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Advances in Environmental Technology - Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

Advances in Environmental Technology
Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/11/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Arvind Swarnkar *, Samir Bajpai, Ishtiyaq Ahmad Pages 1-11

    The quality of groundwater (GW) depends on its surrounding environment, such as population, drains, ponds, and industries. This study evaluated the improvement of wastewater (WW) quality due to the wetland and ponds in the Amanaka, Raipur region of Chhattisgarh, India, and their impact on GW. Water samples were taken at four different locations to measure physicochemical parameters: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate nitrogen (NN), and total phosphorus (TP). The removal efficiency (RE) obtained through the wetland was 50.0% for BOD5, 87.9% for COD, 71.4% for TKN, 87.2% for NN, and 56.5% for TP from the influent. The obtained RE from the wetland to the pond was 72.6% for BOD5, 40.0% for COD, and 89.6% for TP during the pre-monsoon. According to the findings, GW quality was good, even though ponds, wetlands, and some small-scale industries surround it. The government should also monitor landfills, home garbage, and agricultural activities for sustained GW quality. All borewell water is drinkable.

    Keywords: Wetland, Wastewater, pond, Borewell, Groundwater, Water Quality
  • Kgolofelo Nkele *, Lizzy Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Vhahangwele Masindi Pages 12-28
    A pilot trial was performed in a potable water treatment plant with a capacity of 16 ML/day.  The aim was to determine the removal of manganese using a mechanochemically synthesized Mg-(OH)2-Ca nanocomposite. The acquired results were underpinned by state-of-the-art analytical instruments. Specifically, the trials were performed for 157 hr using hydrated lime, periclase, and their nanocomposite individually. The key performance indicators were manganese, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH. The results showed an increase in pH from ±7.46 to ≥7.5, ≥8.2, and ≥7.8 and EC from ±0.24 to ≥0.28, ≥0.57, and ≥0.58 mS/cm for hydrated lime, periclase, and their nanocomposite, respectively. Manganese was reduced from ±400 to ≤80 µg/L, ≤89 µg/L, and ≤54 µg/L for hydrated lime, periclase, and their nanocomposite, respectively. The NTU was reduced to ≤1 for all the chemicals but registered the following sequence: ≤0.40, ≤0.85, and ≤0.89 for hydrated lime ≥ nanocomposite ≥ periclase, respectively, from 6.45 NTU. The findings of this study demonstrated the capabilities of nanomaterials in increasing the pH of the product solution and attenuating manganese and turbidity to the required levels. Lastly, the material costs denoted R 6300.00 (323.98 USD)/week for the nanocomposite, and this was cheaper when compared to individual materials. Interestingly, the nanocomposite denoted superior and cost-effective performance compared to individual materials and will be a great success for the attenuation of manganese and other contaminants, hence enhancing its ferocious versatility in water treatment.
    Keywords: Drinking water treatment, Manganese contamination, Manganese removal, Hydrated lime (Ca (OH)2), periclase (MgO), Nanocomposite, Materials costs
  • Morteza Ghobadi * Pages 29-40
    The proper management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a critical challenge in land use planning and environmental sustainability. The selection of suitable landfill sites is a pivotal component of MSW management, considering different environmental factors. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) methods, Step-wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) and Best-Worst Method (BWM), in combination with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for landfill site selection. SWARA and BWM were employed as MCDM tools to assess landfill sites based on ten criteria. The results demonstrate that SWARA exhibited superior performance over BWM in terms of its ability to identify and prioritize optimal landfill sites. SWARA offered a more accurate and reliable decision-making framework, taking into account both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of site selection criteria. Additionally, SWARA demonstrated better sensitivity to changes in input data and provided more consistent results. The findings emphasize the importance of choosing an appropriate MCDM approach to enhance the decision-making process, ultimately leading to more sustainable and environmentally responsible waste management practices in urban areas. By adopting and continually refining such methodologies, urban planners and waste management authorities can contribute to more efficient, responsible, and sustainable urban development.
    Keywords: Environmental capability assessment, Landfill site selection, SWARA, BWM, GIS
  • Imane ZOUFRI *, Mohammed MERZOUKI, Malika AMMARI, Younesse EL BYARI, Amina BARI Pages 41-54

