persian literature, spreading under its influence into Arabic.
    Keywords: Dubiti, al-dubit, Persian Literature, Arabic Literature, Comparative Literature
  • Abolhakim Safarzaei, Foad Abdolahzadeh *, Abdolbaset Arab Yusofabady Pages 91-112
    Despite the fact that the children's story (fantacies) is in contradiction with the real world, it comprises surreal characters and events. Further, it leaves a deep impression on the child's mind and spirit and prepares him to face the stages of growth and socialize with others. Such a critical look at children's stories is included in the cognitive function of children's literature. Since cognitive development plays a predominant role in the sequence and progress of other child development processes; Therefore, it is critical to pay attention to the appropriateness of the cognitive function for each age group in children's story writing. In this research, with reference to the descriptive-analytical method and with the aim of investigating the cognitive function of fantasy in promoting children's creativity, the processes of animating, allegorical symbolization, self-concept, self-esteem and self-efficacy in the stories of Adil Ghadban and Mohammad Reza Yousefi are comparatively investigated. The results indicate that the stories of two authors play a pivotal role in child's growth processes and strengthen his personal and social identity. Also, the use of characters with high self-confidence evokes a safe and secure hero in the child's mind, which increases his self-confidence. The characters of the fantasy stories of both authors instill the aspects of creativity to the audience/child with two important cognitive features of self-esteem and self-efficacy. 
    Introduction
    The literary genre of fantasy, being prevalent in fiction, has successfully embedded itself within the realm of literature by virtue of writers' imaginative prowess and plays an egregiously pivotal role in children's narratives. An inherent principle of fantasy involves transcending established laws of existence and consequently, engendering the formulation of novel rules and patterns. Within this literary genre, an intriguing play unfolds using conventional language, space, and events. These elements undergo a transformative recreation, intending to evoke a sense of wonder. Beyond the provision of joy, fantasy endeavors to transport the child into extraordinary realms, fostering self-awareness and introspection. Simultaneously, it works to enhance the child's sense of empathy.
    In the current study, relying on the descriptive-analytical method and with the aim of investigating the cognitive function of fantasy in promoting children's creativity, the processes of animating, allegorical symbolization, self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy in the stories of Adil Ghadban and Mohammad Reza Yousefi are comparatively investigated. The results indicate that the stories of two authors carry paramount roles in the child's growth processes and strengthen his personal and social identity. Also, the use of characters with high self-confidence evokes a safe and secure hero in the child's mind, which increases his self-confidence. The characters of the fantasy stories of both authors instill the aspects of creativity to the audience/child with two important cognitive features of self-esteem and self-efficacy
    As provided by this investigation, an exploration of data was undertaken through the lens of cognitive processes such as personification, metaphorical symbolism, self-concept, self-esteem development, and self-efficacy. To scrutinize and interpret the gathered data, components associated with text configuration, as well as structural and conceptual figures of speech, were chosen with a foundation in the cognitive functions of fantasy. Subsequently, the data has undergone a comprehensive analysis aligned with these chosen parameters.
    The characters within the fantasy narratives crafted by both authors predominantly stimulate the creative facets of the reader or child, emphasizing two crucial cognitive dimensions: self-esteem and self-efficacy. Adel Al-Ghadban employs traditional fantasies, incorporating myths, magic, and fairies, to purify the child's mind from negative experiences and memories. Through these fantastical elements, Al-Ghadban endeavors to mold the child's sense of identity and foster their imaginative capabilities. In contrast, Yousefi utilizes his own writing prowess and creativity to introduce personification and metaphorical symbolism, enabling a child to similarly envision these elements within their realm of play. The incorporation of confident and heroic characters in narratives instills a feeling of safe and secure heroism within the minds of children, fostering their self-confidence—an aspect that both authors have diligently emphasized in their stories. Additionally, both authors, conscientiously aligning with psychological principles and cognitive functions of fantasy, have cultivated children's belief in their abilities. Through their narratives, they have depicted a positive, independent, and confident identity, thereby expediting the development of children's self-concept. The juxtaposition of good and evil, as well as ugliness and beauty in the stories of both authors, imparts a robust self-image to the child, influencing them to choose goodness and beauty.
    The narratives crafted by both authors are tailored to align with the cognitive developmental stages of children within specific age groups. Both writers have underscored the significance of fantasy in nurturing children's creativity. Notably, Mohammad Reza Yousefi has undertaken this endeavor by introducing diverse and innovative forms of fantasy, whereas Al-Ghadban has chosen to emphasize it through the lens of classical and mythological fantasy. It is pertinent to highlight that children in age groups "B" and "C" foster creativity by engaging with myths and legends, an aspect that Adel Al-Ghadban has given more prominence to in comparison to Yousefi.