    This article investigated the effluents from brassware wastewater in the city of Fez, Morocco. Brassware is considered one of the principal economic activities in the region, but its effluents harm the environment and human health because of its heavy metal loading. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical, metallic, and microbiological characteristics of the brassware effluents. The degree and nature of the pollution generated by the studied effluents from September to April 2022 were also studied. The samples were collected each month from a brassware company to evaluate the pollution using standard methods physicochemical parameters, Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, sulfates, orthophosphate ions, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, nitrites, and ammonium), metals (silver, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel and lead), and microbiological, total aerobic microbial bacteria, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, molds, and yeasts. The results collected during March showed that the studied effluents had a pH = 10.4 ± 0.16, electrical conductivity of 6.93 ± 0.11 mS/cm, suspended solids of 3078.15 ± 121.85 mg/L, a chemical oxygen demand of 680.44 ± 10.84 mg /L and sulfates of 1755.44 ± 21.56 mg/L, which do not correspond to Moroccan rejection standards. The metal analysis showed that the studied effluents exhibited high concentrations of nickel (999.96 ± 0.08 mg/L) and copper (76.48 ± 0.002 mg/L) during this month. Nevertheless, they were characterized by the absence of pathogenic germs. In general, the obtained results showed that these effluents were characterized by monthly variations in values for all the measured parameters. These results provide important information on the negative impact of brassware wastewater on the environment that should motivate municipal water utilities and researchers to find innovative solutions to this problem and protect the receiving environment.

    Keywords: Brassware, Organic matter, Heavy metals, Microbiological, water pollution
  • Manisha V Bagal, Vinayak Rajan, Shubham Shinde, Barnali V Banerjee, Vitthal Gole, Ashish V Mohod* Pages 55-69

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) with an orifice as the cavitating device was used to study the degradation of methyl orange dye. The operating parameters of the process, such as pH and inlet pressure, were optimized. The effect of hydroxyl radical promoters like Fenton oxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the extent of degradation was also investigated. It has been observed that acidic conditions (pH 2) favor the degradation of methyl orange. The combined effect of hydrodynamic cavitation with hydrogen peroxide was investigated at the solution’s natural pH and an optimized solution pH 2. Maximum degradation of 99.2% was observed at natural pH, whereas complete degradation of methyl orange dye was observed at pH 2 with 8 ml/L of hydrogen peroxide addition. The hybrid process of HC/Fenton and HC/H2O2 showed the highest efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange with a minimum energy requirement (0.11 kWh) and operational cost (USD $ 0.0062/L).

    Keywords: Methyl Orange, Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Hydrogen Peroxide, Fenton Oxidation, Degradation
  • Mukhtar Dh Shubber, Daryoush Yousefi Kebria Yousefi Kebria Pages 70-84

    This study aims to recycle thermal remediated bentonite clay waste (TRBCW) as a green, new, low-cost adsorbent to remove the methylene blue (MB) dye in an aqueous solution. The first system was the batch adsorption experiments having five condition parameters: contact time, pH, temperature, initial concentration of MB, and dose of TRBCW adsorbent. From the analysis of the batch adsorption data, it was apparent that the adsorbing of MB molecules on the TRBCW adsorbent was endothermic, irreversible, promising, spontaneous, and favorable. The Fruendlich model was more compatible than the Langmuir model for the experimental batch adsorption data, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 34.77 mg/g. The second system is the continuous (fixed-bed column) having three investigated condition parameters: the influent MB concentration, flow rate, and (TRBCW weight) bed depth, the adsorption capacity that results from the dominant parameters (1ml/min, 50 mg/L, and 22 cm) was 61.37 mg/g, and the experimental continuous adsorption data were more suitable with Yoon-Nelson, Thomas, and BDST models with R2> 0.9.

    Keywords: Adsorption, Bentonite Clay Waste, Batch System, Methylene Blue Dye