    Keywords: Children's fantasy story, Developmental, Fantasizing, Mohammadreza Yousefi, Adil Ghadban
  • Yahya Marof *, Somayeh Bakhtiary, Tooraj Zinivand, Ali Salimi Pages 113-135
    The originality and identity of any country represents the heritage of that country. A high quantity of poets have played a prominent role in preserving the legacy of the past. In the meantime, female poets, alongside men, have devoted a great deal of attention to this matter and have been in harmony with them. Behbahani and Bostani, with respect to their extensive knowledge in the field of literature and history, have been able to succeed in taking advantage of their heritage. In spite of being originated in diverse regions, they have many commonalities in the use of national and religious heritage. This research, via applying a descriptive-analytical approach and based on the American school of thought, has dealt with the adaptation of heritage in the poems of these two poets. As it has been indicated by the results, the use of past glory is clearly reflected in their poems, so that Simin talks about the Sassanid kings, Hafez and Saadi, and Boshra mentions the kings of Iraq, Motanabi and AbuTamam, which shows the mastery of the two poets in their rich culture. Having stated that the two poets have experienced common events such as war, anti-tyranny is one of the prominent manifestations of their poetry. 
    Introduction
    The word of “heritage” means something that has been inherited from the past and is subdivided into two major parts of material (tangible) and spiritual (intangible). The first division, which is material heritage, includes objects and places, and the second part, which is marked as spiritual heritage, includes cultural heritage, including language, religious beliefs, traditions, history, archetypes, myths, and customs of each nation. This is referred to as a reminder of the national identity of that country and their intermediary with the past. Simin Khalili (1998), known as Simin Behbahani, is known as a prominent contemporary poet and writer. She was selected as a nomitnated woman by the International Foundation for Women's Research, and, in addition, she was able to record dozens of scientific and academic awards in the field of poetry, especially sonnet, in her literary career. Precisely, she was given the title of “Lady of Sonnets” and “Half of Sonnets”. She is one of the poets whose poems have been translated into multiple languages ​​all over the world. Boshra Hamdi Albostani (1985) is a professor of Arabic literature, criticism and text analysis at the faculty of Literature of Mosul University and has several collections of poems and books in the field of criticism and fiction Some of her works have been translated into several languages. These two poets from two different lands have always been guardians of the ancient heritage of their land, and this influence is evident in their poems.
    Method
    In this research, emplying a descriptive-analytical approach and based on the American school of thought, a comparative study of heritage in the poems of Simin Behbahani and Boshra has been provided. The writers have tried to present the common and different aspects of the thought of these two poets by processing the reflection of heritage in the poems of these two poets and explaining it as a new window to the rooted heritage of the past.
    Results and Discussion
    As the results of this research indicates, Simin Behbahani and Boshra Bostani, as two intellectual and committed poets, have been able to succeed in exploiting their past heritage due to their extensive knowledge and mastery in the field of literature and history. Simin, having a nationalistic tendency, believes that; If the Arabic language has distinguished pioneers, their origins and race are Iranian, while humanity continues to be proud of the ancient and deep-rooted Arab past, and both of them have spoken of their roots with full force. Since the birthplaces of two poets are Iran and Iraq, and these two countries are neighbors of each other, and both of them have shared events such as; have experienced war and occupation; Therefore, anti-tyranny (fight against tyranny and suffocation) and criticism of the society's situation are among the prominent manifestations of these two critical poets. The use of poets' names and past heritage is clearly visible in their poetry; Simin speaks of the Sassanid kings, Anushirvan, Hafez, Saadi and Jami, and Boshra mentions the kings of Iraq, Motanabi and Abu Tamam. In his poetry, besides Arabic myths, Boshra has used myths of other nations such as Rome and Greece, while Simin is more inclined towards Iranian myths. Also, Simin's influence of ancient heritage in the form of vocabulary is more than structural antiquity in human poetic language. The religious outlook and thinking formed in the existence of these two poets has caused them to look at the divine and religious values ​​with respect, but Quranic intertextuality is more prominent in Bostani's poetry than in Simin's.
    Conclusion
    The results of this research indicate that Simin Behbahani and Boshra Bostani, as two intellectual and committed poets, have been able to succeed in exploiting their past heritage due to their extensive knowledge and mastery in the field of literature and history. In her poetry, besides Arabic myths, Boshra has used myths of other nations such as Rome and Greece, while Simin is more inclined towards Iranian myths. Also, Simin's influence of ancient heritage in the form of vocabulary is more than structural antiquity in human poetic language, in terms of using the ancient Arab heritage, Boshra does not tie her poem to the audience's gaze, through pointing to the presence of the enemy in his country, which, according to his interpretation, jumps around like a viper. She tries to make the reader to wakes up the sleeplessness and indifference towards the past heritage. In contrast, Simin makes the audience excited and hopes for the future by saying again, "Misazamat-ei Watan".
    Keywords: Simin Behbahani, Boshra Bostani, Heritage, myth, American comparative school
  • Faroogh Nemati *, Soheila Kazem Alilou, Parvin Khalili, Masoud Bavanpouri Pages 137-158
    Comparative studies are referred to as one of the modern and influential science types that own distinctive approaches. Iconology is addressed as one of the approaches which examines the face of oneself or others in literature. Taleb Imran, the Syrian writer who studied in India, has indicated that Ahzan Al-Sandbad's novel describes various aspects of Indian people's life via possessing a deep and meticulous view. The present research has attempted to deal with the iconography of Hindus in this novel by using the descriptive-analytical method. The primary results of this research indicate that various aspects of religion, culture and belief, politics and economy, alongside the social aspect and the description of the food of the people of India, are among the most prominent topics raised in the novel. Furthermore, the social aspect is the most tangible feature in the novel, which mostly revolves around the issue of poverty and the status of women. The detailed description of the foods of the Indian people is another thing that has been done with special care. Studies show that the author had a neutral and in some cases positive view of the Indian people and overall, he described their image well. 
    Introduction
    In almost all fields of intrellectual, cultural, and political life, especially in various forms of literature (e.g. novels. poems, stories, or plays), studies and researches related to the subject of "the other" has been taken into consideration. By focusing on the framework of what is known as the "dialogue of civilizations", it has built a cultural bridge between me and the other to create certain images in line with my understanding being eager to discover myself and drawing an alien one that helps understanding the manifestations of life based on "imagery" studies that has been fasible within the framework of comparative literary and critical studies. As Mohammad Ghanimi Hilal declares in this respect, "This is the newest field of research in comparative literature. Although it is not more than thirty years since the oldest research in this regard, it is full of research that promises to become one of the most extensive and pioneering fields of comparative literature in the future. Imagery has emerged in France in the 19th century being influenced by the theories of thinkers such as Madame Dostal and Hippolyte Ton. In this relatively new approach, the image of foreign countries and personalities is studied in the works of an author or a time period and school. The science of imagery appeared in the French school with Jean-Marie Carré, after which Francois Guyard, one of the poles of comparative literature in France, took this theory and defended it in Comparative Literature (the book) in 1951. After that, this type of study began to develop rapidly. This approach is included in the French school of comparative literature due to the fact that the French school gives credit to issues such as the influence of an author on the literature of other nations, tourism literature and travelogues, and in general, the position of one country towards the literature of another country.
    Method
    Taleb Imran, a Syrian writer, has spent a part of his education at Aligarh University in India. In Ahzan Al-Sandabad's novel, which may be a part of his life or a part of science-fiction literature, he has described his adventures in India and his love for a girl, Nilam. In this novel, he has attempted to present an accurate and unbiased picture of an Indian society. The purpose of this research is to investigate examples that reflect other Indian images by using the descriptive-analytical method and relying on the French school of comparative literature. The choice of this novel and this topic is precisely because the novel has examples that place the reader in the atmosphere of Hindu life and depicts the lives of the characters without specifying a specific point of view and provides the reader with useful information about the life of Indians. This novel was translated by Masoud Bhavanpuri and Seyyedah Samira Mansouri (1401) under the name "Sinbad's Sorrows" and this translation is used in this research.
    Results and Discussion
    Taleb Imran has pointed out the existence of religion and the adherence of Hindus to these matters without favoring a particular religion. While introducing the city of Indore and its distance from Aligarh, he talks about the existence of Hindus and Sikhs together, which indicates the peacefulness of life in India. Also, the author has mentioned the existence of Christian churches in this city. Another topic reflected in the novel is the cultural and religious matters that the narrator has mentioned in different parts of his story. He spoke about the kindness of Indian people and considered them to be well-behaved towards foreigners. Another aspect raised in Taleb Imran's novel is social issues and affairs, which may be the most prominent part of this article. Rakesh, Neelam's brother, is an intellectual and opposes the strict laws governing his country. He has described the democracy ruling the Indian society as false and introduced ignorance, illiteracy and poverty as the cause of conflict between the people, which can somehow be the author's personal point of view.
    Conclusion
    Followed by reading the addressed novel, it is entirely observant that Talib Imran, with full knowledge of the different aspects of Indian people's life, painted their picture for the Arabic-speaking reader, and with special care, he tried to explain each and every one of their habits and customs to the Arab people who have not visited India. Also, various social aspects of India and the situation of women in this country and the prevailing poverty that has caused conflict among people and prostitution of young women and girls has been investigated in this novel. Religion and religious freedom existing in India, along with some intellectual conflicts between Muslims and Hindus and the pressure on Muslims from some ruling political groups, covers another part of this novel. The existence of some political conflicts as well as the existence of groups against the presence of foreigners in India is another aspect raised in the novel. In addition to these cases, the author has mentioned the kindness of Indian people and their good treatment of strangers, as well as their attention to the ancient monuments of their country as part of their social characteristics. The foods and the detailed and almost complete mention of their contents is another thing that helps the Arab reader to understand the situation in India.
    Keywords: Comparative Literature, Imagery, Taleb Imran, Ahzan ul-Sandabad